Hu Zenglei1 and Xiufan Liu1, 2*

 

..., and correlate with the severity of the clinical disease. Virulent strains of different genotypes induce distinct pathological manifestations in chicken organs, especially in lymphoid tissues. Genotype VIId of NDV, which is currently endemic in many countries of Asian and Middle East, replicates at a significantly higher level, induces more potent innate antiviral and inflammatory response, and causes more severe damages in lymphoid tissues when compared with...

Leonard Izzard1, 2, John Stambas1, 2*

...s biomarkers for disease severity.

...

Ali Mohammadi, Mohammad Hossein Ebrahimi

.... It has been shown that severity of pain and overall function of knee joint were improved following the use of this implant. Although it has been mentioned that KineSpring knee implant is an effective method to relieve pain and improve function in Knee OA, there are incomplete evidences to support this claim. Therefore, it is recommended to perform high-resolution clinical trials to evaluate the efficiency of this method.

...

Vinayagamurthy Balamurugan*, Gurrappa Naidu Govindaraj and Habibur Rahman

...s changes in the disease severity patterns and distribution might be due to the effectiveness of vaccine, timely vaccination, circulation of a single lineage virus and most importantly effective planning and implementation of the vaccination programme. Sharing the experiences on the PPR control strategies adopted by some of the states in India may motivate other Indian states or other countries of similar socio-economic and small ruminant rearing pattern to va...

M. B. Meah

Biopesticides for crop growth and crop protection
...pray reduced leaf blight severity by 84-86% and fruit rot by 91%. Severities of nematode and virus infection were also reduced significantly with allamanda spray. Active compounds in allamanda leaves have been separated and identified.Formulated trichoderma effectively controlled soil-borne diseases including root-knot nematode. Mahogany oil spray reduced infestation of stem borer,leaf hoppers of rice; shoot & fruit borer of brinjal and fruit flies of vege...

M. D. Maji, N.K.Das, S. Chatterjee, A. Ghosh and A.K. Bajpai

Forecasting models of bacterial leaf spot disease of mulberry for Birbhum district of West Bengal
...fficient between disease severity and meteorological parameters revealed that BLS disease severity showed significant positive correlation with max & min temperatures, min relative humidity, rainfall and number of rainy days. Step down multiple regression analysis revealed that the forecasting of BLS could best be done from min temp, minimum relative humidity and number of rainy days.

...

Sitansu Pan and N. K. Mishra

Epidemiological studies on some diseases of guava (Psidium guajava L.)
...ve correlation of canker severity with maximum relative humidity at 1% level whereas, anthracnose correlated well with minimum relative humidity, temperature and number of rainy days at 5% level. The negative correlation was obtained for stem canker and dry rot with all parameters at 1% significant level. In case of Phytophthora fruit rot, positive correlation was also recorded with all parameters, except maximum relative humidity. Keywords: Disease prediction...

T. P. Ghosh, D. Mandal, S. Laha and M. K. Dasgupta 

Dynamics and severity model in managing fungal diseases
...ccurrence, intensity and severity of these diseases. The diseases (referred as pathogens) that were the highest and fastest during warm and wet (rainy) months were: Alternaria alternata on Polyanthes tuberosa; Alternaria alternata and Septoria chrysanthemella on Chrysanthemum indicum; Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and Alternaria sp. on Dracaena deremensis; Alternaria sp. and Cercospora hibisci-manihotis on Hibiscus rosa-sinensis; Colletotrichum gloeosporioide...
P.P. Ghosh*, C. Ghosh, B. Mahato, A. Chakraborty, S.K. Bhattacharya and M.K. Bhattacharjya
... of reduction in disease severity (32.8-43.6%), yield increase (20.9% - 26.8%) and benefit-cost ratio. Integrated approach was the best approach followed by prophylactic and curative soil disinfestations. Thus, for the present micro-level situation vascular bacterial wilt malady can be addressed by prophylactic application of lime at 500 kg/ha and bleaching powder 20 kg/ha in the soil four weeks before transplanting followed by seed dressing with 20g bioinocul...
Erol Akkuzu1,*, Hidayet Güzel2 and Özkan Evcin1
... population dynamics and severity of damage in a forest. This study investigated the effects of stand composition and site index of pine forests on Ips sexdentatus (Boerner) populations. Two main objectives of this study were a) to compare the effects of two different black pine stands of site index-I (high site productivity) and site index-III (low site productivity) and b) to compare the pure and mixed pine forests concerning the abundance and body le...
Vladimir Avdalovic1, Marijana Vucinic2, Radmila Resanovic3, Jelena Avdalovic4, Danka Maslic-Strizak5 and Milos Vucicevic3*
...count the prevalence and severity of footpad dermatitis (FPD) in broiler chickens. The study included 300 one-day-old Ross 308 broilers. One group of broilers was reared on chopped wheat straw (the particle length of straw ≥ 10 cm). The second group was kept on newly formulated pelleted wheat straw. The duration of the trial was 42 days. Moisture content in litter materials and FPD occurrence and severity were assessed we...

Muhammad Ibrahim1,2*, Syed Jawad Ahmad Shah1, Shaukat Hussain2, Musharaf Ahmad2 and Farhatullah3

 

...Frequency of yellow rust severity of 5 (20-29% leaf area affected) to 9 (>75% of leaf area affected) was maximum in northeren zone (40%) which was followed by the central (10%) and southern zone (3.5%). A total of 35 known and unknown cultivars were deployed in the three wheat production zones and out of these, each of the 22 occupied less than 1% acreage. Remaining wheat cultivars including Atta Habib, Auqab-2002, Bhakkar-2002, Bathoor-2008, Fakhar-e-Sarha...

Imtiaz Ahmed, Muhammad Abbas Khan, Noorullah Khan, Naveed Ahmed, Abdul Waheed, Fazal Yazdan Saleem, Sajjad Khan and Sohail Aslam 

...ease occurrence, disease severity, plant height (cm), bulb weight (g), bulb diameter (mm), clove weight (g), number of cloves bulb-1 and yield (t ha-1) was measured. The result of the study reveals that plant spacing had significant impact on the occurrence of rust disease and its severity, yield and yield components. Plants with 10 cm spacing had more disease incidence and severity (79 an...
Sana Imran1*, Sarwat Jahan2 and Mohammad Sair3
...arative study, psoriasis severity was checked by Psoriasis Area Severity Index (PASI). At day 90 Calcipotriol treated group B patients showed more improvement in mean PASI score as compared to Betamethasone valerate treated group A patients. In PASI score, Calcipotriol shows 71.61% betterment whereas Betamethasone vale rate shows 63.2% betterment in mild psoriatic patients. In PASI score, Calcipotriol shows 69.21% betterment...
Shumaila Ashfaq1, Liaqat Ali2*, Muhammad Ashraf Zia2, Rizwan Ahmad Khan2 and Mehtash Butt3
...l puncture headache pain severity after spinal anaesthesia for elective caesareansection when given along with conventional treatment as compared to conventional treatment alone.
...
Qamar-un-Nisa1, Muhammad Younus2,*, Muti-ur-Rehman1, Azhar Maqbool3 and Sajid Umar4

 

...linical signs of varying severity. Co-infected groups showed the most obvious clinical signs, associated with significant higher mortality and respiratory organ abnormalities, in comparison with the mono-infected groups (P<0.05). There was a non-significant (P>0.05) effect of the inoculation time intervals between vNDV and E. coli inoculation (none or 3 days). Microscopic lesions staining supported clinical and macroscopic findings. Higher virus s...

 Maqsood Qamar*, S. Dilanawaz Ahmad Gardazi**, Riaz-ud-Din*, Muhammad Sohail* and Syed Haider Abbas*

PARTIAL RESISTANCE TO STRIPE RUST AND ITS EFFECT ON SUSTAINABILITY OF WHEAT YIELD
...s Curve (AUDPC), disease severity (DS) and epidemic growth rate in comparison with wheat cultivar, Inqalab 91. During 2007 cropping season, natural epidemic was developed and relative AUDPC was recorded from 0 to 100% whereas the 2008 cropping season was dry and no stripe rust appeared. Two advanced lines (NR 268 and NR 285) showed the infection type (IT) less than 7 (incompatible reaction) to the mixture of prevailing stripe rust inoculums. Very low level of ...

 Muhammad Mohsin Raza*, Muhammad Aslam Khan*, Irfan Ahmad**, Ali Ahsan Bajwa***, Hafiz Muhammad Usman Aslam*, Badar Ahsan Ullah****, and Kashif Riaz*

FOREST PATHOGENS AND DISEASES UNDER CHANGING CLIMATE -A REVIEW
...of occurrence, types and severity of forest diseases caused by diverse pests, resultantly altering the forest ecosystems. The present review covers the relationship between climate and diverse cases of forest diseases and potential shocks of climate change on pathogens and diseases. Biotic diseases, cankers, decays, declines, foliar diseases, root diseases and stem rust of pine have been reviewed with some illustrations of potential disease effects with predic...

 Ahmed Fatima*

INCIDENCE OF POVERTY AND THE ROLE OF NON-FARM ACTIVITIES
...rty, poverty gap and the severity of poverty for the nine agro-climatic zones of the country (rice/wheat Punjab, mixed Punjab, cotton/wheat Punjab, low intensity Punjab, Barani Punjab, cotton/wheat Sindh, rice other Sindh, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and Balochistan) were calculated for farming and non-farming households. The indices of poverty were also measured for households that only did farming, undertook farming and non-farm activities and those that did no farmi...
Komal Mushtaq1, Shoaib Waqas2*, Hafiz Muhammad Asim3
...plied to assess the pain severity levels before treatment and after treatment. Data were normally distributed and therefore, change in pain intensity was measured by “t” test using SPSS version 23.0. 
Results: The calculated mean pain score on NPRS before treatment was 3.90 (standard deviation, 0.3038) and after treatment it was 1.65 (standard deviation, 0.8638). The calculated t-value was 12.08 (p value=0.000). ...

Ghulam Abbas1, Khalid Pervez Akhtar1, Muhammad Ahsan2, Muhammad Jawad Asghar1, Fiaz Ahmad1 and Muhammad Rizwan3* 

...ease (YMD) using disease severity ratings by visual scoring of symptoms to calculate percent disease index (PDI). Tested recombinants responded differently to the disease. None of the tested genotypes was found to be disease free (field immune). However, combined data showed that 43 genotypes were highly resistant with 1.18 to 10 PDI while 29 were resistant with 10.24 to 24.85 PDI. Mung Kabuli (positive control) showed susceptible response with PDI value of 60...

Muhammad Israr1*, Saeed Ullah1, Shakeel Ahmad2, Asif Yaseen3, Urooba Pervaiz4 and Nafees Ahmad5 

...ed through the extent of severity scale in terms of LD dimensions and indicators resulted from water, tillage, soil, salinization, and overgrazing. Moderate (0.49) index of water degradation and the changing climatological index were light but the reduction of drainage density of water runoff and slope gradient reduction of soil index was severe. The tillage degradation index value moderate (0.57), overgrazing index (0.32) fall in the ...
Saba Irshad*, Aruba Muhammad, Ammara Muazzam, Farah Sarfraz Anmol and Rehman Shahzad
...or in minimizing disease severity. PCR-RFLP was employed for securitizing Xmn1 polymorphism among thalassemia (Major) patients. Out of total 206 screened patients, sole Xmn1 homozygous (+/+) and heterozygous (-/+) case was reported with a band size of 418 bp, 230 bp and 641 bp, 418 bp, 230 bp respectively. Xmn1 restriction site was present at 158 bp upstream of the Gamma globin gene on chromosome 11 of positive patients (GenBank KY927385). Fetal hemoglobin lev...

 Sobia Faisal1*,Qurat-ul-Ain Ahmad2, Maleeha Manzoor3, Madiha Manzoor4, Faisal Rifaq5

Socio-psychological factors related to tuberculosis diagnostic test seeking behavior in Pakistan
...eived susceptibility and severity and perceived benefits and barriers
explain the relation between the socio-psychological factors and low treatment
seeking behavior of TB patients. Inadequate knowledge and misconceptions about
susceptibility and severity of TB disease is contributing towards low health seeking
behavior. Further, false beliefs and distrust in treatment are the perceived barriers,<...

Saman Fatima* and Shazia Iram 

... on peal and the disease severity was then identified. Both classical and molecular method was used for identification of pathogens. Under classical approach the infected sections from the skin of kinnow was utilized to grow fungal colonies on generalized media, i.e. potato dextrose agar, from which six fungal colonies were also isolated and studied further. Under molecular approach direct DNA was isolated from the infected skin of sampled fruits by using CTAB...

Muhammad Shahzad Khattak1*, Amjad Khan1, Mahmood Alam Khan1, Waqas Ahmad2, Shafiq ur Rehman3, Mohammad Sharif4 and Sajjad Ahmad1 

...re used to determine the severity of droughts for the Indus, Jhelum, Chenab and Kabul River at Tarbela, Mangla, Marala and Warsak hydrological stations for the period 1962-2011. A drought spell starting from 1999 and ending in 2002 was observed for all stations and is considered to be the worst drought in the history of Pakistan. Analysis of historical streamflow data indicated an increased occurrence of droughts in the last 12 years, which may be attributed t...

Muhammad Rameez Khan1, Muhammad Imtiaz2, Farhatullah3, Sohail Ahmad1 and Sajid Ali1* 

...ere infestation (>40% severity) was observed for wheat varieties Galaxy-2013, PS-2005, Faisalabad-2008, Shahkar and some local lines. Future wheat improvement programmes must be encouraged to consider resistance to powdery mildew, particularly for lines to be cultivated in the Himalayan region of Pakistan. 

...

Manzoor Hussain1, Muhammad Awais2, Farhatullah3, Saiqa Bibi1, Muhammad Rameez Khan3, Afifa Khalid1 and Sajid Ali3* 

...stan. Data on crown rust severity and host reaction was taken at three scoring dates to assess partial resistance using area under rust progress curve, infection rate, co-efficient of infection and final rust severity. A moderate crown rust pressure was observed during oat season 2015-16, with relatively late crown rust onset after mid of April. Based on the crown rust resistance response, the tested germplasm was clustered ...

 Muhammad Arshad Hussain1 and Tariq Mukhtar2,*

...cidence, prevalence, and severity of root-knot nematode species associated with okra in the major vegetable growing districts of the Punjab province of Pakistan. The overall incidence of 39%, prevalence of 85% and severity of 4.1 in terms of the galling index was recorded throughout the province. Differences in the incidence of root-knot nematodes were recorded from all the districts ranging from 11% to 70%. The incidence wa...

Waqas Raza*, Muhammad Usman Ghazanfar and Muhammad Imran Hamid 

...vey on the incidence and severity of late blight (Phytophthora infestans (Mont.) de Bary) of potato was conducted in the major potato growing areas of Punjab viz., Khushab, Sargodha, Sahiwal, Okara, Jhang and Chiniot districts during the cropping seasons of 2016-2017. A total of six districts comprising of three locations in each district were surveyed for the collection of late blight infected samples. During 2016 and 2017, prevalence of disease in all the su...
Lin Sun1, Xiaofang Bu2, Jian Wang1*, Xiaorui Liu1 and Zhanyi Kong2
...nd it was related to the severity of the disease and the course of the disease. The correlation between CXCL8 and its mRNA was significantly decreased in the recovery phase. There was only a weak correlation between serum CXCL8 level and serum Anti-MP level in both acute and convalescent stages (r= -0.2917, P=0.0891; r=-0.2783, P=0.1055). The level of CXCL8 and its mRNA was increased in the peripheral blood of the sick children with...
Muhammad Siddique1, Muhammad Shafique2,*,Abdul Mateen3, Naveed Shahzad4, Bilal Aslam2, Nasir Ahmad1 and Muhammad Usman Qamar2
...ul for analyzing disease severity and start of therapy. Therefore, this study was designed to determine the genotyping of clinically isolated HCV from a Liver Center Faisalabad, Pakistan. A total of 3200 clinical samples were screened for the presence of anti-HCV antibodies by ICT method. Among positive samples, confirmation was carried out by RT-PCR and clustered into four groups (acute, chronic, cirrhotic and hepatocellular carcinoma) on the basis of clinica...
Azra1* and Shaukat Hussain2
...cations. Data on disease severity and grain yield were recorded. There were not significant differences in disease severity among maize genotypes for individual years. However, significant differences were recorded amongst the genotypes when the data were pooled over two years. Based on disease severity scale 14 genotypes were categorized as moderately resistant, 14 moderately susceptible ...
Tahsin Razzaq*, Muhammad Fareed Khan and Shahid Iqbal Awan
...ant differences for NCLB severity and reactions and were classified into resistant, susceptible and moderate categories on the basis of 0-5 disease severity scale. The percent disease incidence ranged from 20-60% and area under disease progressive curve (AUDPC) 22-362dsu (Development stage unit). On the basis of disease rating scale and pathological traits, it was reported that three parental genotypes Karamat-Bar-25, SZP-13...
Shou-Hong Zhang1*, Ying Zhang1, Kun-Ming Wen2, Wei Wu3 and Wen-Yan Li3
...thod for quantifying the severity of liver fibrosis.
...
Muhammad Furqan Shahid1*, Tahir Yaqub1, Muhammad Yasin Tipu2, Asim Aslam2, Saima Yaqub1, Aziz-ul-Rahman3, Muzaffar Ali1
...ection (DPI) followed by severity in redness and swelling of eyes, sneezing and lacrimation at 3rd DPI that lasts up to 5th DPI. Cross reactivity of antiserum response toH9N2 was compared among reference isolates when challenged in broilers, Partridge origin anti-H9N2 antibodies showed varied hemagglutination inhibition results (4log2 to 15log2) when cross reacted with different antigens, suggesting H9N2 viruses are ...

Humayun Saleem1, Faisal Sohail Fateh2*, Zia-Ur-Rehman1 and Muhammad Abu Bakar Siddique

...rkets. The frequency and severity of shot hole disease was estimated from market random samples, and later the index was measured. The results showed that in all markets with varying degrees of disease incidence, frequency and disease index the prevalence of shot hole disease was 100 per cent. It was concluded that the markets near poor colonies are merely selling cheap fruits and they are not concerned with the diseased fruits. 

...

Ahmad-Ur-Rahman Saljoqi1, Muhammad Zubair Khan1, Ayesha Bibi2, Muhammad Shehzad Khan1*, Bashir Ahmad

... yield were observed and severity of disease was investigated for supplement efficacy. The biochemical results obtained were all positive, which confirmed stem rot pathogen as Erwinia carotovora sub spp. chrysanthemi (gram-negative bacteria). Highest plant height (75.3 cm) and maximum number of fruits plant-1 (14.3) were recorded with A. indica when applied at 15ml L-1 along with highest dose of boron at 3.95 g seedbed-1. The severity<...
Muhammad Saeed Imran1, Asim Aslam1*, Muhammad Yasin2, Tahir Yaqoob2 and Beenish Zahid3
... infection. Overall, the severity of infection was higher in the co-infected birds as compared to host challenged with either of the viruses alone. Notably, moderate clinical infections raised concerns vaccine efficacies. The current study concluded that the commercially available vaccines may not provide enough protection particularly in the case of co-infection with NDV and IBV. Therefore, here is need to conduct further studies on production of vaccines wit...
Muhammad Anwarullah1*, Aneela Zameer Durrani1, Muhammad Ijaz1Aftab Ahmad Anjum2, Ghulam Mustafa3, Muhammad Husnain1 and Muhammad Usman1
... in terms of decrease in severity of lesions weather used alone or in combination with cinnamon in rabbits. It was observed that amikacin and cinnamon having synergistic effect in rabbits and are economically important drugs in treatment of Johne’s disease. 
...

Zia-Ur-Rehman1, Faisal Sohail Fateh2*, Humayun Saleem1 and Muhammad Abu Bakar Siddique1 

...revalence, incidence and severity of peach rot disease in the markets of Federal Territories of Islamabad to estimate the intensity of the disease by calculating the disease index. The prevalence of disease was 100% in all markets of Khanna Pul, Burma Chowk, Taramri, NIH Market, Chatha Bakhtawar, I-8, I-10/2, I-10 (Markaz), Sabzi Mandi, I-9. Maximum Mean Disease Index 77.78% was found in the market of Khanna Pul which supplies the fruits to high class, middle ...

Muhammad Abu Bakar Siddique1, Faisal Sohail Fateh2*, Zia-Ur-Rehman1 and Humayun Saleem

...revalence, incidence and severity of black scurf disease in the markets of Federal Territories of Islamabad to estimate the intensity of the disease by calculating the disease index. Maximum disease index was observed in Abpara and F-10 markets i.e. 21.11% with varying disease incidence and severity percentage. However, the presence of black scurf disease in the market shows that in Pakistan the consumers do not consider it ...

Yasir Iftikhar1, Mustansar Mubeen1,2*, Waqas Raza1, Qaiser Shakeel3, Waseem Abbas1, Shehzad Iqbal1 and Ashara Sajid

...d to monitor the disease severity as these factors are interconnected. In the present study, ten potato varieties viz., FSD white, FD 8-1, FD 71-1, Tota 704, Kuruda, FD 74-41, FD 76-24, SH 216-A, N 96-25 and FD 74-50 were evaluated against PLRV. The range of disease incidence was from 15.93% to 64.58%. Moreover, susceptible reaction was observed in five varieties (FD 71-1, Tota-704, FSD white, FD 76-24 and FD 8-1). Two varieties (Kuruda and SH 216 A) were mode...
Kui Li1, Lijun Li1, Jialun Fu2, Yi He2, Zhaohui Song2, Shuiping Zhou2Luobu Gesang1* and Rui Liu2*
...access AMS incidence and severity, twice a day, during the research period. AMS was further diagnosed when headaches and LLSS≥ 3 were present. A total of 54 subjects completed the study and no significant difference was observed in the number of individuals with AMS between the groups. However, during the whole observation period, the LLSS values for comprehensive AMS symptoms in the group receiving CDDPs indicated lower occurrence than those in the placebo...

Iram Bilqees1, Yasir Iftikhar1, Mustansar Mubeen1,2*, Qaiser Shakeel3, Ashara Sajid1, Zahoor Hussain4, Aqleem Abbas2, Muhammad Aamir Sohail2, Judith Jeruto Kiptoo5 and Shehzad Iqbal2

Use of Nutrients and Plant Extract to Manage Okra Yellow Vein Mosaic Disease (OYVMD) in Sargodha, Punjab, Pakistan
...t to monitor the disease severity, incidence and its management through different nutrients and plant extract. Plant extract and multi-nutrients were used to manage the disease to avoid the hazardous effect of chemicals on human health and being the eco-friendly. Four varieties of okra viz., Indian Rachna, Sabz Pari, Desi Bhindi, and Rama Krishna were grown under RCBD. Five treatments viz., 2% garlic extract, 2% multi-nutrients, silicon (1 and 1.5%) s and wate...
Rida Younas1*, Tamseela Mumtaz1, Nabeela Roohi2 and Muhammad Amir Iqbal3
... associated with disease severity of COPD patients as compared to control. It may be potential biomarker for evaluation of disease severity.
...
Hamida Sarwar1, Kousar Perveen1,Rida Mazhar2, Muhammad Afzal1, Syed Amir Gilani3
...s analyzed to assess the severity of symptoms of depression, anxiety, distress, and insomnia; and then conferred as numbers and percentages. A significant proportion of doctors, nurses, and paramedics reported symptoms of anxiety (38.3%), depression (58.9%), insomnia (45.2%), and distress (61.64%). Overall data collected showed that the ratio of symptoms was comparatively high among nurses than doctors. 

Muhammad Usman Ghazanfar1, Waqas Wakil2, Shahbaz Talib Sahi3 and Waqas Raza1*

Influence of Resistance Inducers on Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Potassium Contents of Susceptible Chickpea Cultivars after Inoculation with Ascochyta rabiei
...c nutrient can alter the severity of the disease. Normally, plants are stressed by different environmental confines may be weakened and susceptible to disease and these include nutrient scarce plants. Tissue contents of potassium, nitrogen, and phosphorus of above parts of the ground of plant in three cultivars of chickpea (‘C-44’, Bittle-98’ and ‘Pb-91’) after treatment with Bion® (acibenzolar-S-methyl), salicylic acid (SA), ...

Muhammad Junaid*, Musharaf Ahmad and Saifullah

...manure with 1.35 disease severity. On the other hand, among concentrations, 5% was the best yielding with 2.17kg plant-1, while the other concentrations i.e. 1% and 10% gave statistically similar and less yield (1.83 and 1.77kg plant-1, respectively). Thus, it was concluded, that the application of green manure compost (used in 1% and 5% V/V concentration) to the soil, suppress the disease more and produced more yield than FYM-treated plants, however, the high...

Safia Bibi1, Saima Naz1*, Saba Saeed1, Ahmad Manan Mustafa Chatha2

... metals, thus indicating severity of heavy metal toxicity. The current study was focused on the toxicological effect of Cr, Hg, Ni and Cd in different type of fishes and it would be useful for the scientific community to restore different metals contaminating water. 
 
Novelty Statement | Histopathological alterations in target fish organs functioned as fundamental indicator to assess metal toxicit...

Allah Bakhsh1, Attiq Akhtar1*, Fiaz Hussain1 and Shabbir Ahmed2

...eases the occurrence and severity of bunch rot to less than 5%.This method is extremely useful for maintaining grape quality and quantity without the use of chemicals to combat disease. As a result, this strategy is both environmentally and health-friendly. In Pakistan, we consider using leaf removal therapy to treat grape bunch rot disease because it is the least expensive.

...

Habiba ur Rehman, Muhammad Usman Ghazanfar and Waqas Raza

...0.13 %), minimum disease severity (26.80, 24.67 and 11.37 %) and maximum plant survival (89.62, 94.35 and 98.37%) at 15, 30 and 45 days after treatment, respectively. The application of Success @ 6mM was also good but lowers than the Nativo. The poor performance and maximum disease incidence and disease severity were recorded from the controlled pots. Among all the treatments the application of Nativo @ 6 mM had given maximu...
Sajid Ali1, Muhammad Avais1*, Aneela Zameer Durrani1, Kamran Ashraf2, Saira Jabeen1, Sajid Hameed3, Muhammad Awais1, Jawaria Ali Khan1 and Imtiaz Ahmad4 
... The prevalence based on severity showed that on all farms, the majority of cows were mildly lame (7.71%) followed in order by moderately lame (4.61%) and severely lame (1.88%). Prevalence of lameness was significantly higher (P<0.05) in cows with a low body condition score (≤2.75) than in cows with a higher body condition score. In addition, cows fed commercial concentrate were 1.6 times more likely to be lame than cows fed TMR. Cows on farms wit...

Misbah Ali1, Safdar Ali1, Muhammad Ahmad Zeshan2*, Rana Binyamin3, Nadeem Ahmed4, Muhammad Usman Ghani5 and Awais Ahmed Khan2

...ge red leaf spot disease severity under field conditions.

...

K.A. El-Dougdoug1, A.R. Sofy2, A.A. Mousa2 and E.E. Refaey2

...t external symptoms, the severity infection and virus concentration. Expressed protein
was differed in leaves of potato cultivars. Since PVY infection unexpectedly increased in
(Anabel, Sisi, Lady Balfor, Nicola and Execusa) or decrease of total protein in (Hermes and
Spunta). The potato cultivars (healthy and infected) varied in number and density of protein
bands. As well as specific bands with 72% polymorphism...
Amro A. Farrag1; Ahmed K. El-Attar1; Om-Hashem M. El-Banna2; Ibrahim A. I.2; H. M. Mazyad 1 
...owth stages. The disease severity of the viral infection varied in the other four
susceptible varieties at the different growth stages. It was observed that infection
percentage and disease severity were decreased with increasing growth stage. A
significant difference in the percentage of yield loss in inoculated plants at age 15d and
25d from planting compared with control was...

Rafia Ahsan1, Saif Ullah1, Ijaz Yaseen1, Faisal Sohail Fateh1, Muhammad Fayyaz1, Shahzad Asad1, Atif Jamal1, Muhammad Sufyan2 and Muhammad Zakria1*

...nd 21% respectively, and severity ranged from 0-80%, 0-70% and 0-70% respectively. In KP 3 rice growing areas were surveyed. In Mansehra the disease incidence (37%) and severity (0-70%) was lower compared to Swat and lower Dir. In comparison to Punjab and KP, BLB was less prevalent in Sindh. Highest disease prevalence was recorded in Badin (13%) followed by 10% in Shikarpur. In total, forty seven diseased leaf samples were c...

Mohsen M. Elsharkawy1, Salem H. Homayed1, Mohamed M. Elsawy2 and Amr A. Khedr1

...ulted in decreased virus severity and titer compared with the
control. However, the potential of wind velocity lower or higher than 2.6 was less effective on CMV.
Additionally, the severity and titer of CMV were significantly reduced in GF19-1 treated plants in
comparison with the control. Quantitative real-time PCR results exhibited increased transcription
levels of pathogenes...

Mohsen M. Elsharkawy1, Sara E. Hanbal2, Samir A. Sidaros1, Mohamed M. Elsawy2, Ali H. Hamed2

...YMV inoculation. Disease severity and virus titer were estimated at 1, 2 and 3 weeks after virus inoculation. The transcription profile related to defense genes was evaluated at 1, 2 and 3 weeks after BYMV inoculation by quantitative real-time PCR analysis.
Results: Treatments with PGPF resulted in lower virus severity and titer than the control. GP17-2 treatment exhibited the lowest disease

Shimaa A. Khalaf1 , Mohsen M. Elsharkawy2, Samir A. Sidaros2, Shawky A. El Kewey2, Ayman F. Omar2, Ali Hamed1

...>
Methods: Disease severity and virus titer were evaluated in cucumber plants treated with barley grain (BGI) or culture filtrate (CF) of GU23-3 under greenhouse conditions. Additionally, the expression levels of defense genes were assessed by reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) analysis.
Results: Both of virus severity and titer were significantly reduced in treated plants in comparison with the control. Al...

Azra Nadeem1*, Shaukat Hussain2, Saeedullah2, Asma Akbar3, Zahoor Ahmad4, Maryam Tariq5, Robina Karim6 and Muhammad Huzaifa7

...ere recorded for disease severity, incidence, tuber weight, number of tubers/plant, fresh root weight and plant height at the time of harvest of the crop. The biocontrol agent (T. viride) showed lowest disease incidence (53.73%) and severity (1.27) at 8% moisture level. There was a reduction of 43.33% and 63.29% over control by T. viride for disease incidence and severity respectively at t...

Mukhtar Iderawumi Abdulraheem1*, Muhammad Ihtisham2*, Abiodun Yusuff Moshood3, Nawab Khan4, Muhammad Owais Shahid5, Shafiq Hussain6, Kumail Abbas6 and Fawad Zaman7

...d weeding regimes on the severity and incidence of not unusual viral diseases on okra without fertilizers/chemicals application. The treatments were (3×4) factorially designed and fitted into RCBD in field conditions. Weeding consisted of four levels i.e. no weeding, weeding once, weeding twice, and weeding thrice, whereas mulching types comprised of three levels i.e., no mulching, dry grasses mulching, and polythene mulching. The findings revealed that ...

Sajad Ali Solangi1, Jamal-U-Ddin Hajano1*, Rehana Naz Syed1, Sohail Ahmed Otho2, Khadim Hussain Wagan1, Agha Mushtaque Ahmed2, Fahad Nazir Khoso2, Aftab Raza Jarwar3 and Suman Tarique Qazi1

...en on disease incidence, severity and whiteflies population at interval of week after date of transplantation. Additionally, relationship among the disease and vector insect was determined. The minimum incidence of the disease was recorded in variety Advanta-1211 (13.85%) and Lima (18.85%) followed by T-1359 (23.30%), Early king (25.51%), TO-1057 (27.21 %), Advanta-1225 (29.41%). Minimum 1-rating score was recorded in Advanta-1211, Lima and T-1359 varieties. S...

Heba El-Zahar*, Zeinab Abd El-Rahman, Abbas El-Naggar 

...gate measures of disease severity in dogs with IBD.

Keywords | IBD, Fecal calprotectin, CRP, Haptoglobin 

...

Abdelrahman A. Abdelrahman1, Salama A. S. Shany1, Kareem E. Hassan1, Mansy A. A. Dardeer2, Ali A.1*, Magdy F. El-Kady1* 

...ant role in the clinical severity of respiratory infections. In this study, we conducted a passive surveillance study for MG and MS among cases of viral respiratory affections in broilers. Samples were collected from 68 broiler chicken flocks with variable mortality rates in four Egyptian governorates (Fayoum, Beni-Suef, Giza, Minia). All samples were cultivated on PPLO media and detected under stereo-microscope for fried egg colonies. Forty-three samples were...

Yahia A. Amin1*, Alaa Eldin Z. Mahmoud2, Mohamed Sabry Aref3, Abd El-Latif Shaker Seddek4, Waleed Younis5 

...fection, the greater the severity of uterine inflammation and the longest postpartum period of pregnancy. Various types of bacteria are responsible for endometritis, such as Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, E. coli, and Klebsiella. Cefoperazone is the most sensitive antibiotic for the treatment of complicated cases of postpartum endometritis caused by mixed infections and high virulence bacteria.

Keywords | Endometritis, Bacterial infection, Cefoperazone...

Iqtidar Hussain1*, Shakeel Ahmad Jatoi2, Muhammad Jawad Nazir1, Ehtesham Ul Haq1, Faheem Abbas1 and Muhammad Saqib Raza Shah1

...orestry. To quantify its severity, the phytotoxic impact of popular (Populus deltoides L.) leaves aqueous extract was determined in cultivated oat (Avena sativa L.), maize (Zea mays L.), rice (Oryza sativa L.), pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucumL.), bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L) Moench. Response of aqueous leaves extract was assessed through various agronomic and physiological parameters including number of plants emerged, l...
Muhammad Younas1*, Khalid Hussain1, Abdul Ghaffar1, Muhammad Atiq2, Niaz Hussain1, Wasim Abbas3, Muhammad Azeem Khan4, Muhammad Nadeem1, Muhammad Irshad1, Nasir Ahmad Khan2 and Muhammad Zubair5
...ant reduction in disease severity. It was concluded that out of 50, only eight accessions were resistant which might be grown successfully for higher crop production. Moreover, use of Chlostrobin and extract of Azadirachta  indica may be used for disease management.

...

Asim Ali Khan1, Muhammad Ahmad Zeshan1, Yasir Iftikhar1*, Mustansar Mubeen1, Maham Sohail1, Sonum Bashir1, Malik Abdul Rehman2 and Muhammad Usman Ghani3

...(0.25-0.56). The disease severity was recorded only on Mosambi as it was more affected than Feutral’s early and Kinnow. The rating scale to observe the severity of tristeza disease was based on percentage of pits in the 1 sq. inch piece of bark at bud union of infected tree. This rating scale has been developed for the first time to record the tristeza disease severity. The maximum d...

Sajida Batool*, Sitara Shameem, Kainat Malik and Aneela Iram

...dings indicated that the severity of degenerative changes was highest in the glass container group.

...

Phan Truong Khanh* and Tran Thi Hong Ngoc

...increasing frequency and severity of droughts, perhaps linked to climate change, is impacting adversely on rice production. The overall purpose of the study is planning of irrigation scheduling, it requires information of precise quantity of water needed by crop in a certain set of meteorological condition of the region. Moreover, determination of water requirement for crop is a first stage in the design, operation and planning of irrigation schemes to ensure ...

Sarhad Journal of Agriculture

December

Vol. 38, Iss. 4, Pages 1160-1546

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