Yashab Tur

 

Science, Religion and Culture, Vol. 2, Iss. 2
...barely understood. These fruits of modern science are accompanied by a host of ideas about the emergence and propagation of life on earth which, to the lay believer, seemed outright un-Godly. Marwa Elshakry, now an Associate Professor of History at Columbia University, explores the encounter of the Arab world with these and many other Western technologies and ideas in her wide-ranging Reading Darwin in Arabic through a panoramic lens, which then zooms in to fo...

Ali Muhammad*, Muhammad Ayub

...bsp;leached out from the fruits to the solvents by osmosis process which alters the composition of olive fruit. Phenolic compounds, flavonoids and anthocyanins which are the major components of olive fruits degrades significantly during four weeks of treatment process. Results showed that during brine treatment, fermentation take place which significantly convert the oleourepean into simple sugar and decr...

Murtaza Ali*, Yasser Durrani and Muhammad Ayub

...g technique for mulberry fruits

...

Irfan Ullah and Abbas Ullah Jan

...ps including milk, meat, fruits, vegetables, sugar, beverages, wheat and wheat flour, rice, other cereals, pulses, oil and fats, tea and coffee, backed products and other food. Economic factors such as food commodities price and household’s income and their socio-economic and demographic characteristics are included in the model. Results indicate that with an increase in the age, household consume more of meat, fruit, wheat and wheat flour, pulses, tea a...

Rashid Ahmed Khan* and Muhammed Naveed

...idae) is a major pest of fruits causing severe losses to the fruit production and quality in Pakistan. Its management has largely relied upon the indiscriminate and injudicious use of conventional insecticides resulting in problem of insecticide resistance, environmental pollution, fruit contamination and health hazards. The major goal of the present study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a bio-insecticide, emamectin benzoate with other conventionally used...
Rashid Mahmood1,*, Waqar Ahmad1, Muhamamd Khalid Rafique1, Ghulam Sarwar1 and Anjum Shahzad2
...s per 250 flowers. Apple fruits yield per tree ranged between 214.56 to 218.64 in 2013 and 2014 respectively. Average fruit weight varied between 124.84 to 127.34 g, average number of seeds varied between 7.95 to 7.73 seeds per fruit and yield per tree was recorded between 28.92 to 31.65 kg per tree. Number of Apple fruits per tree ranged between 145.72 to 164.58 in 2013 and 2014, respectively. Average fruit weight varied be...
Rashid Ahmed Khan* and Muhammed Naveed
...among the major pests of fruits worldwide. Among the many species of fruit flies, Bacterocera zonata is a serious pest of fruits causing severe losses to the fruit production and quality, in Pakistan. In the present experiment the population of B. zonata was monitored using methyl eugenol traps during the year, 2015. Occurrence and population dynamics of the fruit fly were compared with meteorological factors, ...
Said Rawan1, Farzana bibi1, Nadeem Khan1*, Abdul Mateen Khattak1, Zahir shah3, Asif Iqbal2, Madeeha Alamzeb2, Saeed Ul Haq1, Abid Kamal3, Fawad Ali Shah2, Ahmad Naeem1 and Wajid Ali3
...ntents (%), taste, decay fruits (%) and total soluble solids (TSS). The experimental result showed that both the varieties were significantly influenced the fruit decay (%), TSS (%), taste and moisture content (%), while firmness (kg/cm2) and weight loss (%) was found non-significant. Also storage interval significantly affected all the parameters. Interactive affect of varieties and storage intervals significantly affected all the parameters ...

M.K. Pandit,P. K. Pal and B. K. Das

Effect of date of sowing on flowering and incidence and damage of melon fruit fly in snap melon Cucumis melo var.momordica genotypes
...ction and more number of fruits as well as lower fruit fly incidence. Three sowing dates viz. S =25 November, 2004, S =25 January 2005 and S =25 March, 2005 were selected to evaluate performance of eight genotypes, named as BCSM-1 to BCSM-8. The experimental design was factorial RBD with 3 replications. Observations on days to first male and female flowers, node number of first male and female flowers, total number of fruits...

K.N. Ahmed and M.R. Hasan

Sudden outbreak of mealy bug and armoured scale causing severe damage to economic crops in Bangladesh
...s on immature and mature fruits of lady's finger; the total period of all four nymphal stages lasted for 32.6 ± 4.17 days at an average room temperature of 28 ± 2ºC and 70-75% RH during September, 2009. Male mealybug has a short life span of 3.0 ± 0.21 days. Females live for nearly 80.7 ± 10.43 days with an oviposition period of approximately 21 days. This mealybug is capable of active movement throughout its adult life. The st...

K.N. Ahmed , M.A. Al-Helal, N-E-P. Khanom, S. Bulbul

Control strategies of papaya mealybug, Paracoccus marginatus Williams & Willink infesting vegetable crops in Bangladesh
...r disperse to the unripe fruits rendering them unmarketable and inedible. The damage appeared to be in the range between 70 and 95 per cent. Generally young plants die due to heavy infestation and colony formation of the mealybug. P. marginatus is a polyphagous pest attacking several agricultural, horticultural crops, ornamental plants and weeds of economic value. The papaya mealybug feeds on the sap of the plants by inserting its stylets into the epidermis of...

Amitava Konar, S. Paul and Kiran A. More

Efficacy of different insecticidal treatment schedules against aphid and whitefly on brinjal
...ieved maximum marketable fruits of brinjal as well as highest monetary return than the other treatments.


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A. Regupathy and R. Ayyasamy

Initiatives of papain industry by private-public-farmer link-ages in classical biocontrol program for papaya mealybug in Tamil Nadu
... bug infested leaves and fruits from parasite-released fields and dispersed in new fields. The effective mass-spreading of parasitoid was made thorough door-to-door contact and farmers were monitored not to take up spraying. The infested plant parts from infested fields were availed regularly by TNAU to facilitate mass production of parasitoid. This is a successful model of partnership of private sector-public institutions in biocontrol of the PMB biocontrol w...

M. A. Al-Helal, K. N. Ahmed, N-E-P. Khanom, and S. Bulbul 

Observations on papaya mealybug, Paracoccus marginatus Williams & Willink (Hemiptera : Pseudococcidae) damag-ing some crops in Bangladesh
... immature, mature papaya fruits and foliages from BCSIR Vegetable Garden during March, 2011. It is a small polyphagous insect pest sucking saps from the attacking fruits and leaves. P. marginatus passes through egg and three nymphal stages to become adult. Generally, three and four nymphal instars occur in case of female and male mealybug, respectively. The adults are most active in warm, dry and humid weather. The male adul...

M. S. Joshi , D.M. Sawant and A.P. Gaikwad

Isolate variations in Colletotrichum gloeosporioides infecting pomegranate
...d conditions. Inoculated fruits were assessed on the basis of virulence of the isolates and reaction of a particular variety was expressed in Disease Reaction Index (DRI). There was considerable variation in virulence and suscep-tibility within isolates and varieties. Isolate Cg 86 was found to be virulent (DRI 7.2), Cg 81 as less virulent (DRI 2.87), and other isolates were moderately virulent irrespective of varieties. Fruit varieties Aarakta and Bhagwa were...
Ayesha Ilyas1, Hafiz Azhar Ali Khan2,* and Abdul Qadir1,*
...ere developed in treated fruits as compared to their untreated guavas. The acetonic extracts of T. peruviana showed overall less settlings on both treated and untreated guavas resulting in less number of pupae developed. The results suggested that the extracts of plants tested in the present study could be considered in the management plans for the peach fruit fly.
...

Sadia*, Abdur Rab, Sayyed Hamad Ahmad Shah, Irfan Ullah, Farida Bibi and Islam Zeb

...ded in the month of July fruits treated with 10 ppm of GA3. While maximum fruit drop (11.69%), titratable acidity (0.59%), with minimum number of new shoots (16.3), number of new flowers (65.3), fruit weight (53.3g), and fruit volume (48.1cm3) were recorded in plants which were not deblossomed and sprayed with distilled water. It is concluded from the current study that Deblossoming time and GA3 application might be significantly reduced the fruit drop and enh...
Shantanu Jha1, A. Rama Devi1, Ngalaton Kasar1 and Abhishek Mukherjee2

Syed Tanveer Shah* and Muhammad Sajid 

...d that freshly harvested fruits resulted in better fruit firmness (5.69 kg cm-2), TSS (8.67 °Brix), ascorbic acid content (6.43 mg 100 g-1), more TSS-acid ratio (0.74), were noted in fruits stored for 10 days. The interaction of Ca-source and Ca-concentration for most of the studied attributes were found significant. It is concluded from the present results that pre-harvest foliar application of CaCl2 (1.0%) at berry siz...

Abbas Ullah Jan1, Muhammad Fayaz1*, Yousaf Hayat2, Dawood Jan3 and Ghaffar Ali3 

...tends to increase in all fruits, apple, banana and citrus with increase in household income for urban households. For rural households with increase in household income, quantity elasticity of all the fruits tends increase with the exception of grapes where it decreases and remains constant in dates. The estimated quality elasticities reveal that both the urban and rural households purchase higher quality
Pei-feng Yin1,2,Xiu-xiu Li1,Qi-wei Zeng3, Cheng-chen Shen1, Le Gao1 andJian-zhang Ton2,*
...eans that mulberry young fruits can regulate the expression levels of multiple proteins to reply popcorn disease and these pathogenesis-related proteins provide valuable information to further study the pathogenesis of popcorn disease and disease-resistant molecular breeding in mulberry.
...

Bibi Haleema1*, Abdur Rab1 and Syed Asghar Hussain2 

...es plant-1 (177), number fruits plant-1 (67.78) were recorded with foliar spray of B at 0.25%, while maximum leaf area was found at 0.5% B. Comparing the means for Zn concentrations, maximum plant height (86.53 cm), number of primary (2.53) and secondary (6.42) branches, leaves plant-1 (167), leaf area (63.33 cm2), and fruit per plant (63.78) were higher with 0.5% foliar Zn application. The interaction between Ca, B and Zn also showed significant results for m...
Hayat Badshah1, Farman Ullah1, Paul-André Calatayud2, Hidayat Ullah3 and Bashir Ahmad1
...ghly polyphagous pest of fruits, vegetables, crops and ornamentals in Pakistan. Biological control approach by using Aenasius bambawalei Hayat(Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) has been developed recently to control this pest. However, the efficiency of this parasitoid is variable according to the locality and the plants on which P. solenopsis is feeding. In this context, this experiment investigated under field and laboratory conditions the influe...

Muhammad Jamal Nasir*, Anwar Saeed Khan and Said Alam 

...eases, flowering time of fruits trees, biodiversity and livestock’s. Respondents were selected randomly but priority was given to elders and those possess land and practice agriculture. The study reveals that majority of the respondents are well aware of climate change and its effects on cropping calendar, crop variety, crop yield, crop diseases as well as an earlier blossoming of fruit trees. The respondents in all the fifteen villages unanimously agree...

Fazal Ullah1*, Muhammad Sajid1, Syeda Leeda Gul2, Bibi Zainub1 and Maaz Khan

...Sherkhana-I sweet orange fruits. The fruits of sweet orange having hot water dipping time of 15 minutes showed the maximum fruit juice content (51.07%), volume (141.94 ml), firmness (2.41 Kg.cm-2), acidity (1.50%) and ascorbic acid (34.50%). The storage durations also had significant effects on the quality attributes of sweet orange. However the maximum fruit volume (160.25 ml), juice content (57.00%), firmness (2.89 kg cm-2...

 Abdullah Adil Ansari* and Kumar Sukhraj**

... control by 64.27 %. The fruits have a greater percentage of fats and protein content in VW+VC when compared with those grown with chemical fertilizers by 23.86% and 19.86%, respectively. The combination treatment [VW+VC] also have a significant influence on the biochemical characteristics of the soil with marked improvement in soil micronutrients. The combination treatment [VW+VC] was found better suggesting qualitative improvement in the physical and chemica...

 Hidayatullah, T. Mahmood, M. Farooq, M. A. Khokhar and S.I. Hussain*

* Corresponding author: hidayatu2003@yahoo.uk.co.uk

PLANT GROWTH REGULATORS AFFECTING SEX EXPRESSION OF BOTTLE GOURD (LAGENARIA SICERARIA MOLINA) PLANTS
...oduced maximum number of fruits -1 -1 (22.24 plant ) and fruit weight (6.31 kg plant ). However, foliar spray with different combinations of ethrel did not improve yield and yield contributing attributes.

...

  Farhat Ullah Khan, Nowshad Khan and Zaibunnisa Abdullah*

Corresponding author: farhatkhan7@gmail.com (This is part of Ph.D. work of senior author)

IMPACT OFKINNOW (MANDARIN) YIELD LOSSES ON SOCIOECONOMIC CONDITIONS OF THE FARMING COMMUNITY IN PUNJAB, PAKISTAN
...t yield losses of kinnow fruits have negative impact on socio-economic conditions of the majority respondents of the project area. Chi-square test also shows negative link of the kinnow fruits and socio-economic uplift of the farming community in the project area. Serious attention on scientific basis to yield losses through awareness and training of extension workers, can give economic benefits to communities of study area....

 Khalid Mahmood Qureshi, Fakhar ul Hassan, Qamar ul Hassan, Usman Shaukat Qureshi, Saman Chughtai and Adnan Saleem*

IMPACT OF CULTIVATION SYSTEMS ON GROWTH AND YIELD OF STRAWBERRY (FRAGARIA ANANASSA) CV. “CHANDLER”
...er of flowers, number of fruits, fruit size, fruit weight and qualitative measures viz., total soluble solids, total sugars, ascorbic acid were found significantly higher under tunnel condition as compared to other cultivation systems. The experiment was arranged by employing the Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) by using five treatments, each comprising three replications with 20 plants per replicate. 

...

 Sonila Hassan, Abid Hussain*, Muhammad Azeem Khan** and Irfan Mahmood*

RURAL-URBAN RETAIL PRICES AND MARKETING MARGINS OF FRESH FRUITS AND VEGETABLES IN PAKISTAN
...ice differences of fresh fruits and vegetables. A checklist and an open-ended questionnaire were developed and used to interview a total of 200 retailers (rural and urban), 100 producers, 30 commission agents and 10 transporters in July 2010. Price data were collected from rural and urban retailers in Hyderabad, Faisalabad, Peshawar, Muzaffarabad and Quetta. It was observed that the retail prices of fresh fruits and vegetabl...

 Muhammad Farooq*, Hidayat Ullah*, Nausherwan Nobel Nawab* and Khalid Mahmood Qureshi**

EVALUATION OF INDIGENOUS TOMATO HYBRIDS UNDER PLASTIC TUNNEL
...k bore maximum number of fruits plant (30.26) and followed by NTT- -1 04-08 and NTT-03-08 bearing 28.68 and 24.16 fruits plant , respectively. The highest mean fruit weight of 170.63 g was recorded in NTT-05-08 while minimum fruit weight (80.90 g) was observed in Sahel (check). Maximum fruit length of 7.89 cm was recorded in Sahel which is oblong in shape while minimum (5.70 cm) in NTT-14-08. Similarly a significant differen...

 Sara Khalid*, Khalid Mahmood Qureshi*, Ishfaq Ahmad Hafiz*, Khalid Saifullah Khan* and Usman Shaukat Qureshi*

EFFECT OF ORGANIC AMENDMENTS ON VEGETATIVE GROWTH, FRUIT AND YIELD QUALITY OF STRAWBERRY
...rs (58), total number of fruits (42), fruit size (3.04 cm), fruit weight per berry (8.82 g) while T (soil + silt + 4 -1 200 g kg vermicompost) improved fresh leaf weight (0.92 g), number of 2 leaves (6.67), leaf area (43.07 cm ) and days required for first bloom (96.67). Leaf manure based treatment (T3 ) enhanced root length (20.11 cm), T4 improved quality parameters like total solid soluble (TSS) (8.88) and ascorbic acid contents (64 mg) while T improved tota...

 Rabeea Tariq*, Khalid Mahmood Qureshi*, Imran Hassan*, Muhammad Rasheed* and Usman Shaukat Qureshi*

EFFECT OF PLANTING DENSITY AND GROWING MEDIA ON GROWTH AND YIELD OF STRAWBERRY
...ze, leaf area, number of fruits, fruit size, fruit weight and titratable acidity. A significant increase in fresh and dry weight of leaves, number of leaves, fruit yield in term of fruit number, fruit size and fruit weight, and fruit quality with high ascorbic acid contents were observed. On the other hand, plants grown in silt, sand and FYM (1 : 1 : 1) at both planting densities showed significant increment in vegetative growth resulting in early flowering wi...

 Muhammad Shahzad*, Ayesha Tahir**, Naveed Jehan*** and Muhammad Luqman*

IMPACT OF DIFFERENT PACKAGING TECHNOLOGIES ON POSTHARVEST LOSSES OF STONE FRUITS IN SWAT PAKISTAN
...sp;Soft texture of stone fruits makes them prone to postharvest losses. Effect of different packaging materials on the texture of fruits also varies for their post-harvest losses. The present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of wooden and cardboard box technologies on post-harvest losses of plum through its marketing channel. Primary data was collected through pre tested questionnaires by proportionate random sampl...

 Ibrar Ali*, Abdul Mateen Khattak*, Muhammad Ali* and Kalim Ullah**

PERFORMANCE OF DIFFERENT TOMATO CULTIVARS UNDER ORGANIC AND INORGANIC REGIMES
...escence (5.4), number of fruits inflorescence (4.3), -1 3 -1 number of fruit plant (25.4), fruit size (63.9 cm ), fruit weight plant (9.1 kg) and -1 total yield (22.9 t ha ). However, it was closely followed by cultivar Rio Grande for -1 -1 number of leaves plant (79.6), number of flower inflorescence (5.1), number of -1 -1 fruits inflorescence (4.0) and number of fruits plant (24.9). Cult...

 Mubbashira Nazir*, Saira Batool*, Sultan Ali Tariq**, Abid Hussain** and Ya Sakina**

INTERDECADAL GROWTH VARIABILITY AND DECOMPOSITION ANALYSIS OF FRUIT CROPS IN PUNJAB, PAKISTAN
...014. The growth trend of fruits' production in the province showed positive behavior for major fruits (citrus, mango and guava) in almost all the decades, except for mango in 1970s and guava in 2000s. The decline in production of mango in 1970s was due to negative growth in both area and yield. While, a slowdown growth in the area and decrease in yield were reasons of decline in production of guava in 2000s. Growth in produc...

 

ROLE OF HONEY BEES FORAGING ACTIVITIES IN INCREASED FRUIT SETTING AND PRODUCTION OF APPLES APIS MELLIFERA MALUS DOMESTICA

...ities on number of apple fruits per panicle and enhancement of apple weight. Apple Ameri trees were applied with natural pollination (T ) , pollination by honey bees only (T ), natural pollination augmented with honey bees (T ) and no pollination (T ,control). There was a significant increase in the apple fruit setting and weight gain in pollinated plants compared to non-pollinated plants. Maximum number of fruits per panicl...
Fouzia Tabssum1* and Syed Shahid Ali2
...ed from the soil, water, fruits and vegetables wastes. Initial screening of pectinase producing bacteria was carried out on pectin containing agar plates of pH 7 incubated at 37ºC. Among isolated thirty-seven strains, a total of thirteen strains showed satisfactory pectinase productivity. Pectinase production of the thirteen strains was then determined qualitatively as well as quantitatively. Zones of hydrolysis produced by the bacterial strains were rang...
Fouzia Tabssum1* and Syed Shahid Ali2
...ed from the soil, water, fruits and vegetables wastes. Initial screening of pectinase producing bacteria was carried out on pectin containing agar plates of pH 7 incubated at 37ºC. Among isolated thirty-seven strains, a total of thirteen strains showed satisfactory pectinase productivity. Pectinase production of the thirteen strains was then determined qualitatively as well as quantitatively. Zones of hydrolysis produced by the bacterial strains were rang...
Felicia NkechiEkeh*, Ifeanyi Oscar Ndimkaoha Aguzie, Joy Ihuoma Nzei, Chinenye Maria-Goretti Ohanu, Godwin Ikechukwu Ngwu and ChukwudiebubeUgolo
... and C. annum fruits were prepared using Soxhlet extractor. In a split-plot design comprising the two extracts in different concentrations, a total of 63 sundried adult C. gariepinus of mean weight 111.47 ± 2.34g were randomized into three treatment groups A – C for each extract and a control D. The treatment groups were in triplicates with each containing three catfish. The groups contained fish infested with 20 larvae, 20 adult...

Jahangir khan* and Abbas Ullah Jan 

...or pesticides-free fresh fruits, produced locally, such as Apple. For data collection, a sample of 200 households was randomly selected from urban and rural region of Peshawar district of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province. Sampled households were interviewed face to face. An open-ended CVM question was designed to elicit households’ willingness to pay (WTP) and a linear regression analysis conducted to identify important determinants of households’ WTP. ...
Xiaqing Chen, Yü Huang and Zhen Huang*
...en that attacks mulberry fruits and causes disease named as “popcorn disease”. Many Trichoderma spp. produce a series of antibiotic metabolites that can inhibit plant pathogens. Trichoderma hamatum isolated from infected mulberry fruits was evaluated for its efficiency to suppress plant pathogen S. shiraiana alone or in combination with fungicide carbendazim under laboratory conditions

Madiha Naz1, Qudrat Ullah Khan1*, M. Jamil Khan1, Obaid Ullah Sayal2, Asim Afridi3 and Aziz Ullah Sayal3 

...th foliar NPK. Number of fruits per plant were recorded highest in the pots recieving poultry manure either with Foliar NPK or NAA. The yield of tomato was found greater in the treatments recieving soil applied NP, which was statistically similar in the treatment recieving poultry manure with foliar NPK. The treatments in the current study have shown to influence the qualitative parameter of tomato as total soluble solids, while the water content and fruit pH ...

Asma Sohail1*, Aina Rafique2, Kashif Sarfraz Abbasi1 and Maryum Arif3 

...xt-align: justify;">Date fruits contain an elevated amount of antioxidants and have potential antimicrobial activity. Effect of drying methods (sun-, oven- and freeze drying) on antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of date fruit powders from three varieties Zahidi, Aseel and Muzafati were investigated. The DPPH activity was significantly higher in Muzafati sundried date powder, whereas maximum phenolic and flavonoid contents were significantly higher in Mu...

 Haniya Mazhar1, Naaz Abbas2, Zahid Hussain3, Amir Sohail4, Syed Shahid Ali4*

Extracellular lipase production from Bacillus subtilis using agro-industrial waste and fruit peels
...using peels of different fruits, including banana, orange, water melon and melon as carbon source, was 27.17, 21.37, 10.57 and 8.43 U/ml, respectively. The corn cob produced 12.27 U/ml while waste oils of various industries produced 16.17 U/ml (Shan oil), 13.67 U/ml (automobile), 13.37 U/ml (unbranded waste cooking oil) and 6.03 U/ml (Sitara oil) of enzyme activity when used as substrate for lipase production. It is concluded that among the agro-industrial was...

Muhammad Iqbal1, Khalid Usman2*, Muhammad Arif1, Shakeel Ahmad Jatoi3, Muhammad Munir4 and Imran Khan

...% and 85.4 %), number of fruits (25.4 and 23.9), fruit length (52.8 and 51.5 cm), fruit width (16.7 and 17.1 cm), fruit weight (1283.8 and 1330.2 g), yield (48.1 and 50.1 tons ha-1), TSS (7.1 and 6.9 %) and Vitamin C (16.1 and 16.1 mg/100g) were recorded in cv. Anmol. On the basis of overall performance and highest yield, genotype Anmol is recommended for large-scale cultivation under the agro-climatic conditions of Dera Ismail Khan 

...

Saman Fatima* and Shazia Iram 

...About twenty six sampled fruits of Citrus reticulata having damaged skin were obtained from the orchards of Sargodha. The samples were classified into groups on the basis of physical appearance of lesions on peal and the disease severity was then identified. Both classical and molecular method was used for identification of pathogens. Under classical approach the infected sections from the skin of kinnow was utilized to grow fungal colonies on generalized medi...

Mudassar Javed, Muhammad Zeeshan Majeed*, Muhammad Luqman and Muhammad Afzal 

...ields of marketable okra fruits were recorded for IPM module respectively than farmer’s routine module and control module. Based on the overall study findings, we recommend IPM module to the indigenous okra growers to combat infestations of E. vittella and H. armigera and other lepidopterous borers. 

...

Sabi-ur-rehman1, Farooq Azam1, Shaheed Ur Rehman2, Tasbeeh Ur Rahman3, Ayeza Mehmood4, Afshan Gohar5 and Abdul Samad5* 

...ance like its leaves and fruits have been using traditionally as antipyretic, anti diabetic, anti malarial and for the treatment of conjunctivitis, syphilis, gonorrhea, orchitis, diarrhea, anemia, prickly heat and swellings etc. The plant has also reported to have pharmacological active phytochemicals i.e. conocarpan, conocarpol, gallic acid, ellagic acid, ellagitannin, castalagin, quercetin, myricetin and syringetin etc. The review expresses the ethanomedicin...

Irfan Ullah*, Abbas Ullah Jan, Muhammad Fayaz, Amjad Ali and Atta Ullah Shah 

...ES including milk, meat, fruits, sugar, vegetables, beverages, wheat and wheat flour, rice, other cereals, pulses, oil and fats, tea and coffee, backed products and other food were considered for the study. The data given in the survey regarding commodity prices, quantity consumed, households’ food expenditures and demographic characteristics were considered for analysis. The uncompensated own price elasticity for milk, fruits

Aliya Ayaz, Gohar Ayub, Maqsood Khan* and Syed Aizaz Ali Shah 

...on percentage, number of fruits plant-1, fruit length, fruit weight, plant height, yield plot-1, total yield and survival percentage. In case of dipping durations, seeds dipped for 18 hours significantly reduced days to emergence and days to first flower, while increased germination percentage, number of fruits plant-1, fruit length, fruit weight, plant height, yield plot-1 and total yield. Interaction was found non-signific...
Sagir Hussain, Erum Iqbal* and Shahina Fayyaz
...iled surveys of cereals, fruits and vegetables were conducted from district Hunza, Nager, Gilgit and Ghizer of Gilgit-Baltistan, Pakistan during 2014-2016 to determine the temperature dependent property of Quinisulcius capitatus. About 280 root and soil samples were taken from 47 locations and 28 agricultural crops.Compilated data from the world has shown that Q. capitatus has the potential to survive and propagate proficiently at low temperature...

Zafar Abbas1*, Muhammad Mubashir1, Umair Riaz1, Zeenat Javid1, Muhammad Ashraf1, Saeed ur Rehman1, Muhammad Javid Qamar1, Syed Ali Zulqadar1 and Shahzada Munawar Mehdi2 

...ght, the total number of fruits per plant, fruit yield and total yield increase. No significant increase was observed in the yield and growth of okra under control and full NPK fertilizer treatment. Application of organic fertilizers like poultry manure and compost as well as its mixture with full NPK considerably increase the growth and total yield attributes of Okra. On the other hand, in contrast to all other treatments, the joint use of 50% NPK+50% PM exhi...

Usman Zubair1*, Anjum Shehzad2, Muhammad Ishaque Mastoi3 and Khalid Mahmood1 

...erious economic pests of fruits and vegetables around the world. The objective of this paper is to present taxonomy and new records of fruit flies. This manuscript deals with distribution records presented for species of fruit flies from Poonch Division of Azad Jammu and Kashmir. Taxonomic issues with specimen are discussed. The specimens were collected from seven localities including Rawalakot, Banbake, Jandali, Pakhar, Kakuta, Mandhol and Bagh (Harighel) usi...
Jam Nazeer Ahmad1*, Taiba Sharif3, Samina J.N. Ahmad2, Sumaira Maqsood4 and Fariha Zafar3 
...id fruit flies infesting fruits in Punjab, Pakistan. 
...
Muhammad Mansoor1, Khalid Usman2*, Shahid Hameed Khan Khalil3, Abdul Mateen Khattak4, Muhammad Ehsan Elahi1, Muhammad Waqas Imam Malik2 and Amir Hamza2
...ning and curing stage of fruits. Covering fruit bunches with bags were also not productive and profitable; therefore, the growers switched to solar tunnel drying but couldn’t get the required results. The protocols of using solar tunnels needed fine-tuning of temperature and relative air humidity, which affect fruit quality. During dates’ drying process high temperature and low humidity is required. This research was conducted at Arid Zone Research...
Rakhshanda Kousar1, Tahira Sadaf1*, Muhammad Sohail Amjad Makhdum2, Muhammad Amjed Iqbal1 and Raza Ullah1
... production of top three fruits, namely mango, citrus and dates by using Revealed Comparative Advantage, Revealed Symmetric Comparative Advantage, Relative Export Advantage Index and Log of Relative Export Advantage Index. For this purpose, time series data has been collected for the period 2001-2018 from Food and Agricultural Organization Statistics, International Trade Centre map, and World Banks’ World Integrated Trade Solutions, Trade Development Aut...

Wajid Shah Yousafzai1, Irfan Ullah1*, Amjad Ali1, Mahmood Iqbal2 and Salman Khan1 

...produce all kinds crops, fruits and vegetables. Agriculture sector contributes to the economic benefit of the farming community in Pakistan, therefore analyzing its potential remain major focus in various studies. Current study has been designed with main aim to estimate the allocative efficiency of onion production in District swat. Using multistage sampling technique cross sectional data was collected from 105 sample respondents in three villages (Aboha, Man...

Jahangir Khan*, Syed Attaullah Shah, Khurram Nawaz Saddozai, Muhammad Fayaz, Shahid Ali, Abbas Ullah Jan and Ghaffar Ali 

...interviewed at different fruits retail shops to collect data on apple varieties, prices and quality attributes, such as color, size, shape, freshness and external defect. The data were analyzed using hedonic pricing model. Results show that Consumers have strong preferences for apple freshness, size, color and juiciness and their willingness to pay for these attributes are significantly greater than zero. On the basis of these findings the study recommends tha...

Jahangir Khan1*, Abbasullah Jan1, Kar Ho Lim2, Syed Attaullah Shah1*, Aditya R Khanal2 and Ghaffar Ali1 

...e locally produced fresh fruits in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. A Contingent Valuation Survey Method (CVM), constructed with a double-bounded WTP elicitation format, was used to interview a randomly selected sample of 600 households. Survey data revealed that households were willing to pay on average rupees 26 more per kilogram of pesticides free fruits. Results from regression analysis showed that age of the household head...
Tanzeela Riaz, Fiza Sana-Ullah Khan, Farah Rauf Shakoori
...aterium from decayed fruits. Microorganisms were isolated from fruits, soil and water samples obtained from different localities of Lahore city, Pakistan. Locally isolated microorganisms were screened for their mannanase producing characteristics on mineral salt agar medium pH 7. Six isolates were found to be mannanase producers by qualitative analysis. Three isolates (MBL-SP02, MBL-CW01 and MBL-GN02) produced maximum zo...

Rahat Naz*, Mussawar Shah, Asad Ullah, Intikhab Alam and Younas Khan 

... climate change forests, fruits and vegetables have become scarce(P=0.000); water logging and salinity has affected the production of crops(P=0.000); and loss of agricultural productivity affecting the local economy with effects on human lives. The study concluded that, climate change has drastically affected the agricultural practices, resulting into low crop production, soil erosions and water logging salinity. Taking climate change adaptation measure’...

Muhammad Ramiz Murtaza1, Tahir Mehmood2*, Aziz Ahmad2 and Uzma Arshad Mughal3 

Saleem Ashraf1, Raheel Saqib2*, Zakaria Yousuf Hassan3, Muhammad Luqman4 and Abdur Rehman5  

...s and support to develop fruits industry or value addition. 

...

Muhammad Asif Farooq1*, Muhammad Jalal Arif1, Muhammad Dildar Gogi1, Bilal Atta2 and Ahmad Nawaz

Saeed Ahmed Shah Chishti1, Saba Aleem1*, Iram Sharif2, Kashif Nadeem1, Nusrat Parveen1 and Muhammad Najeebullah1 

...d per cluster, number of fruits per cluster, fruit weight and fruit diameter were significantly improved by the application of 4-chlorophenoxy acetic acid. Highest yield per plant 13.50 kg was recorded with the application of 75 ppm in 4- chlorophenoxy acetic acid twicely when the minimum temperature was ranged between 12.5-23°C. Likewise, maximum yield per plant 7.08 kg was also obtained with the same treatment when the minimum temperature was between 2-7...

Humayun Saleem1, Faisal Sohail Fateh2*, Zia-Ur-Rehman1 and Muhammad Abu Bakar Siddique

...are merely selling cheap fruits and they are not concerned with the diseased fruits

...
Mehmet Mamay1* and AyĹźin Bilgili2
...ntrolling a total of 100 fruits from four different sides of randomly selected 25 trees from each orchard. In addition, 100 fruits infested with BSD were checked for damage, egg, larvae and pupae of CM during harvest. According to the results from the study, CM infestation rate was low in orchards where BSD infestation rate was high in pomegranate fruits. In terms of infestation rate in po...

Ahmad-Ur-Rahman Saljoqi1, Muhammad Zubair Khan1, Ayesha Bibi2, Muhammad Shehzad Khan1*, Bashir Ahmad

...eight, maximum number of fruits plant-1 and yield were observed and severity of disease was investigated for supplement efficacy. The biochemical results obtained were all positive, which confirmed stem rot pathogen as Erwinia carotovora sub spp. chrysanthemi (gram-negative bacteria). Highest plant height (75.3 cm) and maximum number of fruits plant-1 (14.3) were recorded with A. indica when applied at 15ml L-1 along with hi...

Aurang Zeb, Abdur Rab and Shujaat Ali* 

...torage freshly harvested fruits. It is concluded that Sweet orange fruits from different locations can be best stored at room temperature (20±1 0C with relative humidity of 45-50 %). 

...

Zia-Ur-Rehman1, Faisal Sohail Fateh2*, Humayun Saleem1 and Muhammad Abu Bakar Siddique1 

...rimarily by decaying the fruits on the tree and after harvest. A preliminary study was designed to see the prevalence, incidence and severity of peach rot disease in the markets of Federal Territories of Islamabad to estimate the intensity of the disease by calculating the disease index. The prevalence of disease was 100% in all markets of Khanna Pul, Burma Chowk, Taramri, NIH Market, Chatha Bakhtawar, I-8, I-10/2, I-10 (Markaz), Sabzi Mandi, I-9. Maximum Mean...

Ehsan-Ul-Haque1, Akbar Hayat1*, Muhammad Asim1, Sajjad Hussain2, Muhammad Shakeel Hanif3, Muhammad Zubair1, Muhammad Abdullah Jamil1 and Faheem Khadija1 

...ectively in both type of fruits with extension of storage period. Willow leaf proved as a close second with respect to various aspects of quality and nutritional value during the fresh fruit analysis undertook prior to storage. Kinnow and Willow leaf didn’t differ significantly in juice percentage (46.33 and 43.16), total soluble solids (TSS) (11.20and 10.23), percent acid (0.69 and 0.73), total sugars percent (10.75 and 9.83), crude protein, crude fat a...

Muhammad Ahsan Naseer1, Mehdi Maqbool1, Saima Rafiq2*, Noosheen Zahid1, Abdul Hamid1 and Syed Zulfiqar Ali Shah1

Comparative Analysis of Physical and Biochemical Attributes of Edible Fig (Ficus carica L.) Collected from Three Districts of Azad Jammu and Kashmir Located at Different Elevations
...e final quality of fresh fruits. In AJK, fig is grown successfully in hilly areas such as Rawalakot, where the topography of this area is not even as compared to plane areas of this region. Therefore, current study was designed to assess the outcome of elevations on physical and biochemical attributes of wild fig collected from different localities of three selected Districts [Bagh (Arja, Bagh city, Dholi), Poonch (Hajira, Dwarandi, Akhorbun) and Kotli (Sehnsa...
Safina Naz1, Syed Atif Hasan Naqvi2*, Bushra Siddique3, Muhammad Asif Zulfiqar4 and Abdur Rehman5 
 
Exogenous Application of Selected Antioxidants and Phyto Development Directors Influenced the Development, Output and Biochemical Attributes of Tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum Mill.)
... Lycopersicum esculentum fruits during 2014 and 2015. Foliar spray of GA3(100 ppm) and 2-hydroxybenzoic acid (200 parts/million and 100 parts/million) give rise to significantly taller plants and greater leaf area while, shorter plants and lower leaf area was recorded in control. Greater leaf number per plant was obtained with application of GA3(100 ppm). This was followed by salicylic acid (200 ppm). Leaf number was significantly lesser in the plants grown in...

Safina Naz1*, Muhammad Akbar Anjum1, Bushra Siddique2, Syed Atif Hasan Naqvi3*, Sajid Ali1, Hassan Sardar1, Sakeena Tul Ain Haider1, Muhammad Asif Zulfiqar4, Hajra Azeem3, Sibghat Ullah5, Shah Pasand6 and Zehri Khan5

Effect of Sewage Water Irrigation Frequency on Growth, Yield and Heavy Metals Accumulation of Tomato and Okra
... in okra pods and tomato fruits than moderately and less repetitive irrigation. The leaves and root of okra and tomato displayed the higher contents of metal when these crops were cultivated with a repetitive application of the sewage water. The final result revealed that the metal concentration high in tomato and okra plant parts with decreasing irrigation intervals of sewage water.

...

Abdul Jalal, Abdur Rab* and Naveed Ahmad

Aloe Vera Gel Coating Retains Persimmon Fruit (Diospyros kaki) Quality during Storage at Room Temperature
...ce. Coating of persimmon fruits with 30% Aloe vera gel retarded the storage related changes and retained high fruit firmness, acidity and ascorbic acid as well as lower total soluble solids and decay incidence than control fruits. In control fruits (0 days storage + Distilled water treatment), the fruit firmness (3.33 kg cm-2), acidity (0.29%), and ascorbic acid content (46.25 mg/100g) dec...

Zulnorain Sajid1*, Muhammad Ramzan2 and Noreen Akhtar1

Foraging Behavior and Pollination Ecology of Bumble Bee and Honey Bee in Pakistan; A Review
...llination of vegetables, fruits and crops commercially. Honey bee can dispense 80% in insect pollination and considered as a best pollinator towards crop pollination, Bumblebee are more efficient and competent pollinator due to their buzzing behavior, efficiency to forage at low temperature, vibration to burst the pollen sac, high speed to flower visitation at low temperature and solitary colony structure. In northern areas of Pakistan bumblebees are natural p...

Asif Ali Abro1* and Iqbal Ahmed Panhwar2

Impact of Various Factors on Crop Diversification Towards High Value Crops in Pakistan: An Empirical Analysis by using THI
...er and support price for fruits, vegetables, pulses and oilseeds are required for the promotion of high value crops.

...
Muhammad Ramzan, Unsar Naeem-Ullah*, Mudssar Ali and Hasan Riaz
... country but also use as fruits and medicine. There is need to control this destructive pest of ornamental plants in Pakistan to minimize the losses. The biology and morphology informations are very important before adopted any strategy against this pest. For this purposes, the current study was conducted and this is first study on this pest in Pakistan.
...

Muhammad Luqman1*, Roshan Hussain1, Muhammad Yaseen1, Muhammad Umer Mehmood1, Ijaz Asghar2 and Usman Saleem1

Comparative Analysis of Dietary Intake Patterns of Rural and Urban Communities of Southern Punjab, Pakistan
...prefers wheat bread with fruits and vegetables. Fruits, dry fruits and legumes are a best source of attaining maximum micro and macro nutrients. In comparison to this rural community of the study area perceived that vegetables and fruits are rich in macro and micro nutrients. Keeping in view the dietary pattern of rural as well as urban localities, best ...

Muhammad Shahid1*, Unsar Naeem-Ullah1, Waheed S. Khan2, Shafqat Saeed1 and Kashif Razzaq3

Application of Nanotechnology for Insect Pests Management: A Review
...s crops i.e. vegetables, fruits, ornamental and field crops. In past decade, these insect pests had been controlled by the application of synthetic insecticides but due to the injurious application of these insecticides causes the development of resistance, environmental pollution, pest resurgence and unwanted effects on humans, animals and beneficial fauna. The pesticides residues remain in the different parts of the crops and cause the lethal effects on huma...

Zafar Abbas1*, Shahzada Munawar Mehdi2, Muhammad Nasir3, Muhammad Ashraf4, Salma Kausar5, Nadeem Iqbal6, Muhammad Zahid Khan Nazar7, Iftikhar Ahmad3, Ghulam Murtaza1 and Ijaz Ahmad8

Evaluation of Best Dose of Micronutrients (Zinc, Iron and Boron) to Combat Malnutrition in Brinjal (Solanum melongena L.)
...nd 90.23%) and number of fruits per plant (9.81, 8.67 and 8.11) due to T5 in black boy, twinkle star and shamli varieties, respectively. Hence, Borax (0.2) + ZnSO4 (0.5%)+FeSO4 (0.5%) kg ha-1 is recommended as best dose of micronutrient for brinjal.

...

Muhammad Farooq1*, Elham Azadfar2, Zohre Bahrami3, Mahniya Sharifi3, A. Shakoor4, Shabir Ahmed5, Iftikhar Ahmed Solangi1, Muhammad Noman Khan6, Memona Siddique7, Naila Ilyas8*, Muhammad Bakhtiar9, Mohamed El-Fatieh Ismael1 and Wang Yunyang1

Optimization of Drying Process of Rambutan by Combined Method of Osmosis Ultrasound and Complementary Drying of Hot Air
...crease the shelf life of fruits and vegetables. Using osmosis-ultrasound before drying with hot air causes the preservation of nutrients in products and reduces heat energy to remove the produc water. In this study, after osmosis pretreatment, samples were put under an osmosis dehydration process. First, using Osmosis-ultrasound with 40.5% concentration in Sekanjabin solution then dried in an oven at a temperature of 70°C. The characteristics of solid gain...
Ashara Sajid1, Muhammad Usman Ghazanfar1, Saeed Rauf 2, Zahoor Hussain3, Salman Ahmad1 and Yasir Iftikhar1,*
... mottle, lopsided unripe fruits, and aborted seeds were observed. The highest incidence of 26% was recorded in Kot Momin, while the lowest incidence of 4.6% was found in Sahiwal. Among the cultivars, the highest disease incidence in mosambi (C. sinensis)and Kinnow (C. reticulate)was recorded 26% in Kot Momin and 23% in Bhalwal, respectively. Leaves samples were collected from the diseased trees to isolate DNA and to confirm greening pathogen...
Muhammad Hamayoon Khan*, Niaz Hussain Khuhro, Muhammad Awais, Muhammad Usman Asif and Raza Muhammad
 
 
...ative damages to various fruits. The present study was executed to record the population dynamics of these fruit fly species in guava and mango orchards with respect to meteorological factors using methyl eugenol-baited traps. The results revealed that population of both the species highly fluctuated round the year. B. zonata appeared to be the most abundant species both in mango and guava orchards as compared to B. dorsalis. The highest mean num...
Muneer Abbas1*, Dilbar Hussain2, Muhammad Saleem2, Abdul Ghaffar2Sohail Abbas3, Niaz Hussain1 and Abdul Ghaffar1
...d the trade of Pakistani fruits in foreign markets. Use of IPM is best way to control fruit fly by avoiding harmful insecticidal spray application in order to save natural enemies and environment. Experiment was conducted in three guava, citrus and mango producing districts of Punjab i.e. Faisalabad, Sargodha, Toba Tek Singh with five treatments. Each experimental unit comprised of 1 ha area. Five treatments viz. A=sanitation, B=MAT, C= protein b...
Sadaqat Khan1,Saleem Ullah1* and Muhammad Sajid2
....9567 g/100g and that of fruits with lesser values were also affected significantly (P<0.05). From the present study it was concluded that Se applied in the form of sodium selenite in irrigation and foliar spray considerably affected the physical parameter of tomato hybrid Salar F1, followed by proximate composition while minerals content was less affected. It is recommended that selenium may be added in moderate amount to plants for their physical well-bei...
Ahmad Abrar Khan* and Muhammad Idrees
... lands suitable to stone fruits, vegetables, grain crops, and other cash crops and relaxation in criteria for the government’s establishment orchard and non-government agriculture departments/agencies.
...
Javaria Sherani1,2*, Muhammad Saleem Jilani1, Tanveer Ahmad2, Sohail Kamaran3, Abdul Manan2, Tehseen Ali Jilani2 and Mateen Sajid2
 
... produced better quality fruits in terms of total soluble solids (TSS) (14.67, 15.45, 16.56 Brix0), pH and Ascorbate content followed by Karela, Mehmud Wali and Dehli White scion graft. Based on findings of the experiment, it could be recommended that Mahmud Wali and Suffen scions should be used to be propagated on local rootstocks to enhance yield as well as fruit quality that will contribute in ensuring food security.
...
Haseeb Khattak1, Imran Ahmad1, Abdul Basit1*, Izhar Ullah1,2, Syed Tanveer Shah1, Humaira Wasila3, Inayat Ullah4, Intizar Ahmad1 and Noman Ahmad1
 
...rs, number of leaves and fruits plant-1, leaf area, fruit length, fruit diameter and total yield were observed under vertical gardening pattern. Data recorded for genotypes observed an increase in total yield and fruits plant-1 of Damaz while and increased number of leaves plant-1, leaf area, fruit diameter and length were observed by SCM-01. The interactive response of genotypes and gardenin...

Aurang Zeb1, Abdur Rab1, Shujaat Ali1,2*, Ijaz Hussain2, Shah Masaud Khan2, Israr Ahmad1, Bilal Pervaiz Khan1, Shakila Umer3 and Muhammad Abbas1

...nd) in freshly harvested fruits after 48 days of storage. The minimum rind thickness (0.66 mm) and the highest rind weight loss percentage (41.42%) was recorded after 48 days of storage. It is concluded that Sweet orange fruits from different locations can be best stored at room temperature (20±1 0C with a relative humidity of 45-50 %).

...

Muhammad Ibrahim Kubar1, Fahad Nazir Khoso1*, Imran Khatri1, Niaz Hussain Khuhro2 and Arfan Ahmed Gilal1

...least number of infested fruits (29.75±2.69) while in combine treatments, the most effective treatment was T16 (Tracer + Protein hydrolysate + cuelure + T. daci) with 2.00±0.41 infested fruits. Moreover, the highest punctures fruit-1 were recorded in control plot (23.25±2.21) cultivated with Bottle gourd whereas, the least punctures were found in bitter ground (1.05±0.38) cultivated plot. On the b...

Ghulam Murtaza1*, Muhammad Ramzan2, Assad Ullah3, Abid Ali5, Ayesha Zafar3, Rukhsar Beanish3, Ahmad Ali4, Ghulam Mustafa4 and Mudassar Aslam4 

...s huge losses in various fruits and vegetables production throughout the globe. The current experiment was designed at Insect Rearing Laboratory, MNS. University of Agriculture, Multan to evaluate host and oviposition preference of Bactrocera zonata on different fruits under laboratory conditions. Infested fruits were collected from local fruits and vege...

Hanaa H. A. Gomaa1; Entsar A. A. Nassar2; K. A. El-Dougdoug3

...d from 9.2 to 34.78 mg/g fruits or 450.25 to 1250.25 mg/plant. The silymarin production has the same pattern of fruits yield. The methanolic solutions were extracted from milk thistle varieties then evaluated against HAV, HSV1 and COXB4 viruses. The cytotoxicity of different milk thistle methanolic extracts in Vero cells did not show any morphological difference compared with control. Antiviral affects of milk the most poten...

Aly M. Abdel-Salam1 and Samah A. Mokbel2

...ecting stone
fruits. Dot blotting immuno-binding assay (DBIA) showed positive reaction between
NRSV-infected apple sap and an Egyptian antiserum for NRSV. Purified preparation
from infected leaves, using the electro-elution technique yielded nucleoprotein which
had Amax and Amin at 260 and 240 nm respectively. Electron microscopy examination
showed spherical virions with ca. 26 nm in diameter.
...

Manal A. El-Shazly1. M. I .Kobeasy2and Sarah H . Altalhi3

...ase symptoms of infected fruits produced from inoculated healthy tomato seedling showing discoloration, faint concentric rings, necrotic and chlorotic spot on mature tomato fruits. The virus was biologically purified from a single local lesion formed on Chenopodium amaranticolor Caste & Reyn. The isolated virus was identified on the basis of symptomatology, transmissibility, host range and serological tests by indirect &...

Asfand Raheel1, Syed Zulfiqar Ali2, Muhammad Waris2, Muhammad Basharat2, Basheer Ahmed2, Muhammad Arshad Ullah3, Syed Ishtiaq Hyder4 and Taqi Raza4*

...antity of vegetables and fruits. Significant outcomes are to be ensured in pre-harvest and postharvest handling and controlling the postharvest decay losses with these advanced techniques. Keeping an eye on good agricultural practices (GAP) standards, new advanced approaches should be reflected as gear of a combined decay control strategy. Postharvest decay is totally dependent upon harvest and handling practices. Environmental conditions mainly affect the fru...

Salama M. El-Saghir1, 2

... quantity and quality of fruits. Upon
continuous observation of peach trees previously known to be infected with PNRSV, additional
suspected symptoms of phytoplasma infection were detected. These involved leaf yellowing and
withering, reduction in fruit size, malformation of fruits (where two or three fruits were attached
together), and tree ...
Asma Kaouachi1, Mohcen Menaa1*, Abderraouf Chouaib Rebbah2 and Mohamed Cherif Maazi1
...entary tract showed that fruits dominated the bird diet but the proportion of food items varied among seasons reflecting their seasonal availability in the study area. The pattern of seasonal variation of the diet was similar to most studies on wood pigeon diet. During the autumn and the winter; significant amounts of fruits of mastic tree Pistacia lentiscus and cork oak Quercus suber were consumed. Spring was ...

Rahmat Gul1*, Imran Khan1, Iftikhar Alam2, Zia Uddin1 and Zafar Iqbal3

...s (n = 6), fruits (n = 12), beverages (n = 12), miscellaneous (n = 14), and functional foods (n = 7). The Food Frequency Questionnaire  list comprised 80 food items organized by food groups with eight categories of frequency of consumption. In conclusion, the Food Frequency Questionnaire   included the most relevant food items in Ramadan fasting month. Ramadan specific Food Fr...

Aiman Amur1*, Nasreen Memon1, Pervaiz Khan2 and Fozia Gull3

...ly, attacking on several fruits. The Bactrocera dorsalis is one of the complex fruit flies of this diver’s genius, hunting on very delicious fruits such as mango. The purpose of this study is to observe the relationship among the environmental and host effects on the outbreak of this crucial pest. The research work was conducted in two gardens (50 hectors) of mango fields of Mirpur Khas, known as mango land of Sindh du...

Amina, Muhammad Zahid Rashid and Amina Rashid

...deg;C temperature. These fruits were compared with control (non-treated) fruit after 15 days. It was observed that the fruits coated with 40% chitosan showed minimum weight losses of 18.66% at cold storage (11°C) respectively as compared to control where weight losses were 34.50% at cold storage respectively. Treated fruits were firmer (41.67 N) after 15 days storage period as compared...

Samreen Khan*, Salma Javed, Tabassum Ara Khanum, Nasira Kazi

... retrieved from multiple fruits, vegetables, ornamental flowers, medicinal plants and other commercially important trees from different four sites of district Lakki Marwat and subsequently assessed the presence of EPNs using last instar larva of greater wax moth Galleria mellonella L. as baited host. After completion of requisite process, resultantly the corresponding recovery rate of EPNs was found 10.9% which includes only genus Steinernema comprising two is...
Amr N. El-Shahat1, Refaat G. Hamza1,*, Ashraf M. Mounir1 and Madeha N. Al-Seeni2
...d peroxidation. Graviola fruits have been reported to possess antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. The present study was designed to determine the possible protective effects of graviola fruit juice (GFJ) against radiation induced oxidative stress and biochemical alterations in the liver and kidney of male albino rats.In the present study, gamma- irradiation (2 Gy every 3 days up to 8 Gy total doses) induced biochemical and oxidative damage in rats wh...

Sanjeela Sabahat1*, Juliya Abbasi2, Mushtaq Ahmad1, Saima Mumtaz1, Taj Naseeb Khan1, Sudheer Tariq1 and Muhammad Imran1

...plant (175.84 g), no. of fruits per plant (10.26) and fruit set percentage (87.85 %). The foliar application of boron at 0.2 % maximized the total soluble salts (TSS) (8.3 0B) and the least amount of titratable fruit acidity (0.27 %). The research findings also showed that combine application of Iron, Zinc and Boron in the given percentage can possibly improve the yield and quality of Chandler under microclimatic conditions.
...

Zahoor Hussain1,2, Yasir Iftikhar3, Mustansar Mubeen3, Muhammad Zia Saleem3, Muhammad Umer Naseer3, Muhammad Luqman4, Raheel Anwar5, Faheem Khadija6 and Aqleem Abbas7

...cted trees. The infected fruits were undeveloped and partially or entirely failed in attaining natural orange fruit colour. Moreover, the iodo-starch tests revealed that the color of HLB-positive leaves was dark grey to black across the sliced surface. Afterward, the Zinc sulfate and Manganese sulfate at the concentrations of 0.25 g/L, 0.5 g/L, and 0.75 g/L were applied on selected diseased plants in combination. Afterward, different vegetative, physiological,...

Ahmad-Ur-Rahman Saljoqi1, Sumayya Amin1, Muhammad Salim1*, Taufiq Nawaz2 and Farida Anjum3

...mes. Lowest mean percent fruits infestation (2.84%), highest yield per treatment (9.56 kg) per plot, highest ascorbic acid content (11.06 mg/100g), fresh weight of treated tomato fruits (101.45 g) and lowest content of mean pesticides residue (0.054%) was recorded in plots treated with Imidacloprid. It was followed by Lamda cyhalothrin where 5.97%, 8.02 kg, 8.18 mg/100g, 89.18 g, and 0.071% of mean percent

Muhammad Salman*, Muhammad Hamayoon Khan, Muhammad Zahid, Gul Zamin Khan, Fazli Rahim and Usman Khalique

...e pest of many important fruits in Pakistan causing massive economic losses. Experiments were executed to reveal the ovipositional preference of B. zonata for four selected fruits belonging to different plant families, viz., banana (Musa acuminate), persimmon (Diospyros kaki), apple (Malus domestica) and tomato (Solanum lycopersicum). The study was performed under free choice conditions by exposing all the tested

Bilal Jan1, Farida Anjum1*, Aasma Bibi1, Syed Roohul Hussain1, Abdul Ahad1, Azeem ud Deen1, Zia Ullah2 and Farrakh Mehboob3

...s, similar to many other fruits and vegetables, are treated with different pesticides at various stages of their growth and development, under conventional agricultural practices especially in developing countries. Pesticide residues in fruits and vegetables have achieved considerable attention due to the unempirical utilization of pesticides. Fruits and their products can serve as potenti...

Hafiza Mehwish Iqbal1, Qurrat Ul Ain Akbar1, Saqib Arif1, Shahid Yousaf2*, Salman Khurshid1, Saqib Jabbar2, Neelofar Hamid3 and Uzma Sitara1

...w indicating decaying of fruits. Antimicrobial activity revealed that mature green has higher activity comparison to half and full ripe stages. Green stages showed ZOI of antimicrobial (10.7-11.6mm) and for antifungal (11.2-11.8mm) in methanol and acetone extracts. It was concluded from the results that ripening stage has effects on the nutritional values which point out that the ideal maturity stage to maintain optimal postharvest storage ability and nutritio...

Muhammad Tahir Jan1,2, Mushtaq Ahmad Saleem3,*, Muhammad Binyameen1,* and Sarfraz Ali Shad1

...a infestation (damage in fruits and larval population) was almost similar during both the years of experimentation. However, the fruiting parts were higher during second year as compared to the first year. The response of the genotypes CIM-496 and CIM-506 was variable to E. vittella infestation in fruiting parts and damage in mature bolls. Treatments showed significant impact on fruiting parts, number of damage fruits and la...

Muhammad Ismail1,*, Abu Bakar Muhammad Raza1, Muhammad Zeeshan Majeed1 and Umair Abbas1 and Riaz Hussain2

...hristm.) Swingle) on the fruits of five citrus cultivars (i.e. bitter orange (Citrus aurantium L.), grapefruit (Citrus paradisi Macfad), lime (Citrus aurantifolia Christm), mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco) and sweet orange (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck) against B. dorsalis using choice and no-choice fruit-dip bioassays. Results revealed a significant reduction of pupal weight and adult emergence of B. dorsalis by 4% extracts of A. indica, A. sativum and C. a...

Ghassan Zahid1, 2*, Sara Iftikhar3, Muhammad Umer Farooq4 and Shakeel Ahmed Soomro5

...tropical and subtropical fruits. Thus, diverse environmental conditions allow the farmers to cultivate a variety of fruits which ultimately uplifting the burden from traditionally cultivated crops. In recent years, the cultivation and yield of different fruit trees are declining in the country. The key contributors to the decline in fruit crop yield include abiotic stresses, biotic stresses, certain pathogens and nematodes, ...

Abid Hussain1, Mubbashira Nazir2*, Saira Batool2 and Sidra Majeed1

...ology in olive and mixed fruits orchards resulted in BCRs of 1.63 and 30.91, respectively. Thus, in rain-fed ecology of Pothwar Punjab, moisture conservation through gypsum application for major crops, and water harvesting through micro-catchments for fruit trees are promising productivity and profitability enhancing farming technologies. Access to market and enabling institutions are critical for adoption of these technologies. Characteristics of adopters of ...

Akbar Hayat1*, Marayam Nasir2, Ehsan-Ul-Haque1, Muhammad Asim1, Sohaib Afzaal1, Shagufta Naz3, Muhammad Nawaz1, Abid Mahmood4, Faheem Khadija1, Fiaz Hussain1 and Tariq Mehmood5

...tional quality of citrus fruits primarily depends upon the selection of rootstock. Kinnow ‘Mandarin’ is a major citrus cultivar being cultivated in Pakistan. The current study aimed to investigate the nutritional status and growth and yield of Kinnow mandarin grafted on four overseas and two indigenous rootstocks in Pakistan. Experiments were conducted at experimental station of Citrus Research Institute, Sargodha from 2016 to 2020. Results reveale...

Iftikhar Alam1*, Muhammad Ali2 and Muhammad Farooq3*

...-cooking; convenience of fruits/vegetables; clean water unavailability; poor/low food quality; high food prices; low food diversity and restricted food environment. Themes related to physical activity were limited physical activity (PA) resources; lack of programmed PA and limited knowledge/awareness support. Participants were very contented with photo-elicitation stimulated discussions. Using these photos, students were able to differentiate between healthy a...

Oluwatoyin Adenike Fabiyi

...lites are often found in fruits, vegetables, soil and underground water as contaminants. This necessitated the search for bio-nematicides, accordingly the nematicidal prospect of chromatographic fractions from Mangifera indica as a substitute to synthetic nematicides in the control of Meloidogyne incognita pests of tomato was evaluated. Crude extracts of M. indica bark was fractionated on silica-gel (120-150 mesh) using glass column. The resulting fractions we...

Masudul Haq Wani and Arshad Bhat*

...me rises, expenditure on fruits, milk and milk-product, meat, eggs and fish increases and expenditure on cereals, pulses and other primary products decreases. The expenditure on meat, egg, fish and fruits and vegetables as a percentage of total food expenditure has increased. With regard to male cultivators in part of Srinagar has shown a substantial decline from -1.59 during 1981-2001 to -9.01 during 2001-11. But for female...

Muhammad Furqan and Zulfiqar Ali

... seeds, leaves, flowers, fruits, rhizomes, and bulbs. Invertebrates including ants, insects, larvae, and grit were also recorded. According to respondents the highest sighting (62.4%) of kalij pheasant was recorded from the forest, followed by cultivated land (20.4%). Major threats to kalij pheasant include forest fire (41.6%), followed by hunting (27.2%), habitat destruction (18.8%), and natural predators (12.4%). The hunting (n=142) of kalij and hunting inde...

Muhammad Mansoor1, Shahid Hameed Khan Khalil2*, Zafar Islam2, Muhammad Asif2, Ghani Akbar2, Muhammad Ashraf Khan3 and Ibadullah Jan4

...ates causing spoilage of fruits at early ripening stage, hindering ripening and drying processes at the end. Growers are adapting some alternate options of making ‘Chuhara’ (dried dates) at Khalal stage instead of processed Rutab dates. Experiments were conducted to find out comparative yield potentials of ‘Chuhara’ as well as processed dates produced from the fruits collected from trees protected fro...

Robina Karim1*, Farhan Ali1, Ali Muhammad1, Nasrullah2, Azra3 and Tahir Mehmood4

... tea and 149.07 gm total fruits daily. In the study area an adult takes 2647.66 calories from the daily food consumption representing a positive figure which is more than the recommended calories of 2350. The estimated poverty line (1.13) based on daily food consumption patterns shows that the people in the study area, on the average, are above the poverty line.

...

Riaz Hussain1*, Adnan Ihsan2, Azaz Ali Shah2, Najeeb Ullah2, Hamza Iftikhar3 and Ranra Jalal4

... @ 5% and Chinaberry dry fruits (Melia azedarach) @ 10% concentrations were used singly and tobacco dry leaves (N. tabacum) + Chinaberry dry fruits (M. azedarach) @ 1% + 5%, garlicbulb (A. sativum) + Red chili(Capsicum spp.) @1% + 2.5%, tobacco dry leaves (N. tabacum) + Red chili (Capsicum spp.) @ 1%+2.5%, and garlic bulb (A. sativum)+ Chinaberry dry fruits (M. azedarach) @ 1%+2.5% were us...
Zain-ul-Aabdin Abro1*, Naheed Baloch1, Raza Muhammad Memon2, Niaz Hussain Khuhro2 and Iram Shaikh1
...ted with mango and guava fruits were studied during (January, 2019 to December, 2019) to determine the population dynamics of these notorious pests in different climatic zones of Sindh Province. Steiner type (Tando Jam) traps baited with methyl eugenol and 5% pesticide were incorporated in the guava and mango orchards of Hyderabad and Larkana. Fruit flies were trapped in the field throughout the year. The results revealed the distinct patterns of population dy...

Habib Ullah Habib1, Malik Muhammad Akram2, Mujahid Ali1*, Tahir Mehmood3, Muhammad Manzoor4, Maqsood Ahmad3, Hasseb Ahsan1, Muhammad Mazhar Iqbal3, Malik Abdul Rehman5, Muhammad Mohsan1 and Ahsan Mohyo ud Din6 

...t, the average weight of fruits, the weight of large size fruits, the weight of medium size, the weight of small size fruits, number of fruits per plant, number of small fruits per plant, number of medium-size fruits per plant, and number of large size fruits...

Zain-ul-Aabdin Abro1*, Naheed Baloch1, Raza Muhammad Memon2, Niaz Hussain Khuhro2 and Waseem Akbar Qazi2

...ies are noxious pests of fruits mainly infecting guava and mango in Sindh. Bactrocera zonata and Bactrocera dorsalis are the deleterious pests of several plant species. Trybliographa daci (Weld.) and Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Ashmead) are natural enemies of fruit flies widely used as bio-agents in biological control programs against Bactrocera species. In current investigations we inspected the infected guava and mango fruits

Kokab Nazim1*, Asghari Bano1 and Ghulam Jellani2

...height, setting %age and fruits per plant was observed in sensitive genotypes. Antioxidant enzyme essay showed enhanced production of Superoxide Dismutase and Catalase coupled with higher accumulation of proline in tolerant genotypes while their production was lower in sensitive genotypes during two growing seasons under stress. All the genotypes made two major clusters. Main cluster “I” was comprised of two genotypes. Main cluster “II”...

Shahid Iqbal, Muhammad Aslam Khan, Muhammad Atiq*, Nasir Ahmed Rajput, Muhammad Usman, Ahmad Nawaz, Ghalib Ayaz Kachelo, Azeem Akram and Hadeed Ahmad

... may reach up to 100% on fruits under humid conditions. Many management strategies such as chemical control, biocontrol, use of Phyto-extracts and nanotechnological approaches have been introduced to combat this disease. The synthetic fungicides are used to curb the disease incidence. Pathogen have developed resistance against various chemicals that are generally utilized to overcome this disease. Because of its antifungal potential against mango anthracnose, ...

Akbar Hayat1*, Ehsan Ul Haque1, Marayam Nasir2, Rab Nawaz3, Tariq Mahmood4 and Sohaib Afzaal1

...haracteristics of exotic fruits belonging to orange group of citrus was carried out at Citrus Research Institute Sargodha. The candidate varieties/cultivars were Rhode Red Valencia, Cara Cara, Amber Sweet, Sun Star and Salustiana. All of these different five citrus varieties evaluated objectively assessing their suitability both for direct consumption and value addition. The work spread over two years (2018and19) produced distinctive results for their commerci...

Samina Kausar1, Rana Badar Aziz2, Muhammad Waseem3, Muhammad Ahmad3, Hamza Shafiq4, Muhammad Asim5, Usama Zia6, Sobia Afzal7, Wanpeng Xi8*, Mansoor Hameed1* and Muhammad Usman Shoukat9

...cted in many vegetables, fruits and flowers. They are categorized into two types: (1) xanthophylls and (2) carotenes. For instance, lycopene is found in tomatoes and watermelon, beta carotene in sweet carrots and potatoes, lutein in marigold flowers, and capsanthin and capsorubin in crimson pepper. Zeaxanthin is protective against scalp diseases, UV and skin redness. Lycopene is a bioactive component regarding the remedy of persistent sicknesses and lowering t...

Ishtiaq Ahmad1*, Muhammad Nafees1, Maryam2, Irfan Ashraf3, Ambreen Maqsood4 and Muhammad Saqib5 

...lign: justify;">Mulberry fruits (Morus alba and M. nigra) are highly nutritious that can be used to mitigate malnutrition of human beings, however have very low shelf-life. The present study was aimed at evaluation of different drying methods to improve shelf-life of dry mulberry fruits for their sustainable availability in the market for human consumption. For this purpose, common drying methods viz., sun drying, shade dryi...
Humaira Gul1*, Muhammad Junaid Yousaf1*, Fawad Ali1, Mamoona Rauf1, Farhad Ali2 and Iqthedar Ali3
...ber of leaves, branches, fruits, plant height, proteins, and chlorophylls were significantly (P<0.05) increased in sandy soil proportion whereas in soil analysis moisture, hygroscopic water, pH, cation exchange capacity (CEC), chlorides, organic matter were significantly (P<0.05) increased for the soily soil in same proportion that is of sandy soil. This reveals that Barley should be grown in sandy soil for its better growth and productivity. The least g...

Monis Hussain Shah1*, Rizwan Rafique2,6, Munawar Almas1, Muhammad Usman3, Sadia Yasin4 and Sajida Bibi5

...ion of excellent quality fruits in coastline, tropical, subtropical and temperate regions. Pakistan is one of the top fruits producing country globally. Pakistan ranks 4th in Mango (1.880M Tones), 6th in Guava (2.4 M Tones), Dates (0.72 M Tones) and Citrus (2.1 M Tones) production around the globe. Since the year of 1969 Pakistan builds the infrastructure for agricultural development due to that; significant increase in prod...

Sumaria Maqsood1*, Muhammad Ali 2, Amna Shoaib3, Shahbaz Ahmad2 and Noor-ul-Ain2

...of S. litura, and tomato fruits were taken as a natural diet. Results revealed that development attributes based on mass rearing of S. litura on the modified diet (wheat germ + tomato paste) significantly reduced the larval and pupal developmental duration by 30%, while, considerably enhancing eclosion rate, pupation survival rate, and the number of eggs by 20-30% along with the 40-50% reduction in the pupal and larvae mortality rate as compared to the tomato ...
Alia Tajdar1,3, Shaghef Ejaz2, Muhammad Shah Zaib1, Anum Ishfaq1, Syed Muhammad Zaka1*, Hafiz Muhammad Safeer1 and Khalid Abbas1
...ortant pest of different fruits in tropical and subtropical regions. It damages the fruits at early ripening stage and reduces the quality and the final yield of fruit crop. Moreover, to maintain the quality parameters of fruits after harvesting, is an important aspect of post-harvest management. For the management of fruit fly and to keep the natural quality of fruit after harvesting diff...

E. Mahdikhani-Moghadam†, J. A. A. Bub, S. B. Chery and S. Alvani

...ere of
stone fruits in different areas of the province. Soil analysis results in the identification of 5 species of mononchid
nematodes viz., Anatonchus kashmirensis, A. tridentatus, Clarkus papillatus, Mylonchulus brachyuris and M.
paitensis. Among them, A. kashmirensis is recorded for the first time in Iran.
...

Muhammad Nadeem1*, Aneeta Rehman1, Masooma Munir1*, Hira Fatima2, Faiqa Malik1, Aqsa Iqbal1 and Alaiha Asif3

...’s most overlooked fruits; despite its high nutritional value, it fails to capture the attention of food processors in Pakistan due to its seasonal availability. Many types of products can be made because of its starchy taste, firm and crispy texture. In the present study, three treatments (T0, T1 and T2) of date bar of approximately 36±2g weight with high nutritional value were prepared on the basis of water chestnut supplementation. For this pur...

A.W. Amin† and A.W. Mona*

..., fruit characteristics (fruits weight,
length and diameter), total early fruits (first four gathering) and total fruit per plant were significantly improved in
plant leaves compared with infested cucumber. Consequently, the shoot macro and micro-elements were increased
compared with infested cucumber. The macro and micro-elements and chlorophyll contents were recorded but the
...

O. A. Fabiyi

...s,
number of fruits per plant and fruit weight per plant as compared with Carbofuran (p<0.05). In the laboratory,
chromatographic fractions from acetone extract had the highest percentage juvenile mortality. The infrared analysis
of the fractions revealed the presence of anhydride and carbonyl stretching frequencies at 3638, 1702, 1735 and
1771 cm-1. The Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) of the fractions showed...

Aiman Amur1*, Nasreen Memon1, Khalida Unar2 and Roshan Jamali3

...ral economical important fruits of world. The Bactrocera dorsalis (handle) complex fruit fly according to morphology, physiology and genetically. It is very serious pest of many fruits in the overall world; such as guava, apricots, Sapodillas etc. this species is voracious for the mango in whole world mostly; means the favorable host of delicious mango. During current study observe the ecological margins and its habitats, ho...

Zubair Aslam1, Ali Ahmad1*, Korkmaz Bellitürk2, Hira Kanwal1, Muhammad Asif1 and Ehsan Ullah1

... plant-1, plant-1 no. of fruits, plant-1 fruit yield, and yield ha-1) and physiological traits (membrane stability index, relative water content of leaves, total carotenoids, chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, total chlorophyll (a+b) contents, SPAD value of chlorophyll and photosynthetic rate). The obtained results indicated that treatment T5 had significantly (p<0.05) higher fruit yield (1.50 kg/plant, 15.5 kg/plot and 13657 kg/ha) while treatment T0 had signif...

Tariq Mahmood1*, Mamoona Wali Muhammad2, Sami Ullah1, Bilal Ahmad3, Zarmina Aslam4, Naveed Ahmad Khan5, Muhammad Shahzaib Tariq6, Muhammad Ali Raza6, Rana Usama Iqbal7 and Samia Zain8

...pollinate various crops, fruits, vegetables, and nuts (Apis mellifera L.) is known to participate in foraging. Foraging behaviors in honey bees include seeking for food, recognizing and remembering the location of food sources, transporting and storing food, and interacting with other bees. The foraging activities of honey bee colonies connect them to their surroundings. As a result, several in- and out-of-colony factors impact this behavior. Foraging is advan...

Sarhad Journal of Agriculture

November

Vol.38, Iss. 5, Pages 1-396

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