Faheem Khan*, Muhammad Zafarullah Khan

...howed that 80 percent of respondents were illiterate while the 20 percent of respondents who were literate had achieved various levels of education. In the years 2012 and 2013, the average yield of educated sugarcane growers was 76 t/ha while illiterate sugarcane growers was 64 t/ha. It is recommended that sugarcane growers should be educated through Farmer Field School and other extension programs and extension agents shoul...

Joseph Langston1*, Joseph Hammer2, Ryan T. Cragun3

...nty-seven percent of all respondents opted for the group goal of charitable contributions and humanitarian activities, while only 23% of all respondents selected “proselytizing” as a desirable group goal. Secular nonaffiliates’ strongest reason for not joining groups was that joining such groups was a low priority for them, followed by nonbelief not being a salient part of their identity. Notably, approxima...

Rehmat Ullah1*, Muhammad Zafarullah Khan1 and Kalim Ullah2

...t study, a sample of 306 respondents was selected based on Sekaran sampling technique while using descriptive research design. Well-prepared and pre-tested interview schedule was utilized for collection of data. Descriptive statistics i.e. frequency, percentages and rank order was calculated. Chi-square test was performed to find out association among demographic characteristics and MFSC registration duration and Rank Based Quotient was calculated for problem ...

Hina Fatima, Muhammad Azeem Khan, Mahreen Zaid-Ullah, Abdul-Jabbar, Khurram Nawaz Saddozai

...re selected as the  respondents  for the  study  that used to  cultivate Non-BT cotton and BT cotton  varieties. In Pakistan, the NonBT cotton varieties have been promptly substituted with the BT-cotton varieties. This substitution of imported BT-cotton seed is taking into account without considering the local environmental conditions of Pakistan. Thus the main objective of the research was on the comparative efficiency and the pr...

Oluwasogo David Olorunfemi, Oluwasegun Adetokunbo Adekunle, Felix Olayinka Oladipo, Temitope Oluwaseun Oladele and Oladimeji Idowu Oladele

...ct one hundred and sixty respondents for the study. A purposive selection of two Local Government Areas each from the two Agricultural Development Programme administrative zones (Zones C and D) in Kwara State where fish farming is prominent and well-practiced was carried out. Forty fish farmers were then randomly selected from the fish farmers’ association chapter present in each selected Local Government Area. Interview-schedule was used to elicit infor...

Neelum Andaleeb and Munir Khan

...ect data from the female respondents through face to face interview. Cobb-Douglas production function and cost benefit analysis were used to arrive at the main conclusion. Results show that feed cost was the major component of total cost followed by labor cost. Average milk produced by buffalo and cow was 180 and 135 liters per month, respectively. Average total costs of milk production of buffalo and cow were Rs.12835 and Rs.10070 per month respectively where...

Nusrat Habib, Safeena Inam and Abdul Hayee Qureshi

...a was collected from 100 respondents of different categories comprised of 43 adopters and 57 non-adopters of sunflower. The probit estimates were carried out to find out factors contributing to non-adoption of sunflower. Factors contributing to non-adoption of sunflower were respondent experience, access to credit, total cost of sunflower, access to price information of market, distance from input shop and more profit from competing crops indicating that the 1...

Muhammad Zafarullah Khan

...whelming majority of the respondents i.e., 88% were M.Sc degree holders. They have had an average work experience of 16 years. Significant differences were observed among the competencies of AEOs with their participation in training programs and their higher educational qualification. The differences were considered as training needs and the AEOs need in-service training to enhance their ability in agricultural mechanization. A significantly high competency le...

Neelum Andaleeb, Munir Khan and Syed Attaullah Shah

...collect data from female respondents through face to face interviews. A composite index was constructed to measure the extent of women’s participation, and a linear regression model was used to determine factors affecting women’s involvement in livestock farming. Results reveal that women were mostly involved in almost all farming activities. The average composite index value is 4.81 which indicate that women were on average involved for 4.81 hours...

Shah Saud Ahmad and Muhammad Zafarullah Khan*

...aled that majority (85%) respondents had joint families system. Almost (60%) respondents had landholdings up to five acres and majority (77%) respondents were involved on full time basis in agriculture whereas 80% of the respondents reported agriculture as their major source of income. FSC was the major source of agricultural information followed by agri...
Mazher Abbas1, Irfan Mahmood1*, Arshed Bashir1, Tahir Mehmood2, Khalid Mahmood1 and Zubair Ikram1
...ple was consisted of 140 respondents. The binary regression model has been used to evaluate the effect of different socio-economic variables on the adoption response of different recommended production practice for citrus. Average age, education and experience of the citrus growers were estimated 43.92 years, 9.74 schooling years and 17.72 years respectively. The awareness and adoption of recommended citrus practices was generally good. The results of the logi...

Raza Ullah1*, Qaisar Shah Safi2, Ghaffar Ali3 and Irfan Ullah

...d a total of 120 sampled respondents are selected using proportional allocation method. The findings revealed that majority of the farmers sold their orchards to the pre-harvest contractors. The most widely used marketing channel was producers selling their orchard to pre-harvest contractor who then harvest the orchard, pack the produce and transport it to the market where the produce is handed to wholesalers. Wholesalers then channel the produce to retailer f...
Usman Waheed1,*, Humayoon Shafique Satti2, Muhammad Arshad3, Ahmed Farooq3, Abdul Rauf4 and Hasan Abbas Zaheer1,5
...ays (CLIA). Of total 387 respondents, 149 subjects tested positive for syphilis (38.5%), whereas 37 tested positive for HIV (9.6%). Syphilis co-infection was found in 22 of the HIV infected subjects (59.5%; odd ratio 2.53; p=0.008). Co-infection was most prevalent among HSW group (90.9%; OR 8.67; P=0.005) followed by FSW group (20%) and IDUs (14.3%). There is a pressing need for HIV prevention plan that should emphasize on raising awareness and promote use of ...

Muhammad Zafarullah Khan*, Shah Saud Ahmad and Asif Nawaz 

...ember farmers. About 57% respondents were registered with FSC since last 4-6 years period. Also 57% of the respondents mentioned that the extension agent was the source of awareness about FSC. About 43% of the respondents were invited by FSC for general body meeting whereas only 26% participated in the process of election. Maximum respondents were provid...
Rehmat Ullah1*, Kalim Ullah2, Inam Ullah3, Muhammad Zafarullah Khan1 and Asif Nawaz1 
...vide new information (75 respondents). It was observed that FAs were available at their offices (70) and farmers were satisfied from the solution of problems they reported (92). Correlation coefficients demonstrate that education, frequency of FAs visits, accessibility of FAs office and establishment of demonstration have highly significant association with provision of new knowledge at (P≤0.01) level of probability. Analysis of variance confirms that most ...

Inayatullah Jan*, Sajid Khan, Noor Paio Khan and Muhammad Ashfaq 

...und that majority of the respondents were smallholders or tenants. After procuring and properly utilizing credit, the yield of the major crops such as wheat, maize, and sugarcane and the resultant income of the respondents exhibited significant increase, as confirmed by higher t-values. The study concludes that the socio-economic conditions of the farmers can be improved if credit programme is extended which could benefit al...

Shaista Naz* and Noor Paio Khan 

...ce interviews from women respondents. The collected data were analysed using descriptive statistics, percentages and rank orders. The results revealed that livestock was the second major source of household income with 19 percent share. Among the livestock types, cattle were the major one followed by goats and sheep. Livestock was found significant at household level in two aspects of income provision and of lowering household and farm budget. Livestock income...

Haidar Ali* and Malik Muhammad Shafi 

... family labors of sample respondents were working on high paid jobs or employed else or self-employed and thus contributed a good amount to their family’s income. The study recommends that unemployment in the agriculture sector is likely to increase with the decrease in the size of holdings. To generate off-farm employment opportunities agro based industries seems to potential area. Simultaneously there is need for initiating skill development programs.&...

Muhammad Zahid1*, Muhammad Ather Javed Khan2, Muhammad Idrees3 and Ahmad Kamran Khan4 

...chedule was prepared and respondents (150 growers of farmer field school) were interviewed personally by the author. The findings revealed 98.7%, 100% and 98% cotton growers were aware of hoeing, leaf curl virus and biological control of insects-pests. Before integrated pest management all the farmers used pesticides haphazardly while 1.3% used after it. 90.7%, 86.7% and 97.3% farmers were aware of economic threshold level of harmful insects, use of pesticides...

Muhammad Jamal Nasir*, Anwar Saeed Khan and Said Alam 

...als that majority of the respondents are well aware of climate change and its effects on cropping calendar, crop variety, crop yield, crop diseases as well as an earlier blossoming of fruit trees. The respondents in all the fifteen villages unanimously agreed that sowing and harvesting dates of crops are 10-20 days earlier than it used to be 20 year ago (1992-2012). Similar change was reported in the time of fruit tree bloss...

Muhammad Luqman1,3, Raheel Saqib2*, Xu Shiwei3 and Yu Wen3 

... participation of female respondents in different crops and livestock activities was comparatively high as compared to their male counterparts. It was found that average daily share of female in crops related activities was 42% and in livestock activities was 53%. Inspite of their participation in crops and livestock activities it was found that compared to female respondents, male family heads had access to agricultural ext...

Ronaq Zaman*, Shahid Ali and Inam Ullah 

... were collected from 134 respondents using multi-stage sampling technique through well-structure interview schedule. For the estimation of Stochastic frontier tans-log production function, maximum likelihood estimation technique was used. To ensure the abnormality of data set Chow test and Dummy variable test was employed for any possible structure break across the broiler farms. Results indicated that there were significant structural breaks across the sample...

Shahid Iqbal1*, Amir Nawaz Khan2, Mushtaq Ahmad Jadoon3 and Intikhab Alam3 

...erview schedule from 364 respondents belonging to 5 randomly selected villages of District Charsadda. The study findings reveal a significant difference in the area under wheat, maize and vegetables after the flood. At the same time, the area under sugarcane and fodder had also decreased to some extent. Similarly, the use of chemical fertilizers and farm yard manure was also decreased due to decrease in the income of the households after the floods-2010 while ...

 Aneela Afzal, Tanvir Ali, Munir Ahmad, Humera Amin and Samina Saki*

...ollect the data from 480 respondents from three tehsils of the district. The results show that a vast majority of women were illiterate, having annual family income less than one lac, living in joint family system and having small land farms. A large proportion of the respondents reported that they remained engaged in cleaning of seeds, sowing, harvesting, weeding, etc. for corn, rice, wheat, sugarcane, and vegetables’...

 Mazher Abbas*, Muhammad Waqas Akram**, Ikram Saeed*** and Arshed Bashir*

...the Punjab. Therefore 60 respondents were taken from Faisalabad, Toba Tek Singh and Chiniot districts of Central Punjab. Percent area allocated to canola crop was comparatively higher at medium farms as compared to small and large farms. The results of the study showed higher yield of canola at large farms as compared to medium and small farms. Average gross revenue by small, medium and large farmers was Rs. 35913.10, Rs. 39635.54 and Rs. 39868.80 acre-1 respe...

 Nadeem Akmal, Hassnain Shah*, Muhammad Azam Niazi** and Waqar Akhtar*

...rovement. All the sample respondents were convinced of the benefits of crosses with Beetal buck and reported that the offsprings Beetal were of higher body weight (40% higher), good looking and well built. Regarding the suitability of Beetal with fodder and forage in the area, majority of the farmers (73%) considered it more suitable. There was a price difference of Rs. 1277 for male kids and Rs. 697 for female kids of the same age than the kids from local buc...

Muhammad Zafarullah Khan1*, Rehmat Ullah1, Asif Nawaz1 and Ejaz Ashraf2 

...as making a total of 400 respondents. Primary data were collected with the help of pre-tested interview schedule through personal interview method. The results of this research study revealed that affinity toward Farm Services Centers were bulk of the educated, middle aged and small landholding farmers. Maximum of the respondents had above 20 years of farming experience. A rapid increase in the registration of farmers with F...

Muhammad Amjed Iqbal1*, Azhar Abbas1, Raza Ullah1, Umar Ijaz Ahmed2, Ali Sher3 and Shoaib Akhtar4 

... from 480 cotton growing respondents from six districts of Punjab province of Pakistan and Foster, Greer and Thorbecke (FGT) poverty index along with Gini coefficient were estimated to assess the impacts of non-farm income on household’s poverty and income inequality. The results indicated that non-farm income supports towards poverty reduction of households in the study area. However, it was observed that rise in non-farm income has slightly increased t...

  Farhat Ullah Khan, Nowshad Khan and Zaibunnisa Abdullah*

Corresponding author: farhatkhan7@gmail.com (This is part of Ph.D. work of senior author)

IMPACT OFKINNOW (MANDARIN) YIELD LOSSES ON SOCIOECONOMIC CONDITIONS OF THE FARMING COMMUNITY IN PUNJAB, PAKISTAN
...osen randomly. Total 200 respondents were interviewed through interview schedule. Simple percentage and chi-square techniques were used for analysis. According to analysis 91.5% respondents reported that yield losses of kinnow fruits have negative impact on socio-economic conditions of the majority respondents of the project area. Chi-square test also shows negative link of the kinnow frui...

 Mazher Abbas*, Tahir Mehmood**, Arshed Bashir*, Muneeb Zafar*** and Aneela Afzal****

ECONOMICS OF LALLEMANTIA ROYLEANA (TUKHAM-EBALANGOO) PRODUCTION IN THE LOW INTENSITY CROPPING ZONE OF THE PUNJAB, PAKISTAN
... of Punjab. Therefore 80 respondents were taken from Karror Laal Eson and Layyah tehsil of Layyah in Punjab. Percent area allocated to Lallemantia royleana crop was comparatively higher at small farms as compared to medium and large farms. The study showed higher yield of L. royleana at large farms as compared to medium and small farms. Average gross revenue by small, medium and large -1 farmers was Rs. 44175, Rs. 52483.02 and Rs. 55247.73 acre respectively. A...

 Muhammad Zubair Anwar, M. Azeem Khan, Ikram Saeed, Akhtar Ali*, Shafique Zahid and Abdul Majid**

SMALL FARMERS PERCEPTIONS REGARDING IMPROVED FODDER AND FORAGE VARIETIES: RESULTS OF PARTICIPATORY ON FARM RESEARCH
...50%. While in kharif 72% respondents pointed out 55% increase in grain yield and similarly majority of the farmers (68%) pointed out 50% increase in dry stalk yield. Majority of the respondents (83%) appreciated the newly introduced plant species while about 17% have shown their interest in fruit trees.

...

 A.A. Mengal* , M. U. Mallah, Z. A. Mirani* and B. N. Siddiqui**

AN ANALYSIS OF PUBLIC AND PRIVATE AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION SERVICES IN BALOCHISTAN, PAKISTAN
.... A sample of 375 farmer respondents were taken with a systematic sampling procedure. The response rate was 82.67%. A detailed and comprehensive questionnaire was used for measuring the effectiveness of extension activities performed by public and private sector extension field staff. The results revealed that a number of farmers received visits from private extension field staff on a fortnightly, monthly and quarterly basis, but not from public extension staf...

 Amir Khatam*, Sher Muhammad, and Ijaz Ashraf**

ROLE OF INDIVIDUAL CONTACT METHODS IN DISSEMINATION OF AGRICULTURAL TECHNOLOGIES
...randomly selected farmer respondents. Researchers collected the data with the help of a pretested and validated interview schedule using survey technique. The results show that majority of the farmer respondents is aware of the farm visits (66.43%), demonstrations being conducted (62.50%) and home visits made by the extension staff (60.71%) as extension methods for dissemination of agricultural technologies among the farming...

 Amir Khatam*, Sher Muhammad and Ijaz Ashraf** 

ROLE OF FARMER FIELD SCHOOLS IN ENHANCING SKILLS OF FARMING COMMUNITY IN KHYBER PAKHTUNKHWA, PAKISTAN
...randomly selected farmer respondents. The data collected were analyzed by applying simple descriptive statistics showing means, scores, ranking order and standard deviations. The results show that skills were highly enhanced in st the aspect of nursery raising techniques which was ranked 1 with mean value 3.40 closely followed by timely and balanced use of fertilizers and nd rd using recommended seed rate, which were ranked 2 and 3 with mean value 3.08 and 3.0...

 Muhammad Shahzad*, Akhter Ali**, Abdul Hayee Qureshi**, Naveed Jehan*, Imran Ullah* and Majid Khan*

ASSESSMENT OF POST-HARVEST LOSSES OF PLUM IN SWAT, PAKISTAN
... different categories of respondents and tehsils. Post harvest losses were estimated through percentage method. The most important reasons were poor harvesting methods, over maturity, insufficient cold storage facility, poor grading, low-quality packaging materials and poor infrastructure. Total post harvest losses in the marketing channel of the plum were 21.51% of which 5.12% occurred at farm level, 1.44% at wholesale level, 6.31% at retail level, and 8.64% ...

 Amir Khatam*, Sher Muhammad**, Badar Naseem Siddiqui***, Muhammad Zakaria Yousuf Hassan****, Ijaz Ashraf**, Muhammad Zafarullah Khan***** and Aijaz Kuharoo******

COMMUNICATION OF AGRICULTURAL INFORMATION THROUGH GROUP CONTACT METHODS IN PAKISTAN
...ation used by the farmer respondents were seed/ fertilizer dealers, workshops, panel discussions, role playing and brainstorming. However, seed/ fertilizer dealers proved to be the most effective source of agricultural information followed by workshops, panel discussions, role playing and brainstorming. However, 28.93 of the respondents never contacted seed/fertilizer dealers while 31.78% occasionally contacted, 26.43% rarel...

 Rehmat Ullah*, Kalim Ullah** and Mohammad Zafarullah Khan*

EXTENSION SERVICES AND TECHNOLOGY ADOPTION OF DATE PALM (PHOENIX DACTYLIFERA L.) IN DISTRICT DERA ISMAIL KHAN
...thod from a sample of 51 respondents selected from these villages. Agriculture was the major profession of the farmers (80.3%). It was found that 62.7% of the respondents were never visited by the extension workers while 60.7% of the respondents never attended any meeting with field staff or Agriculture Officers. A single field day was organized by extension workers almost two years ago in...

 Samiullah*, Mehmood Shah*, Kalim Ullah**, Rehmat Ullah*** and Ibrarullah****

PROFITABILITY OF WHEAT PRODUCTION IN DERA ISMAIL KHAN
... district. A total of 50 respondents were probed by personal interview method from the sampled villages. Cost and return (gross return) data from the respondents were analyzed. Farm budgeting technique for estimating cost, gross return and profitability was applied. The analysis of data revealed that the average cost per acre was Rs. 24716.32. Similarly average production of wheat (output) was estimated to -1 -1 be 1618.40 k...

 Mazher Abbas*, Irfan Mehmood*, Arshed Bashir*, Muhammad Ather Mehmood* and Sonila Hassan* 

WOMEN COTTON PICKERS PERCEPTIONS ABOUT HEALTH HAZARDS DUE TO PESTICIDE USE IN IRRIGATED PUNJAB
...n (21%). Majority of the respondents (97.33%) reported that the mode of payments of cotton picking was in cash and the most of the respondents (83.70%) reported that they got wages in time. Only few respondents (8.70%) were aware of health hazards due to pesticides and only 10% women wear protective clothes during cotton picking. Majority of the respondents<...

 Rashed Saeed*, Shoaib-ur-Rehman**, Muhammad Qasim*, Hafiz Zahid Mahmood*** and Irfan Mehmood*

ECONOMICS OF PERI-URBAN RADISH PRODUCTION AND MARKETING IN FAISALABAD
...irrigations. Majority of respondents (94.2%) reported the local Meno as the best yielding variety. Imported and 40 day varieties were not popular as only 5.8% farmers were cultivating these varieties in the study area. On the basis of survey data, benefit cost and total factor productivity analyses depict that radish cultivation is a profitable enterprise in the study area. Productivity gap between current and potential yield of radish can be minimized by the ...

 Muhammad Asif Jamil*, Nowshad Khan*, FarhatUllah Khan* and Muhammad Zakria*

EFFECTIVENESS OF AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION SERVICES IN DISSEMINATION OF INFORMATION TO THE FARMING COMMUNITY OF DISTRICT BHIMBER, AZAD JAMMU AND KASHMIR
...ow as only 18.00% of the respondents had personal acquaintance with the extension staff and 12.67% of them knew extension staff through their neighbour, while 38% of respondents from their friends. The farmers who knew extension staff through relatives were only 16%. It was also found that demonstration, personal contact, group meetings and training were effective methods of communication. The study concluded that other sour...

 Junaid Alvi*, Ijaz Ashraf*, Khalid Mehmood Ch*, Muhammad Iftikhar* and Saleem Ashraf**

IMPACT OF LIVESTOCK IN UPLIFTING RURAL LIVELIHOOD
...eneration. More than 22% respondents earned a maximum income of more than Rs.15000. Livestock have dominant effect on domestic needs fulfillment. Farmers were spending income on family chores, education, health and other aspects of life. Informal discussions and observation dictated the lower productivity than the potential and inadequate awareness and adoption of precise dairy farming practices. Livestock keepers demanded provision of location specific best m...

 Khurram Nawaz Saddozai*, Umme Rubab* and Abass Ullah Jan* 

STOCHASTIC FRONTIER ANALYSIS OF MAIZE FARMERS IN AZAD JAMMU AND KASHMIR, PAKISTAN
...ary data from 80 sampled respondents in 2013-14. The maximum likelihood estimates of major inputs showed that seed, tractor hours, FYM and labor days have contributed significantly to increase the maize yield. However, the DAP and urea have shown no effect on maize yield. The mean technical efficiency was estimated at 83%, implying that the farmers can still enhance their technical efficiency by 11% within the given inputs and technology. The results have demo...

 Anwar Hussain* and Muhammad Rahman**

ROLE OF TRAININGS ON FARMERS' PROFITABILITY OF MEDICINAL AND AROMATIC PLANTS IN MOUNTAINOUS AREAS OF DISTRICT SWAT, KHYBER PUKHTUNKHWA
...convenient sample of 100 respondents, engaged in MAPs in Chail Valley Madyan was taken. Information about revenue from MAPs, marketing, prices and quantities was collected through a structured questionnaire. The respondents were given training under Swiss Development Cooperation Project at the time of collection, harvesting, cleaning, drying, packing and marketing of MAPs. The overall findings revealed that the training had ...

 Hafiz Saqib Habib*, Arshad Mahmood Malik*, Abid Ali** and Muhammad Aamir Khan***

SOCIOECONOMIC DETERMINANTS OF RURAL HOUSEHOLD FOOD EXPENDITURES IN RAWALPINDI

 Muneeb Zafar*, Tahir Mehmood**, Irfan Ahmad Baig**, Abdul Saboor** Mazher Abbas***, Shumaila Sadiq** and Khalid Mahmood****

ANALYTICAL DIAGNOSTICS OF NON-OPTIMAL USE OF PESTICIDES AND HEALTH HAZARDS FOR VEGETABLE PICKERS
...ict Vehari. Data from 90 respondents were collected and analyzed. The most common health problems identified during the survey were headache, eye irritation, skin infection, cough and shortness of breath. Health cost consists of costs related to precautionary measure, medication, traveling, the opportunity cost of attended persons and productivity loss. The mean health cost of vegetable pickers in the study area was about Rs. 385 per picker per year. Health co...

 Raza Ullah*, Mariam Rehman*, Maria Anjum*, Muhammad Asif
Kamran**, Khuda Bakhsh***, Abdul Saboor****

NAVIGATING FARMING RISKS BY SIMULTANEOUS DIVERSIFICATION AND CREDIT THROUGH FORMAL AND INFORMAL COMMUNICATION CHANNEL
...om 330 randomly selected respondents from four districts of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province of Pakistan. Bivariate and multinomial probit models take into account the possibility of simultaneous adoption of the two risk management tools at the same time. The decisions to adopt diversification and agricultural credit for risk management are correlated and adopting one risk management tool may make it more likely to adopt the other tool at the same time. Moreover, a...

 Nusrat Habib*

RELATIVE PROFITABILITY ANALYSIS OF SUNFLOWER IN DISTRICT SWABI AND MARDAN
...rea. Primary data of 100 respondents was collected and analyzed in SPSS (Special Package for Social Scientists) software. Estimated results revealed that there was a key difference among target three crops profitability such as revenue per crop day of tobacco, sugarcane and sunflower were rupees 285.61, rupees 158 .93 and rupees 82.64 respectively. On the whole tobacco and sugarcane both of these crops were more profitable for the farmers. As study results sho...

Sher Muhammad , Ijaz Ashraf*, Amir Khatam**, and Naima
Nawaz*** 

SOCIO-ECONOMIC CHARACTERISTICS OF FARMERS AND THEIR PARTICIPATION IN ACTIVITIES OF MODEL FARM SERVICES CENTERS IN KHYBER PAKHTUNKHWA, PAKISTAN
...nd tenancy status of the respondents and their participation in various activities being carried out under MFSCs. It is recommended that relatively young, educated, big and owner farmers may be given priority for registration in MFSCs so that they could avail full benefits of MFSCs through active participation.

...

Ejaz Ashraf1*, Hafiz Khurram Shurjeel2 and Zafarullah Baloch3 

...ue was used to select 90 respondents. The data revealed that average age of the farmers was 53.9 years with education from secondary to graduate level. The results of the study showed that many of the farmers on average have 10 acres of land under date palm cultivation with more than 57 date palm trees per acre on average. It is also observed that respondents generally get 76 kg of dates on average per tree. Many of the farm...

Irfan Ullah, Shahid Ali*, Muhammad Fayaz and Abbas Ullah Jan 

... Pakistan. Data from 120 respondents was collected through multistage random sampling technique. Stochastic frontier cost function of Cobb- Douglas type was used for the estimation of allocative efficiency. The function was estimated using Maximum Likelihood estimation technique. Results revealed that the mean allocative efficiency of broiler farms was 0.84; implies that an average farm could have used 16% less inputs for given level of output if inputs were a...

Ejaz Ashraf1*, Hafiz Khuram Sharjeel1, Raheel Babar2, Muhammad Junaid1, Qamar Iqbal3, Rabia Rasheed1 and Nosheen Fatima1 

...ts of 155 people and 121 respondents appeared for interview. The non response rate was 21.94%. The analysis showed that training and visit program and demonstration methods were dominant approaches used in technology transfer. The mean of the results showed that low allocation of budget, massive operational area to give satisfactory coverage, less use of multimedia, unavailability of training facilities to EFS, manifold duties assigned to extension officers an...

Shahid Ali1* and Salamat Ali2  

...for selection of sampled respondents. 120 farmers, 60 farmers of open shed and 60 farmers of EC shed were interviewed during 2014. Dummy variable regression was applied for estimation and comparison of costs and revenues of open shed and EC shed broiler farms. Results revealed that there was statistically significant difference between the cost of production and net revenue of open shed and EC shed farms. Cost of production of open shed was PKR 247.22 per broi...

Murad Khan1* and Muhammad Afzal2 

...ficant except age of the respondents. Proper vaccination and medication is required to decrease the high mortality rate so that the losses due to mortality can be minimized. 

...

Urooba Pervaiz1, Abdus Salam1, Dawood Jan2, Ayesha Khan1 and Mahmood Iqbal

... for interview, thus 104 respondents were interviewed for the study through well-structured interview schedule. Paired t-test was used for the comparison before and after training.The results show that 43% of the respondents were young, literate (85%), owner cultivator (49%), majority (81%) have total tomato cultivated area between 1-3 acres. Training was given to all the farmers, results of t-test showed that after getting ...
Naveed Akhtar1, Humaira Zareen2* and Rubina Sarmad3
...es a week. A total of 42 respondents (36.8%) were underweight while 41 (36%) were anemic. Positive association was found between eating habits and hemoglobin levels (p = 0.001). Relationship between regular intake of breakfast with BMI and MUAC was also positive (p = 0.003 and 0.02, respectively).
Conclusion: It is concluded that eating habits affect the nutritional status of adolescent females, while skipping breakfast is associated wi...

Jahangir khan* and Abbas Ullah Jan 

...Results show that 93% of respondents are willing to pay a price premium of PKR. 14. Empirical findings reveal that socio-demographic characteristics like age, education and income have positive significant effects on households’ willingness to pay. Findings of the study also reveal a significant influence of employment status of the household’s head on WTP, whereas household’s size has a negative significant effect on willingness to pay for p...

Sadiqa Begum1, Murad Khan2* and Noor Pao Khan

...tionately from 93 sample respondents. Budget allocation technique is used for calculation of cost, revenue and profit and dummy approach is used for comparative analysis while multiple regression model is used to estimate the relationship between inputs and output of wheat. Per acre yield of wheat production in district Mardan was 1809.032 kgs. while in district Peshawar it was 2143.230 kgs. Total cost of wheat per acre in district Peshawar was more than that ...

Ejaz Ashraf1*, Hafiz Khurram Shurjeel2 and Mujahid Iqbal3  

...xtension Department. The respondents were than randomly assigned into two groups, one group was comprised of experimental group (to whom a set of advisory instructions were sent by mobile phone) and other was control (face-to-face). Two- population independent t-test was applied for comparison of the two methods of instructions. The results of the study revealed that both methods were equally applicable and effective regarding timely transfer of information or...

Ejaz Ashraf1*, Bushra Hassan2, Nadeem Anwar2, Hafiz Khurram Shurjeel3 and Shafique-ur-Rehman

...ce, from each village 15 respondents were selected randomly which makes a sample of 120 respondents. During the study, demographic factors such as age, Education, family structure, and professions of the respondents were assessed. Complete regression model was applied with independent factors of educational opportunities, agri-business opportunities and training opportunities. The results ...
Asad Ullah1, Umar Sadique Khattak2, Sultan Ayaz1, Muhammad Subhan Qureshi2, Imad Khan1, Ibad Ullah Jan2, Irfan Khattak1, Raheela Taj3, Sahar Nigar4,    Naimat Ullah Khan1,Mumtaz Ali Khan5 and Muhammad Luqman Sohail6,*
...re recognized by 4.7% of respondents including herd owners, herders and animal handlers. This study calls for instant measures for disease control among the animals and humans of the study area, and highlight the need for farmer education regarding bovine tuberculosis.
...

Muhammad Luqman1, Raheel Saqib2*, Mujahid Karim1, Khalid Nawab2, Abdur Rehman3 and Muhammad Yaseen1 

... Majority (76.2%) of the respondents were young (26 to 40 years). A significant majority (76.3%) were illiterate and only 23.8% were literate (Having more than five years of schooling). Farming was the major income source for majority (69.4%) of respondents. Small farming is very common as more than 60.0% of the respondents had only up to 5 acres of land. Majority (65.6%) were perceived as...

Shaista Naz1*, Noor Paio Khan1, Naveed Afsar2 and Ashfaq Ahmad Shah3

...sample size of 117 women respondents was selected through multistage sampling technique and data were collected from the selected respondents using a pre-tested semi-structured questionnaire through face to face interview. The collected data were subjected to analysis using descriptive statistics, frequencies, percentages, and rank orders. The results revealed that women were involved in buffalo, cattle, goats and sheep rear...

Asif Nawaz* and Muhammad Zafarullah Khan 

...mpling Technique and the respondents were distributed in four Agro-ecological zones of the province with the help of proportional allocation sampling method. Data from the respondents were collected through pretested and validated interview schedule. Data was analyzed using SPSS Ver.20. Mean, standard deviation, chi-square test and paired sample t-tests were calculated to achieve the study objectives. Results of the study re...

Aneel Salman1, Muhammad Iftikhar ul Husnain1, Inayatullah Jan2*, Muhammad Ashfaq2, Mudassar Rashid1 and Usman Shakoor1 

...n the characteristics of respondents (age and income) that can affect their perceptions, their adaptation strategies, and obstacles faced in adaptation. The results of the study need to be interpreted with caution, as we did not focus on other determinants like education, role of media, and government policies that can affect farmers’ choices to adopt climate resilient farming practices.  

...

 Waqas Ali, Arshad Javid, Ali Hussain, Syed Mohsin Bukhari

Public attitude towards amphibian and reptiles in district Kasur, Punjab, Pakistan
...Pakistan. A total of 200 respondents, 50 from each tehsil were interviewed from all
the four tehsils namely Pattoki, Chunnian, Kot Radha Kishan and Kasur. The
people of the study area used to prepare traditional medicines from body parts of
Bungarus caeruleus, Naja naja, Ptyas mucosus, Eryx johnii, Varanus bengalensis
and Uromastyx hardwickii. Out of 200 respondents, more than 80% considered
...

Mujib ur Rahman1, Munir Khan2*, Himayatullah Khan2, Malik Muhammad Shafi2 and Haidar Ali2  

...ar Valley. A total of 51 respondents from the three villages namely Utmanzai, Rajjar and Matta-Mughal-Khel were randomly selected. A comparative analysis of chadar and suit cloth was done regarding sale in Charsadda market and other cities of the country. In Charsadda market, 3/4 producing units sold their products, while 1/4 of the producers were involved in marketing of these products to other cities of the country. Profit per month of Chadar and Suit cloth ...

Ejaz Ashraf1*, Hafiz Khurram Shurjeel2, Nosheen Fatima1, Raheel Babar3 and Ikramul Haq4  

...e awareness level of the respondents regarding biodiversity conservation. The results showed that farmers were relatively aware of regarding species diversity; however, they do not know the modern techniques to uphold crop and species diversity. Biodiversity concept of farmers is at very basic level and they know only limited conventional ways to maintain it. The statistical analysis showed weak significant association between factors responsible for biodivers...

Syed Amjad Kamal Jan* and Naushad Khan 

...er acre averagely of the respondents. According to analysis Farm Size, Tractor hours, Fertilizers, Number of irrigations, Farmer’s education were found significant at 5% level while , Seed Variety, Pesticides, Farming experience, Number of labors were found non-significant at 5% level. The R-Square value was 0.92 which means that 92% variation is explained by the independent variables on the dependent variable in the model. It seems very good fitted mode...

Muhammad Ali1,2*, Norsida Man2 and Farrah Melissa Muharam2 

...to measure motivation of respondents, likert scale items comprising 1 as strongly disagree to 5 as strongly agree were used. The research findings reveal that farmers were motivated to manage their agricultural risks and overall their motivation level was high. Nevertheless, still efforts are required by all stakeholders to keep the motivation level high of farming community at local, regional and international level. Agricultural extension workers as change a...

Rehmat Ullah* and Khalid Nawab 

...selected. A total of 384 respondents were selected through unknown population sampling formulae i.e. 96 from each Union Council. Data were collected using well-structured interview schedule through personal interview method whereas binary logistic regression model was utilized (binary responses (1 if exists 0 otherwise) both of dependent and independent variables) to find out the effect of precautionary measures and Personal Protection Equipment on self-report...
Ayesha Chaudhary1, Fouzia Mumtaz1, Muhammad Yaseen2* and Muhammad Younis Afzal3 
 
...n. In the last stage, 30 respondents from each village were selected randomly. The total sample thus comprised of 180 farmers. A significant association was observed between the level of education and awareness of the farmers, which shows that educated farmers had adequate knowledge of climate change.
...

Dilshad Ahmad1* and Muhammad Afzal2 

... study for selecting the respondents in both districts of cotton area. Pre-tested questionnaire was developed for the collection of data 320 cotton farmers’ respondents for the year of 2015-16 including 160-credit user and 160 non-credit users. The study employed stochastic production frontiers function for the empirical estimates of credit on cotton production. Empirical estimates of study have denoted, significant an...

Saeed Ullah1, Muhammad Israr1*, Shakeel Ahmad2, Nafees Ahmad3 and Asif Yaseen

...eported by 63.33% of the respondents. Chi-square P-values pointed that age, HH size and farming experience have positive relationship with the LD. Land possession was 6-15 acre for the 53.33% of the farmers and growing both cash and food crops. In the area, the farmers perceived for the high level of LD and the causes for this was soil erosion, soil fertility loss, overgrazing, over population growth, soil salinization, tillage erosion, poor land management pr...

Anum Khursheed1, Malik Muhammad Shafi2 and Haidar Ali2* 

...arabad. From 111 sampled respondents primary data were collected through pre-tested questionnaire. Three villages namely; Kundipiran, Kariandarar and Kulpana from union council Kahori were purposively selected. The study indicated that the majority of the sampled respondents were female. To compare the size of livestock holding paired t-test was used. Productivity of livestock kept by sampled respond...

Arshad Farooq* and Muhammad Zafarullah Khan 

...erview schedule from 285 respondents in D.I. Khan and Mardan districts during sugarcane cropping season, 2018. Knowledge gap index was applied as a measuring tool. The empirical results indicated that no knowledge gap was found among farmers of D.I. Khan district regarding land preparation, sowing and harvesting time while in case of Mardan district no knowledge gap was observed in sowing and harvesting time. Farmers of D.I. Khan ...

Tariq Shah1*, Umar Hayat1, Muhammad Suleman Bacha2 and Muhammad3 

...province. A total of 480 respondents from four districts, namely Swat, Mardan, Abbotabad and Dera Ismail Khan were randomly selected for interview purpose. Descriptive statistical techniques along with independent sample t-test and dummy variable regression were used for analysis. It is observed during the study that livestock extension department and private livestock doctors are the key sources where farmers get advice regarding livestock production. Majorit...

Ayat Ullah* and Ayesha Khan 

... were collected from 395 respondents according to Yamane’s formula. The study uses the Kruskal–Wallis H test for checking differences among farmers knowledge with differences in their contact with extension service providers. The results revealed significant differences in farmers’ knowledge of chemical, biological and cultural control methods of pest with differences in the frequency of extension-farmers’ contacts. With the increase in...

Ayub Khan* and Ghaffar Ali 

...d for the elicitation of respondents’ WTP. For this purpose, a contingent valuation method (CVM) was used to elicit households WTP. A sample of 109 households was randomly selected from 14 randomly selected villages two from each tehsil. The study results revealed that most of the respondents perceived the problem of soil erosion and their willingness to pay for the suggested forestation based soil conservation practic...

Sanaullah and Urooba Pervaiz* 

...ollected from 166 sample respondents who got training from Bajaur Area Development Program (BADP) using a well-structured interview schedule; through personal interview method. Result showed that 63.9% of the respondents were illiterate, 31.3% respondents were in age group between 25-35 years. Yield, income, plant spacing, seed rate, irrigation interval, and use of pesticide before and aft...

 Aftab Khan1, Shahid Ali1, Murtaza1, Sufyan Ullah Khan2 and Syed Attaullah Shah1

...a was collected from 200 respondents using a well–designed interview schedule. Cobb-Douglas type production function was modelled to estimated allocative efficiencies of individual inputs used in maize production. The estimated allocative efficiencies of Urea and DAP were 3.24 and 2.04, respectively. This implies that these inputs were underutilized that might be due to poor farming skills of the sampled respondents, l...
Muhammad Waseem1, Ahmed Raza1, Hamera Aisha1, Muhammad Naeem Awan1, Tariq Ahmad2, Rabia Nazir2 and Tariq Mahmood2,*
...tracking techniques (42% respondents). Summer is the best season for poaching the pangolins (44% respondents). Forest is best preferred habitat of pangolin (54% respondents) and pangolins selling and buying points are located outside the villages (63% respondents). Nomads, semi-settled people at different locations in the Potohar Plateau are actively inv...
Ejaz Ashraf1*, Hafiz Khurram Shurjeel2, Umar Mumtaz1, Muhammad Zafarullah Khan3 and Abdul Naveed4
.... Finally, 425 potential respondents were identified from which sample of 120 respondents was randomly selected. The data were collected by using interview schedule. Descriptive as well as inferential statistics were employed for interpretation of the desired results. Significant association was observed between age groups of the senior farmers and capacity building approaches or styles used by the senior farmers to train an...
Taimoor Khalid*, Asad Ullah and Mussawar Shah
...an. A sample size of 357 respondents was proportionally allocated to the mentioned three union councils of the study area and selected by simple random sampling technique. Perception of the respondents regarding illegality in forest management (independent variable) and forest governance (dependent variable) were measured on three level likert scale. Chi-square test was applied to test the association between the study varia...

Wajid Shah Yousafzai1, Irfan Ullah1*, Amjad Ali1, Mahmood Iqbal2 and Salman Khan1 

...ollected from 105 sample respondents in three villages (Aboha, Manyar and Parrai) of Tehsil Barikot, district Swat. Simple Linear Regression Model was employed to individual input contribution in total output. The concept of Marginal Value Products and Marginal Factor Cost was used to calculate Allocative Efficiency. Ordinary Least Square technique was used to drive linear production function. The results revealed that Tractor (hrs), Labor (M-days), FYM (kg), ...

Raheel Saqib1*, Muhammad Luqman2, Iqbal Javed3, Abdur Rehman4, Muhammad Yaseen2, Saleem Ashraf5 and Muhammad Zeeshan Majeed2 

... assets possessed by the respondents was not satisfactory. Majority of the households had limited human, financial, physical, social and natural capitals. In the scenario of climate change, households adopted diverse nature of farm and non-farm related strategies to secure their livelihoods. Findings of chi-square statistics showed highly significant association (P<0.05) between agricultural diversification strategies being adopted by households in the situ...

Shahid Ali1*, Farhan1, Murtaza1, Neelum Andaleeb2 and Amjad Ali1 

...to collect data from 160 respondents. Stochastic frontier production (SFP) function was used to analyze the technical efficiency of wheat growers. The Maximum Likelihood estimates of the model-1 showed that seed quantity, urea, chemicals (Pesticides and weedicides), labor and tractor hours were statistically significant with the coefficients of -0.027, 0.090, 0.060, 0.223 and 0.056, respectively. The estimated results of SFP model-2 revealed that household&rsq...

Urooba Pervaiz1*, Madeeha Iqbal1 and Dawood Jan2 

...ions. Half of the sample respondents reported satisfaction from different extension activities/facilities like location of extension office, availability of extension personal, result and method demonstration, farm/home visit and personal meetings. Whereas, the rest were not satisfied with radio programs, television programs, exhibitions, pamphlets, and farmer day. It was concluded that production of maize in the study area was increased up to 910 kg/acre afte...

Shazia Akhtar1, Abdul Samad1*, Afshan Gohar1, Muhammad Munir Shahid2, Muhammad Ishtiaq1, Arslan Sarwer1, Adnan Khan1 and Karam Ahad1 

...ng the survey that 98.6% respondents were unaware when to apply pesticides and they apply them on all growth stages of peach tree. Moreover, exposure to pesticides occur from skin absorption and through inhalation. This emphasizes on the launching of extension programs on pesticide alternatives. It is concluded that field workers in Swat Malakand, extensively uses pesticides and in spite of their awareness about pesticides effects their protective measures ar...

Shahzad Khan1*, Inayatullah Jan1 and Syed Fahad Shah2 

...the study. A total of 30 respondents were interviewed with the help of a pre-tested questionnaire. The findings of the study reveal that skillful and experienced tenants were given preference by the landlord. But due to non-availability of extension department and its trainings, illiterate and untrained tenants are involved in agricultural practices. The physical inputs and investment efforts lead to long term duration for the tenants which usually make intere...

Saleem Ashraf1, Raheel Saqib2*, Zakaria Yousuf Hassan3, Muhammad Luqman4 and Abdur Rehman5  

...fits as perceived by the respondents. Correlation analysis unveiled that most of constraints impeding growers’ benefits were inter-correlated. This implies that resolving one barrier could limit another. This study urges a need to regulate middleman in marketing system through legislation and government should develop systematic marketing channels and support to develop fruits industry or value addition. 

...

Sanaullah1*, Urooba Pervaiz1, Shahid Ali2, Mohammad Fayaz2 and Aftab Khan

...akistan. A sample of 166 respondents was selected through multistage stratified random sampling technique. Data were collected with the help of a pre-tested and validated well-structured interview schedule. Analysis was carried through multiple regression and independent sample t-test. Results indicated that extension visits, involvement in agriculture, adoption of recommended farming practices, irrigation and HYVs had significant effect, while disease, fertil...

Ihsanullah Kakr1, Sarwar Khan2, Khalid Khan3* and Sajjad Ahmed

...ty (n=1040) camel owners/respondents from three groups viz settled, transhumants and nomads were interviewed in Districts, Musa Khail and Jhal Magsi during the year 2011. The direct as well as indirect economic losses due to camel Trypanosomiasis based on the prevalence of Trypanosomiasis, mortality rate, abortion and perceptions of the respondents were recorded. The camel dies due to Trypanosomiasis in direct visible losses...

Bahadar Sher Khattak1, Muhammad Kaleem1, Waqas2*, Humaira Naz1 and Muhammad Yasir

...that the majority of the respondents (83.3%) who were small farmers acquired and utilized micro-credit in establishing income generating entrepreneurs, purchased quality seeds, fertilizers and small scale modern technology. These innovations brought substantial enhancement in their farm productivity and income that ultimately improved those farmers’ socioeconomic position. However, 16.7% of the respondents’ remai...

Muhammad1*, Muhammad Suleman Bacha2 and Syed Akhtar Ali Shah1 

...s. While the majority of respondents (81%) were concerned about the unsafe disposal of solid waste and are willing to pay for organic fertilizer alternative to chemical fertilizer for urban agriculture. We also found that socio-economic variables namely education, monthly expenses, and agriculture farm size positively affect farmers’ WTP for organic fertilizer. Conversely, households’ size and land tenure of the farmer has a negative influence on f...
Muhammad Shuaib Khan1, Shakeeb Ullah1, Nisha. A.R2, Muhammad Umar3, Muhammad Inamullah Malik1*, Syed Muhammad Kamal Shah1, A. Zaman1, Shakir Ullah1, Imdad Ullah1, Sumera Ali Khan4
...personal interviewing of respondents and observations regarding different pack animals i.e. camel, bull, horses/ mules and donkey. Score from female respondents by different pack animals i.e. camel, bull, horses/ mules and donkey receive were 33.67±2.55, 29±1.00, 29.52±2.52 and 58.67±2.082 respectively (% means ± Standard deviation), while from male re...

Gulnaz Hameed1, Abdul Saboor1, Khuram Nawaz Sadozai2*, Ghaffar Ali2, Dawood Jan2 and Mansoor Rasheed

... to draw a sample of 540 respondents from the universe comprising both registered and nonregistered members of AJKCDP. Primary data were collected through interview schedule. Foster Greer and Thorbecke measure was used to calculate incidence of poverty which is then used to model the probability expressions with the help of Logit to investigate the correlates of poverty in the research area. Poverty was found at below for registered members and investigations ...

Arshad Farooq1*, Muhammad Zafarullah Khan2, Abdul Hassan1, Muhammad Ishaq3 and Asif Nawaz

...schedule from 285 sample respondents randomly selected from eight villages of the eight selected union councils. The empirical results indicated that farmers of district Mardan had 41 percent knowledge gap with cane yield 58387 kgs/hectare and sample farmers of district Dera Ismail Khan had 33 percent knowledge gap with 82184 kgs/hectare. The results showed that in both districts sugarcane farmers had medium knowledge gap (37%) with cane yield 70912 kgs/hectar...

Muhammad Ali1*, Norsida Man2, Farrah Melissa Muharam2 and Siti Zobidah Omar

...ioural intentions of the respondents and TPB has been applied as technology acceptance model in various contexts. However, predicting behavioral intentions to use ICTs for agricultural risk management has not been evaluated from the actual field. Therefore, the data were collected from 360 farmers through multistage cluster sampling technique. Multiple linear regression through SPSS was administered for statistical procedure. The findings confirmed that the th...

Muhammad Raheel Faiz1, Ijaz Ashraf1, Haq Nawaz2, Muhammad Zubair3*, Muhammad Sajid Mahmood4, Sajid Hussain5 and Abdul Qadeer2 

...ing a sample size of 120 respondents. A well-planned interview schedule was prepared for the collection of data from the selected respondents. The survey showed that major problems of the vegetable production were the labour shortage, high prices of fertilizers and chemicals. The protection problems identified were lack of storage facilities for surplus vegetables, fluctuation in market price of vegetables and transportation...

 Salman Khan, Irfan Ullah*, Shahid Ali and Murtaza

...to collect data from 100 respondents during 2018. A Cobb-Douglas type production function was used to approximate effect of determinants on potato yield. Major shares of the input cost per acre incurred in the study area were seed (Rs. 18720), followed by land rent (Rs.15890) and labors having an estimated cost of Rs. 14965 respectively. The analysis showed that on average per acre yield of potato was recorded as 4,953.35 kg with net revenue of Rs. 28,261.89. ...

 Abdus Salam* and Muhammad Zafarullah Khan

...e formula. The number of respondents as per formula was confined to 188 respondents in district Mansehra, 153 respondents in district Swabi and 59 respondents from district Karak, where data were collected randomly. Five point Likert scale was used to record responses of the respondents. The results of the study clearl...

Rashid Nawaz*1, Iftikhar Hussain1, Sikandar Bilal Khattak1 

KEY PERFORMANCE INDICATORS IDENTIFICATION AND PRIORITIZATION FOR ENVIRONMENTAL SUSTAINABILITY IN THE CEMENT MANUFACTURING INDUSTRY IN PAKISTAN USING ANALYTICAL HIERARCHY PROCESS
...re distributed among 213 respondents representing
24 cement plants were analyzed using Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP). The proposed KPIs are supposed to
assist the decision makers in achieving environmental sustainability. Among the 11 KPIs identified, the KPI “Total
amount of Emissions in Metric tons of CO2 equivalent per year” was identified as having the highest impact on
environmental sustainability.

...

Waqas Anwar, Iftikhar Hussain 

COMPARATIVE STUDY ON CONSTRUCTION PROJECT MANAGEMENT BETWEEN RESTIVE REGIONS OF PAKISTAN AND REMAINING PART OF COUNTRY
... seeks feedback from the respondents through a comprehensive questionnaire containing twenty-six questions. Comparing circumstances and outcome of construction projects with remaining part of the country, the study finds that the cost of work in FATA / PATA and restive regions of Baluchistan is substantially high due to multiple factors and therefore recommendations a construction model for creating ideal circumstances for expediting pace of development and as...

Waqas Anwar, Iftikhar Hussain 

COMPARATIVE STUDY ON CONSTRUCTION PROJECT MANAGEMENT BETWEEN RESTIVE REGIONS OF PAKISTAN AND REMAINING PART OF COUNTRY
... seeks feedback from the respondents through a comprehensive questionnaire containing twenty-six questions. Comparing circumstances and outcome of construction projects with remaining part of the country, the study finds that the cost of work in FATA / PATA and restive regions of Baluchistan is substantially high due to multiple factors and therefore recommendations a construction model for creating ideal circumstances for expediting pace of development and as...

Asif Nawaz1*, Muhammad Zafarullah Khan1, Rehmat Ullah1, Arshad Farooq2 and Abdul Hassan2

Assessment of Weed Management Competency of Field Assistants in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan
...op most constraints that respondents faced in building the required competencies. Therefore, it is a dire need to provide practical in-service training to the Field Assistants in the identified areas for the adequate acquisition of weeds management competency. Moreover, there is need to minimize the identified constraints so that the Field Assistants could acquire the requisite weed management competency and provide beneficial recommendations to the farming co...
Kemi F. Omotesho*, Adedamola V. Adetayo, Adeniyi F. Akinrinde and Deborah A. Olabode
 
Challenges to the Adoption of Agricultural Innovations: The Case of Yam Minisett Technology in Kwara State, Nigeria
...e was used to select 205 respondents on whom an interview schedule was administered. Descriptive statistics, Probit Regression Analysis and Pearson’s Product Moment Correlation, were used to analyse data. Result reveals that the farmers were mostly males (71.2%), middle-aged (50.7years,) with an average of 28 years of farming experience. Only 58.5 percent of the farmers had adopted the YMT. Training was most required in the preparation of minisett dust a...

Shaista Naz1*, Noor P. Khan1, Himayatullah Khan1 and Azra2 

Does Women’s Participation in Livestock Management Enhance their Empowerment? An Insight from the Tribal Belt of Pakistan
...randomly selected female respondents from 323 randomly selected households in Mohmand Agency. The collected data were analyzed using percent participation, descriptive statistics, and Decision Making Index (DMI). The results showed that the decisions related to livestock management were mostly taken by both women and men jointly (44%), followed by men alone (27 %) and women (25%) independently. It has been found that six kinds of livestock management activitie...

Waqas Anwar1*, Iftikhar Hussain1

COMPARATIVE STUDY ON CONSTRUCTION PROJECT MANAGEMENT BETWEEN RESTIVE REGIONS OF PAKISTAN AND REMAINING PART OF COUNTRY
... seeks feedback from the respondents through a comprehensive
questionnaire containing twenty-six questions. Comparing circumstances and outcome of construction projects with
remaining part of the country, the study finds that the cost of work in FATA / PATA and restive regions of Baluchistan
is substantially high due to multiple factors and therefore recommendations a construction model for creating ideal
circums...

Asif Nawaz*, Muhammad Zafarullah Khan, Rehmat Ullah, Khalid Nawab and Urooba Pervaiz

Investigation of Professional Competency Level and Training Needs of Field Assistants in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa
...tunkhwa. A sample of 234 respondents was selected and personally interviewed through pre-tested and validated interview schedule. Paired sample t-test and dummy variable regression model were used to achieve study objectives. It was found that Field Assistants were highly competent in conducting farm/home visits followed by conducting meetings and organizing extension campaigns. Highest training needs in professional competency were reported in use of Informat...

Syed Mufeed Hadi Naqvi1*, Badar Naseem Siddiqui1, Waqar-Ul-Hassan Tareen1, Muhammad Ameer Qarib Naqvi2 and Naseeb Hussain3

Usage of Mobile Phone by Vegetable Growers and its Impact on Vegetable Production
...l one hundred and twenty respondents for the study. Most (44.2%) of the respondents of present study were present in middle age group and one out of three (31.7%) of the respondents were young and belong to age group of 15-35 years. Slightly more than one out of four (28.3%) of the respondent were owner-cum-tenant. Majority (76.7%) of them were literate at various level and they used smart...

Ejaz Ashraf1*, Hafiz Khurram Shurjeel2, Saima Sadaf1, Adnan Ahmad1, Usman Rafique1 and Muhammad Arshad Javed1

An Assessment of Farmers’ Awareness Level Regarding Integrated Farming System in District Sargodha, Punjab, Pakistan
...cord the opinions of the respondents by using Likert-type scale. The 200 respondents were selected through systematic random sampling technique. The response rate was 60%. Hence, the sample of 120 respondents was used for final analysis and description of the results. The instrument’s validity and reliability were checked before data collection. In-person interviews were conducted by...

Ejaz Ashraf1*, Hafiz Khurram Shurjeel2, Saima Sadaf1, Adnan Ahmad1, Usman Rafique1 and Muhammad Arshad Javed1

An Assessment of Farmers’ Awareness Level Regarding Integrated Farming System in District Sargodha, Punjab, Pakistan
...cord the opinions of the respondents by using Likert-type scale. The 200 respondents were selected through systematic random sampling technique. The response rate was 60%. Hence, the sample of 120 respondents was used for final analysis and description of the results. The instrument’s validity and reliability were checked before data collection. In-person interviews were conducted by...

Behram Khan1, Amir Nawaz Khan2, Said Qasim3, Atta-ur Rahman4

ANALYSIS OF HUMAN PERCEPTIONS AND ADAPTATIONS TO FLASH FLOODS IN KHYBER AGENCY, FATA

 Muhammad Qasim Khan1*, Syed Athar Masood1 and Shahzad Naeem Qureshi2

REFORMULATION OF PRODUCTIVITY IMPROVEMENT MODEL FOR PUBLIC SECTOR AUTOMOBILE REBUILD ORGANIZATIONS
...wo hundred and sixty-two respondents representing twenty-one different automobile rebuild organizations was compiled through quantitative survey and analyzed statistically through SPSS. Results implied that public sector automobile rebuild organizations due to certain peculiar characteristics possess low productivity and essentially require a distinct productivity improvement model. Based on the shortcomings/inadequacies identified through liter...

Zakeer Ahmed Khan Abbasi* and Allah Nawaz 

... of geographic-zones and respondents’ educational level has also been found significant. Therefore, more efforts, if directed, to enhance climate change awareness through dissemination of authentic and need based information, would significantly help farmers to undertake more relevant, effective and efficient adaptation measures, thereby, contributing in increasing the agriculture yield and reduce losses. However, imprudent projection of climate change a...

Shahzad Malik* and Ayesha Khan

Gap Analysis of Farmers’ Capacity Building by Public and Private Agriculture Extension Sectors in Central Plain Valley of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan
...he present study was 270 respondents i.e. 90 respondents from each tehsil. Data were collected from respondents by using well-structured interview schedule. The data were analyzed by Statistical Package for Social Sciences V.20 (SPSS). Simple percentages and percentages were calculated whereas paired t-test was applied to compare gap/differences between capacity building of farmers offered...

Israr Yasin1, Ismail Qureshi1*, Shahjahn Qaimkhani1, Gulam Mustafa Solangi3, Ismail Qaimkhani1, Ismail Brohi1 and Abdul Ahad Soomro2

A Perspective on Household Dairy Farming in District Naushahro Feroze, Sindh, Pakistan
...73%). About 66.0% of the respondents reported that they contact veterinary doctors. Relatively more proportion (39.0%) of abortion was estimated for the households who used Oxytocin before milking of animals. Using chi-square statistic, the relationship between use of Oxytocin and abortion in large animals was found highly significant (p<0.01). On an average basis, 3.0% growth rate in livestock was estimated. The highest growth rate (5.0%) was recorded in b...
Murtaza, Shahid Ali*, Syed Attaullah Shah, Mehran Ahmad, Irfan Ullah and Jahangir Khan
Adoption of Hybrid Maize Technology in District Mardan of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan
...akistan. A sample of 255 respondents in the study area was randomly chosen using a multistage random sampling technique. The logit model was used to measure the probability of adoption of hybrid maize technology. The estimated results of the model revealed that younger farmers were comparatively more adoptive of the hybrid maize technology. Education level, number of adult males involved in agriculture and land holdings of the farmers affected the adoption of ...

Inam Ullah1, Mahfooz Khan2*, Munir Khan2, Himayatullah Khan2 and Azra3

Factors Affecting Different Wheat Varieties Yield in District Peshawar, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan: A Comparative Analysis
...lected from 150 selected respondents randomly in district Peshawar. For this purpose, the effect of various inputs was separately analyzed using multiple regression model. The empirical results show that for Pirsabaaq-5 wheat variety, the effect of (weedicides) was insignificant. While for Pirsabaaq-8 wheat variety irrigation was found insignificant and for Pirsabaaq-13, wheat variety the effect of seed was insignificant. It was observed that majority of the f...

Nadeem Abbas Shah1*, Ejaz Ashraf1, Hafiz Khurram Shurjeel2, Zaheer ud Din Mirani3, Usman Rafique1 and Raees Abbas Shah4

Assessing Perceptions of the Households-heads Regarding Food Security Status in Drought-hit Areas of District Tharparkar, Sindh, Pakistan: A Case Study for Agricultural Extension
...s the perceptions of the respondents for ongoing food security status in the district of Tharparkar, Sindh-Pakistan and to highlight the role of extension service delivery organizations in the area. District Tharparkar is the most vulnerable area in the country for food insecurity. Tharparkar has four tehsils such as Mithi, Diplo, Chachro and Nangerparkar. Out of four tehsils, one tehsil Mithi was selected purposively. A well- structured questionnaire and key ...

Mehnaz Safdar and Urooba Pervaiz*

Constraints in Accessing Agricultural Extension Services by Rural Women: Evidence from Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan
...rations, 128  women respondents from each district were randomly selected and interviewed through pre-designed interview schedule in 2018. Results indicated that 47% respondents were in middle age category (31-40 years), 59% were illiterate, 91% women respondents were married and 75% households were headed by male. It was observed that local famers/colleagues were the main source of i...

Muhammad Yaseen1*, Muhammad Luqman1*, Zahoor Hussain2, Usman Saleem3, Asif Nawaz1, Tahir Munir Butt4 and Muhammad Umer Mehmood1

Assessment of Knowledge Level and Information Sources of Vegetable Growers regarding Tunnel Farming in District Sargodha
... This way a sample of 90 respondents was interviewed using a structured interview schedule. The content validity of the instrument was checked by the panel of experts and followed by the reliability test run through SPSS. Data were analyzed and evaluated by Microsoft Excel and SPSS to reach a meaningful decision in the consideration of data acquired. The maximum numbers of respondents were falling in the age range of 26 to 5...

Syed Muhammad1*, Badar Naseem Siddiqui2, Farhat Ullah Khan1 and Nawab Khan3

Self-perceived Constraints of Extension Field Staff Affecting their Working Efficiency in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan
...ts in which all EFS (95) respondents comprised of Field Assistants (FAs) and Agriculture Officers (AOs) served as respondents. Five-point Likert scale (Likert 1967) was used to record the response of respondents. Results showed that a majority of the respondents (85.3 %) were FAs by designation, almost half of them (50.5 %) were of middle age (> 35 to...

Muhammad Luqman1*, Roshan Hussain1, Muhammad Yaseen1, Muhammad Umer Mehmood1, Ijaz Asghar2 and Usman Saleem1

Comparative Analysis of Dietary Intake Patterns of Rural and Urban Communities of Southern Punjab, Pakistan
...actly sample size of 600 respondents (300 rural respondents and 300 urban respondents) was randomly selected through equal distribution technique and interviewed by using structured interview schedule. Data were analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences and the following key results were obtained. Most of the respondents from the study were ...

Sanaullah1*, Abdul Basit2 and Inayat Ullah3

Challenges and Prospects of Farm Mechanization in Pakistan: A Case Study of Rural Farmers in District Peshawar Khyber Pakhtunkhwa
...were literate, while 68% respondents had farming as their income source and land owners were 64% with small landholding (46%). The study exposed that illiteracy of the respondents (4.10), et al system (3.98), lack of trained machinery operators (4.27), access of roads to the farm (4.45), adequate capital (4.00) and costly inputs (3.80) were some of the challenges plaguing the use of agricultural mechanization in the rural ar...

Dabesa Wegari and Fikiru Temesgen Gelata*

 

 

...tion actors; totally 476 respondents by using interview schedule, site visit and personal observation. Data analysis was made using descriptive and inferential statistics. In the study areas, the major beef cattle value chain actors were input suppliers, producers, traders, fatteners, processors, retailers, consumers and governmental and non-governmental institutions. The core functions of the chain actors were input supply, production, marketing/trading, proc...
Muhammad Tariq Chaudhary1, Saleem Ashraf 2, Muhammad Yaseen3 and Muhammad Luqman3
 
 
...h questionnaire from 300 respondents who were recently appointed as Field Assistants (FAs) in Agriculture Department. Total 237 questioners returned by the respondents were found complete, thus, sample size was reduced to 237. Effective Schools Model presented by Lezotte (2010)” was employed as theoretical framework of this study. Collected data were analyzed through Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS). Resu...
Raheel Saqib1*, Muhammad Luqman2, Saleem Ashraf3, Tahir Munir Butt4, Abdur Rehman5, Imtiaz Hussain6 and Muhammad Umer Mehmood2
 
 
...ntire population, female respondents from the study area were drawn randomly. A total sample size of the study was 110 respondents (rural female engaged in different farming activities). Data were collected through pre-tested interview schedule and analyzed using SPSS. Results showed that an overwhelming majority of respondents (89.1%) were perceived that family farming played a significan...
Ahmad Abrar Khan* and Muhammad Idrees
... were collected from 132 respondents belonging to the district Mansehra’s five agriculture circles through a pre-tested interview schedule. Results were obtained through frequency, percentage and multiple regression with a dummy variable model. The majority (46.2%) apricot growers cultivated apricot on 01 kanal of land and major group (31.8%) were getting 51-70 Kg yields per tree. Moreover, 68.9% of apricot growers used chemical fertilizers, and Farm Yar...
Tariq Ali Mastoi1, Zulfiqar Ali Mastoi2*, Zahoor Ahmed Khetran3, Ghulam Hussain Alizai2, Binish Baig4, Mitha Khan2 and Syed Jahangir Shah1
 
 
...ion and obstacles of the respondents for obtaining micro finance loan from Zarai Taraqiati Bank Limited (ZTBL). Out of selected districts; ten respondents were chosen randomly who obtained micro finance loans. The information of the selected districts and respondents was obtained (ZTBL). Thus, the respondents were interviewed personally and necessary dat...

Mohammad Tariq Aziz* and Ayesha Khan

...nique was used to select respondents from three selected villages of Tehsil Shabqadar of District Charsadda, namely Hajizai, Katozai and Battagram. Through Proportional Allocation Technique a sample of 112 respondents on basis of 10% of total 1120 registered farmers was drawn to collect primary data through pre-tested and well-structured interview schedule. Collected data was analysized using Statistical Package for Social S...

Summara Abbasi* and Khalid Nawab

...om randomly selected 333 respondents. For analysis of data descriptive statistics and binary logistic model was used through the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) and STATA. Information about dairy practices was studied and percentages recorded, about 70% of the farmers were aware of artificial insemination and vaccination while at least 51% was reported about livestock management. Improved feeding was very active as 70% of farmers were well infor...
Assefa Tessema Tecklie1*, Abebe Getahun Gubale1, Seyoum Mengistou Yilma1, Tadesse Fetahi Hailu1 and Eshete Dejen Diresilign2
...g Lake Hayq were used as respondents for structured questionnaires. In addition to this, 30 fish traders and 8 fish hotel owners specialized in fish dish were used as key informants. The average age of fishermen was around 36 which were in active force age group (< 65 years). Most (97%) of the fishermen used gillnets imported from Egypt with mesh size of 4-6 cm stretched mesh size < 8 cm which is the national standard. There are three commercially import...

Shahzad Khan1*, Munir Khan1, Arif Alam2, Ikram Shah2, Mahfooz Khan1 and Fida Muhammad Khan1

...erview from the selected respondents with the help of a semi-structured questionnaire. For data analysis, profit margin, gross margin and Cobb-Douglas production function were applied. Therefore, the labour, tractor, and fertilizers were found major components in the total variable cost. The profit per acre was obtained as Rs.12714. The profit margin was obtained at 32.48%. Empirical results of the regression model found tractor, fertilizer, seed, and pest/wee...

Nadeem Anwar1, Muhammad Luqman2*, Shaoib Nasir3, Moazzam Sabir1, Hafiz Bashir Ahmad4 and Saleem Ashraf5

... hurdle. Majority of the respondents revealed their concern on rising inflation in the country. They reported that the increase in cost of production negatively effects the profit earned especially by the small farmers. The results of inter-correlation analysis of variables, which are considered to be a constraining factor in citrus production confirms that most of the variables are interrelated and by resolving one, may lead to the resolution of other accompa...

Sana Javeid* and Khalid Nawab

...). Primary data from 306 respondents were collected using multistage simple random sampling techniques. The data were collected using an interview schedule; analysis were carried out by using cross-tabulation, frequency counts, percentages through Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS). To measure the poverty level of apple orchard growers, poverty score card was employed. In addition, bivariate analysis was used to examine relationship between various...

Sarhad Journal of Agriculture

September

Vol. 37, Iss. 3, Pages 714-1097

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