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El-Sayed M. Abdelwhab, Jutta Veits and Thomas C. Mettenleiter

Avian Influenza H5N1 in Egypt: What we Know and What we have to Know?
...inding affinity to human receptors but simultaneously retained its specificity for avian-receptors. Vaccines were applied nationwide to control the disease in poultry. Meanwhile, the viruses accumulated several point mutations in the HA immunogenic epitopes resulting in antigenic drift and the establishment of infections in vaccinated poultry. The Egyptian H5N1 viruses remain susceptible to oseltamivir, but genetic markers i...

Sandeep Satapathy and Rupam Ghosh

...several lives. IL-6/IL-2 receptors have been identified as crucial mediators for clearance of influenza by up regulating several intracellular defense mechanisms. Associated with IL-6 signalling is the expression acceleration of sequestrome 1(SQSTM1) / aggrosome and colocalization of HDAC6 to the cytoplasm. The key player HDAC6 is investigated for modelling several intracellular processes that come into action to bring out the viral clearance. The shuttling of...

Muhammad Zubair, Sajid Mahmood Sajid

...mifene inhibits estrogen receptors in the hypothalamus, inhibiting negative feedback of estrogen on gonadotropin release and leading to up-regulation of ovulation. It has useful effects on the reproduction of female in terms of reduction in puberty and ovulation induction. The beneficial effects are manifested in male in terms of improvement of semen.

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Yongfeng Li, Mo Zhou, Xiao Wang, Libao Xie, Hua-Ji Qiu*

...s against CSFV and viral receptors, conveniently tracking the viral proteins in live cells as well as improving diagnostic methods and vaccines for classical swine fever.

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Atul Sharma, Aruna Chandra Singh, Gautam Bacher, Sunil Bhand

...uo; technique. Among the receptors available for biosensing, aptamer exhibit the advantages of high specificity, selectivity, stability, facile labelling and modification, which makes them ideal candidates for development of new biosensing applications for detection of specific target molecules. In the present review, we concentrate on the recent advances in the development of aptasensors for antibiotics residue analysis based on electrochemical signal generat...

Gabriela Mansano do Nascimento, Helena Lage Ferreira and Clarice Weis Arns

 

...ific pattern recognition receptors. This interaction induces the production of cytokines, chemokines and interferons. Through Janus kinase/signal transducers and transcription activators pathway, interferon induces the transcription of interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs), responsible for playing an essential and decisive role in the virus pathology. Some studies have already reported the overexpression of these genes against IBDV infection in susceptible cells....
Yijin He1, Song Ma2, Bo Liu1,*, Ting Xue1, Qunlan Zhou1, Wu Jin1 and  Kui Chen2,*
...sation behavior of taste receptors. The receptors when compared with T. rubripes, there was 99.2% identity in two kinds ORF sequences, with only 7 bases different, and there were 5 amino acids different between speculated fusion proteins. Under bioinformatics analysis, the T2R1 gene without introns was consistent with the structural domains characteristics of this family genes. The translation protein of T2R...

Mohsan Ullah Goraya1,2, Liaqat Ali1,2 and Iqra Younis3  

...gnition by innate immune receptors and establish first line of defense against viral infections. When specific cellular receptors recognize a virus they trigger the translation of inflammatory cytokine and chemokines leading to establishment of an antiviral state of the host. In this review, we discuss the recent understanding in host responses to avian viral infection and their impact in health and disease. 

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Sanjukta Chakrabarti1, Colin J. Barrow2, Rupinder K. Kanwar3, Venkata Ramana1*, Rakesh N. Veedu4,5 and Jagat R. Kanwar3* 

...ts family of ligands and receptors (VEGFRs). Survival, proliferation, migration and invasion of endothelial cells which give rise to the vascular network, is mediated through VEGF/VEGFR activation of the signal transduction pathways. Thus blocking VEGF is an efficient strategy for blocking tumor angiogenesis. Several anti-VEGF drugs have been developed over the last two decades and some are still at different development stages of pre-clinical and clinical tri...

Osama Elshazly1, AbdelSatar Arafa1, Mohammed A. Rohaim2, Ismaeil M. Reda2 and Hussein A. Hussein2*

...inding affinity to human receptors, is an alarming finding with public health importance.
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Shuai Shang1,2, Honghai Zhang2,*, Xiaoyang Wu2, Qinguo Wei2, Jun Chen1, Huanxin Zhang1, Huaming Zhong2 and Xuexi Tang1,*
... compounds. Bitter taste receptors coded by bitter taste receptor (Tas2r) genes has been identified in many species, but the evolution and repertoire of Tas2r genes in raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides) was still unknown. As a true omnivorous mammal, the Tas2r genes may play a critical role in food selection of raccoon dogs. Thus, we explored the evolution of Tas2r genes in raccoon dogs. In this study, Tas2r genes ...
Rida Zainab1, Sana Elahi1, Afshan Kaleem2,*, Daniel C. Hoessli3, Mehwish Iqtedar2, Roheena Abdullah2, Faiza Saleem2, Shanza Khan1, Anusha Ijaz1, Shagufta Naz2 and Abdul R. Shakoori4,5,*
...ainst both 5-HT2a and D2 receptors. Hydrogen bond acceptors (HBA), aromatic rings (AR ring) and positive ionizable (PI) groups were identified computationally as pharmacophore features by LigandScout. The distance range calculated by Visual Molecular Dynamics (VMD) between AR-HBA, AR-PI and HBA- PI was 3.68 A°-5.74 A°, 5.66 A°-7.64 A° and 3.77 A°-5.38 A°, respectively. This study should help finding specific and more efficient drugs for...

 Jawaria Shaheen1, Samiah Shahid1, Sabahat Shahzadi2, M. Waheed Akhtar1,3 and Saima Sadaf1,*

...n, progesterone and HER2 receptors. We aimed to identify a panel of circulating miRNAs which can act as diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers specifically for TNBC. The blood samples were collected from 37 TNBC diagnosed patients and 34 age-matched non-TNBC controls to investigate the expression of miRNA panel. Plasma was isolated by standard protocol of centrifugation and then isolation of total RNA including miRNA was done. About 100ng of isolated miRNA was c...
Sheng Niu1, Ali-Raza Jahejo1, Fa-jie Jia1, Xin Li1, Guan-bao Ning1, Ding Zhang1, Hai-li Ma1, Wei-fang Hao2, Wen-wei Gao1, Yu-jun Zhao1, Shi-min Gao1, Jian-hui Li1, Gui-lan Li1, Fang Yan1, Rong-kun Gao1, Huan-chun Chen1,3 and Wen-xia Tian1,*
...tively express toll-like receptors (TLRs), cytokines, and avian β-defensins (AvBDs). Host defense peptides (HDPs) are important effector molecules in innate immunity. In this study, thiram has been used to induce tibial dyschondroplasia (TD) and the chickens were injected with different doses of recombinant glutathione-S-transferase A3 (rGSTA3) proteins. We explored the responses of HDPs in erythrocytes to thiram-induced TD and rGSTA3 protein by quantitat...
Sadreddin Tusun*
...men and types of sensory receptors are described and illustrated.
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Ali Mujtaba Shah1,2,3, Ali Raza Shah3, Muhammad Farooque Hassan2, Muhammad Yousif2, Zhisheng Wang1*
...by binding to intestinal receptors which could otherwise be bound by bacteria. Moreover, the adequate colostrum reduces neonatal mortality, strengthen immunity and increase animal lifespan. Delaying intake of colostrum in dairy calves causes decreased transport of both immunoglobulins as well as fat-soluble vitamins. In this review, an attempt has been made to study the composition of colostrum, i.e. fat, protein, immunoglobulin, lactose, oligosaccharid...
Bibi Nazia Murtaza1, Mazhar Saeed Chaudry2, Shamaila Inayat Nadeem1, Muhammad Shahid Nadeem3 and Abdul Rauf Shakoori4,*
...m kinases, growth factor receptors or intrinsic members of cascades can lead to induce or promote cancers. Number of somatic mutations in several genes, majority of which are involved in chromatin modification and transcriptional regulation, have been reported in NHL. G468R and G468A mutations in BRAF gene have been reported in NHL, BRAF is a member of RAS mediated MAPK pathway. In current study, hot spots of Kras gene were analysed in a 40 ...

Muhammad Rehan3, Asim Aslam3, Javeria Umber4, Muti-ur-Rehman Khan3, Waqar Azeem3, Hassan Aftab5, Ahsan Anjum3, Muhammad Abid6, Abdul Hameed Khan3, Hafiz Hasnain Ayoub5, Altaf Hussain2 and Muhammad Farooq Khalid1* 

...ody exhibiting vitamin D receptors and CYP27B1 which is capable of converting inactive form vitamin D into biologically active form 1,25(OH)2D3, that important for maintaining immune homeostasis. These findings lead to more studies on the non-classical effects of vitamin D especially on immune responses. Vitamin D receptor (VDR) regulated transcription depends on co-modulators, which act in a cell specific manner. Also, increasing the resistance to currently u...
Yue Qin Song, Hui Zhong Sun* and Jun Feng Dong
...-size: small;">Olfactory receptors (ORs) in the dendritic membrane of olfactory cells are the key elements in the molecular recognition and discrimination of odorants. On the basis of female and male antennal transcriptomes of Yemma signatus adults, a total of 66 candidate Y. signatus olfactory receptor genes (YsigORs), including one olfactory co-receptor (Orco), were identified in this study. All the sequences were further validated by cloning a...
MA Liman1, QI Yongxiao1, Wang Wenji2* and Zhong Qianyi3*
...t mRNA expression of its receptors (flt1, kdr). Western blot further confirmed that G-Rh2 treatment resulted in reduced Vegf protein expression. Our study suggested that G-Rh2 may exert anti-angiogenic activity by downregulation of Vegf in zebrafish embryos, thus indicating its role as a potential therapeutic agent against cancer.
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Muhamamd Rizwan1*, Muhammad Arshad2, Muhammad Kashif3, Aneela Zameer Durrani4, Asghar Abbas5, Tanveer Ahmad6, Muhammad Nadeem7 , Kinza Khan8

...activity of their immune receptors e.g. TLR. CRISPR Cas system also help bacteria to attach with the host body and replicate with in host body. It can develop antibiotic resistance in pathogenic bacteria, enhance their pathogenicity and can survival in host body. 
 
Novelty Statement | CRISPR Cas system is an integral part of prokaryotic immune system that provides protection against viral infectio...
Shuang Yang1,2, Huiting Zhao3, Xuewen Zhang2, Kai Xu1, Lina Guo1, Yali Du1 and Yusuo Jiang1,*
...y proteins, 33 olfactory receptors, 14 ionotropic receptors and 2 sensory neuron membrane proteins. The expression patterns of these genes were determined using the estimated fragments per kilobase of transcript per million fragments mapped. Among the 114 DEGs, 66 were expressed exclusively in the female antennae, whereas the remaining were expressed predominantly in the male antennae. Additionally, five chemosensory-related...
Roheela Yasmeen1*, Nida Mobeen1 and Samia Chaudhry2
...E2) receptor. These ACE2 receptors are also found in heart and are reason for serious cardiovascular disease including myocardial injury. This virus can persuade cardiac damage, arrhythmias, severe coronary syndrome and venous thromboembolic complications. Patients of COVID-19 having already cardiovascular problems showed severe symptoms of this disease and have greater chance of death. This review article especially pays attention on cardiovascular symptoms o...
Muhammad Hamza Tariq1, Mahjabeen Akram2 and Yasir Sharif3*
...nverting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptors through the binding receptor of Spike Protein (S-protein). The present study aimed to investigate the phytochemicals as potential inhibitors of the binding domain of S protein so that the binding of COVID-19 with ACE2 receptors could be restrained. For this purpose, the library of 2113 phytochemicals was docked against the binding domain of the S-protein. Top ten compounds with maximum bind...

Zhang Dong-jie1, He Xin-miao1,2, Wang Wen-tao1,2 and Liu Di1,2*

...actor attachment protein receptors) interactions in the vesicular transport pathway were identified as under selection (P=0.0029). This study describes the genomic framework of the Min pig and identifies signatures of selection. These results provide a useful genomic background for further studies of the genetic mechanisms associated with important economic traits in the Min pig.

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Doaa Sh. Mohamed1, Nema S. Shaban2 , Mai M. Labib3, Olfat Shehata4 

...nal plant, Transmembrane receptors, Heart toxicity, Oxidative stress, Cytokines 

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Xiangli Dong1,2, Shilin Mikhail Borisovich2, Jiji Li1,*, Jianyu He1, Zeqin Fu1, Yingying Ye1, Julia N. Lukina3, Olga V. Apalikova4 and Jianshe Zhang1

Xuan Liang, Rongfang Zhang, Yan Xu, Hui Yang, Li Guo, Feiyang Na and Donghai Liu*

...e immunity and Toll-like receptors (TLRs) signaling pathways in adjuvant treatment of children with recurrent respiratory tract infections (RRTI). A total of 138 children with RRTI admitted to our hospital from May 2017 to May 2019 were selected as the study subjects and randomly divided into 3 groups with 46 cases in each group. The 3 groups were given conventional treatment. On this basis, control group A was given spleen aminopeptide adjuvant treatment, the...
Muhammad Javed Iqbal1, Farah Rauf Shakoori1*, Bushra Muneer2 and Abdul Rauf Shakoori3
...ar expression of hormone receptors by IHC and found 80% Luminal A, 12.5% Luminal B, 5% HER2 enriched and 2.5% Basal-like. Screening of mutations in PIK3CA, AKT1, MTOR and PTEN genes was carried out and analyzed by Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) using the Whole Exome Sequencing (WES) to explore possible mutations in PIK3CA, AKT1, MTOR and PTEN genes. The results revealed that there were 3 mutations namely Q546K, E545K and H1047R were present in the PIK3CA gen...

Mansour, Abeer E.M.; Khodeir, M.H. and Hussein, A.M.H.•

...s attachment to the cell receptors. On the other side, MSG enhanced cell 1 division due to its of amino acid content and accordingly increased the available cell number for virus replication. There will be a need to more research to investigate the effect of CaC12 and MSG on the immune response of vaccinated animals with FMD vaccine including such materials and their effect on the vaccine stability.

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Zhengfei Wang1*, Chenchen Shen1,2, Yiping Zhang1, Dan Tang1,3, Yaqi Luo1, Yaotong Zhai1, Yayun Guan1, Yue Wang1 and Xinyu Wang1

...ncluding nine ionotropic receptors, two ionotropic glutamate receptors, ten variant ionotropic glutamate receptors, four cytochrome P450s, and one carboxylesterase. Our study suggested that ionotropic receptors were the main odorant receptors in Procambarus clarkii. Additionally, the key genes that are responsible for ...

Doungnapa Promket1*, Khanitta Pengmeesri1, Jennarong Kammongkun2, Thassawan Somchan1 

....  

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Raza Ali Mangi1,2, Ali Raza Jahejo1,2, Afrasyab Khan1,2, Meng-li Qiao1,2, Muhammad Farhan Qadir1,2, Mazhar Hussain Mangi3,  Shi-xiong Yang1,2, Xin-yu Han1,2, Sheng Niu1,2, Ding Zhang1,2, Ying Wang1,2 and Wen-xia Tian1,2*
... and pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) play a significant role in the immune response. However, the function of HDR and PRRs in thiram induce TD chicken is not fully known yet. Therefore, this study was designed to evaluate the effect of recombinant glutathione-S-transferase A3 (rGSTA3) protein on HDR and PRRs in the thiram-induced TD chicken. One hundred twenty arbor acres (AA+) broiler chickens of seven-day-old were equally divided into six groups. Group ...

Xin-yu Han1,2, Afrasyab Khan1,2, Ali Raza Jahejo1,2, Qian-qing Cheng1,2, Meng-li Qiao1,2, Raza Ali Mangi1,2, Muhammad Farhan Qadir1,2, Ding Zhang1,2, Ying Wang1,2, Yu-hai Bi1,3, Rui-wen Fan1,2 and Wen-xia Tian1,2

...ign: justify;">Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are one of the important immunes signaling pathways that participate in the activation of host immune response after detecting microbial pattern molecules. Despite important expression profile TLRs genes in chicken erythrocytes, studies have been lacking. This study investigated the expression profile of TLRs pathway immune gene in chicken erythrocytes in response to Mycoplasma synoviae. The purpose of the current in-v...

Jinzhao Li1, Yawen Zhang2, Binghan Jia1, Yuqiong Zhao1, Huijuan Luo1, Xiaojie Ren1, Yuan Li3, Xiaoyan Bai1, Jing Ye3 and Junping Li1*

...-p38) and µ-opioid receptors (MORs) in the colonic samples. The gene sequencing approach was used to detect alternatively spliced tau isoforms in the distal colonic muscle layer. Sequencing analysis revealed that 3 isoforms of tau, namely 2N4R, 1N4R and 0N4R were expressed in the distal colonic myocardium tissue. OIC rats had small, dry and hard feces, and intestinal propulsion velocity was significantly slower, especially in the distal colon. P-Ser396-T...

Rabab Abd Alameer Naser1*, Sameer Ahmed Abid Al-Redah2, Enas S. Ahmed3, Fatimah S. Zghair2, Ali Ibrahim Ali Al-Ezzy4

...he presence of serotonin receptors in this layer. The density of glands in the lamina propria increased distally. Turkeys possessed tubular acinar glands, while ostriches had simpler tubular glands. The submucosa was less distinct in turkeys compared to ostriches, where it was well-developed. The muscularis layer also differed between the two species.
 
Keywords | Anatomy, Histology, Esophagus, Ostrich, Turkey
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Advances in Animal and Veterinary Sciences

August

Vol. 12, Iss. 8, pp. 1410-1621

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