Sehrish Kanwal1, Ali Saeed1*, Muhammad Munir2, Memoona Arshad1

 

Life Sciences International Journal Issue 7 Volume 1
...collected from suspected outbreaks in Southern Punjab. The virus was primarily detected with RT-PCR with P1/P2 and 1F/1R universal primer pairs directly from field samples including tissues, vesicle and secretion. The direct sequencing and subsequent analysis of amplified PCR products for VP1 gene indicated the circulation of serotype O of FMD in studied areas. Moreover, using serotype-specific primers (SA(F)/SA(R)) which target the VP1 gene, serotype O was co...

Sehrish Kanwal, Ali Saeed, Muhammad Munir, Memoona Arshad

 

British Journal of Virology
...collected from suspected outbreaks in Southern Punjab. The virus was primarily detected with RT-PCR with P1/P2 and 1F/1R universal primer pairs directly from field samples including tissues, vesicle and secretion. The direct sequencing and subsequent analysis of amplified PCR products for VP1 gene indicated the circulation of serotype O of FMD in studied areas. Moreover, using serotype-specific primers (SA(F)/SA(R)) which target the VP1 gene, serotype O was co...

Sehrish Kanwal1, Ali Saeed1*, Muhammad Munir2, Memoona Arshad1

British Journal of Virology
...collected from suspected outbreaks in Southern Punjab. The virus was primarily detected with RT-PCR with P1/P2 and 1F/1R universal primer pairs directly from field samples including tissues, vesicle and secretion. The direct sequencing and subsequent analysis of amplified PCR products for VP1 gene indicated the circulation of serotype O of FMD in studied areas. Moreover, using serotype-specific primers (SA(F)/SA(R)) which target the VP1 gene, serotype O was co...

El-Sayed M. Abdelwhab, Jutta Veits and Thomas C. Mettenleiter

Avian Influenza H5N1 in Egypt: What we Know and What we have to Know?
... has experienced endemic outbreaks of avian influenza viruses (AIV) of subtype H5N1 in poultry since 2008. Since then, these viruses continue to evolve. In 2006-2008, outbreaks were reported mostly during the winter season, but in 2009-2012 they occurred year round. H5N1 AIV succeeded in infecting not only domesticated birds but also many other avian species and mammals. Infections of humans were accompanied by mutations in ...

Simon Mwangi Kihu1*, George Chege Gitao1, Lily Caroline Bebora1, Njenga Munene John1, Gidraph Gachunga Wairire2, Ndichu Maingi1, Raphael Githaiga Wahome1, Davis Njuguna Karanja1, Julius Otieno Oyugi3, Ernest Lutomia3

...atic and devastating PPR outbreaks in Turkana County. In this context, an outbreak of PPRV was observed in Tukana County in 2011 and the current study detail the clinical, pathological and laboratory findings of this outbreak. The disease was clinically manifested by the depression, diarrhea, difficult breathing, muco-purulent ocular-nasal discharges with matted eyelids and encrusted nostr...

Gerald Misinzo1,*, Tebogo Kgotlele1, Epaphras A. Muse1, Jan Van Doorsselaere2, Mikael Berg3, and Muhammad Munir4

...PPRV strains that caused outbreak in Tandahimba district in 2011. A total of 17 (sheep=0, goats=17) out of 27 (sheep=3, goats=24) were positive for PPRV N gene. The nucleotide sequence and phylogenetic analysis clus- tered the PPRV from Tandahimba into lineages II and IV. The results give evidence of at least two separate introductions of PPRV into Southern Tanzania, underlining the transboundary nature of the disease, particularly in regions with uncontrolled...

Guoyi Li1, Haiyan Tong1, Jiansheng Chen2, Jinliang Wei2, Xiaoming Zhao2, Guoping Zhang2, Zixue Shi2*

E-mail | shizixue@gmail.com

...ustralia, where periodic outbreaks take thousands of lives. With rapid globalisation and climatic shift, JEV has started to emerge in previously unaffected areas. Scientific evidences show that JEV would remain a global pathogen and might cause worldwide pandemics. Currently, more research is required to be applied to JEV pathogenesis and antivirus therapy. This review aims to reveal the exigency of developing a worldwide effort to acknowledge the importance o...

Mohammed A. Rohaim1*, Rania F. El-Naggar2, Abdulrahman M. Gamal3, Elshaimaa Ismael3, Mohamed M. Hamoud4, Sherif T. Moubarak3, Ashraf M. Metwally1, Manal M. Zaki3, Shimaa A.E. Nasr3, Samah Elsaid3, Mohamed M. Ali3, Hussein A. Hussein1 and Osama K. Zahran3

Email: mohammedvet1986@gmail.com; mohammed_abdelmohsen@cu.edu.eg

...for its transmission and outbreaks. Many disinfectants have been evaluated for their inactivation ability, but there is still a need for their evaluation under different conditions and in different ways. In the present study, representative disinfectants from chlorine and non-chlorine oxidizing agents have been evaluated for their virucidal ability against two distinct Egyptian subclades of H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI); (A/...

Behzad Hussain1, 2, Abdullah Iqbal2, Muhammad Abubakar2*

...tiple sporadic cases and outbreaks have occurred in subsequent years and till today. CCHF outbreaks have a case fatality rate of up to 40%, which is alarming. It is a zoonotic disease and the virus is transmitted mainly to the humans through hard tick bite and direct contact with blood of the infected animal. The occurrence of CCHF outbreak in Pakistan is increased quite significantly near...

Ilham Ulla, G. Arjumand, Nawab Ali and Mohammad Akmal*

...at risk of the moon-soon outbreak duration in the season. Present study was aimed to quantify delay-sowing response with increasing N-rate on crop productivity at Agronomy Research Farm, University of Agriculture Peshawar Pakistan. Sunflower (cv. Hysun-33) was planted on different dates i.e. Jul. 1, 11 and 21 treated with different N-rates starting from 40 kg ha-1 with a 40 kg increment to the maximum of 160 (kg ha-1) including a control ...

Moustafa Kardjadj

...ponsible for most of the outbreaks. However, the rapid spread of SAT2 and other exotic FMDV lineages in Libya and Egypt demonstrated the need for a robust surveillance system to detect and respond effectively to exotic infections. Emergence and re-emergence of FMD virus genotypes/lineages has been detected necessitating frequent replacement of the vaccine strains. The present review summarizes the knowledge generated in epidemiology, di...

Vinayagamurthy Balamurugan*, Gurrappa Naidu Govindaraj and Habibur Rahman

... India as more number of outbreaks have occurred in the past and now occurring regularly, round the year and most frequently during the lean period throughout the country. In some Indian states viz. Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, and Chhattisgar h the PPR outbreaks in sheep and goats have declined after implementing the strategic mass vaccination programme. The decreased number of outbreaks in...

Muhammad Abubakar1*, Shumaila Manzoor2, Jonas Johansson Wensman3, Emeli Torsson3, Qurban Ali1 and Muhammad Munir4

...text-align: justify;">An outbreak of Peste des Petits ruminants (PPR), possibly caused by the introduction of new animals in the herd, was investigated in an unvaccinated mixed herd of sheep and goats. Goats in the herd showed characteristic signs of PPR including nasal and ocular discharges, high temperature, diarrhea and ulcerative lesions in the oral cavity. A total of eighteen goats from a herd of sixty, were affected and two goats succumbed ...

Adedeji A.J, Sati N.M, Pewan S.B, Ogbu K.I, Adole J.A, Lazarus D.D, Ijiwo S.J, Okpanachi A, Nwagbo I.O, Joannis, T.M and Abdu P.A

...urrent and natural field outbreak of CIA and IBD in a commercial poultry farm in Nigeria.

...

Aziz-ul-Rahman, Farooq Yousaf, Naveed Anwar and Muhammad Abubakar

...e occurrence of previous outbreaks of PPR virus due to persistency of virus in endemic regions.

...
Sameera Akhtar1*, Muhammad Akram Muneer1, Khushi Muhammad1, Muhammad Yasin Tipu1, Muhammad Anees2, Imran Rashid1, Raza-ur-Rehman3 and Irshad Hussain1
... strain isolated from an outbreak in a peacock flock was undertaken. Proteolytic cleavage site of F0 showed a cleavage motif (112RRQKR↓F117), representative of a velogenic serotype. Moreover, based on F and HN gene nucleotide sequence analysis, the isolate clustered as genotype VII closely associated to those reported from Indonesia. Further sequence analysis of hyper-variable region within F gene revealed its clustering t...

Pam D Luka, Frank N Mwiine, Bitrus Yakubu, Joseph Erume, Ricardo Pérez-Sánchez, Hermann Unger and David Shamaki

...ASF in Nigeria, periodic outbreaks have continued to occur among domestic pigs with a few incidences in wild pigs. However, to investigate the risk of a tick-domestic pig transmission cycle in Nigeria, 3,288 serum samples were collected from domestic pigs from 10 states and analysed for anti-tick antibodies using the recombinant TSGP1 indirect ELISA. Of the samples analysed, 13.4% (442/3,288) showed moderate to high reactivity, suggestive of domestic pigs&rsqu...
Jehangir Khan1,2*, Inamullah Khan3, Ijaz Ali2, Aqib Iqbal2 and Muhammad Salman4
... Pakistan causing severe outbreaks since 2005, the molecular epidemiology in mosquito (dengue vectors) is limited. Here, we investigated the vertical transmission of dengue virus (DENV) in the Aedes mosquitoes and its (DENV) transmission through other factors mainly tyres trade. DENV was detected in Aedes aegypti (57%) and Aedes albopictus (43%) adults (n=1050) and larvae (n=550). The samples were collected from four (Shuba Bazaar, Tarnab ...
Muhammad Shahid1, Iram Amin1,*, Samia Afzal1, Zareen Fatima1, Sadia Zahid1, Usman Ashraf1 and Muhammad Idrees2
... year. To address dengue outbreak 2013 in Pakistan we aimed to conduct a comprehensive study at molecular level to determine the main causative serotype of 2013 DENV outbreak in Pakistan. Overall 703 serologically positive suspected patients from different major health centers of Pakistan were registered in present study of which 214 were females and 489 were male. Overall weighted prevalence of PCR positivity was 38% (268)....

Muhammad Abid1*, Tahir Yaqub2, Arslan Mehboob3 and Muhammad Zubair Shabbir4

... endemic in Pakistan and outbreaks are continuously being reported with high morbidity, drop in egg production and reduced weight gain. Besides economic losses to the poultry industry, these viruses pose a significant threat to public health. Owing to significant involvements of neuraminidase (NA) gene in virus pathobiology by mediating virus entry and release, the present study was conducted to determine the phylogenetic relationship of currently prevailing H...

Ahmed Zein Elabdeen Mahmoud1, Muaz Magzob Abdellatif2* and Mohamed Abdelsalam Abdalla3

...out during the suspected outbreaks of PPR/FMD in sheep and goats in Hail. Saudi Arabia. During the outbreaks 271 (20.6%) died out of 648 (49.3%) of affected animals, the overall morbidity in goats (33.3%) was higher as compared to sheep (12.3%), with a case fatality rate in goats reached 74.69% in the 2nd outbreak. Affected animals exhibited fever, stomatitis, mucopurulent to bloody nasal/...
Hailong Dong1, Hui Zhang2, Kun Li2, Khalid Mehmood2,3, Mujeeb Ur Rehman2, Fazul Nabi2, Yajing Wang2, Zhenyu Chang1,2, Qingxia Wu1,* and Jiakui Li1,2,*

 

... diarrhea as a result of outbreak occurred in Qinghai Tibetan Plateau in 2015. A total of 81 E.coli were isolated from 83 fecal samples. The organisms were inoculated on MacConkey agar and EMB agar and identified via biochemical tests. Polymerase chain reaction was used to detect representative virulence factors or genes, including E.coli adherence factor (K88, CS31A, afaE-8), toxins (estA, estB, Stxl, Stx2, EAST1), pathogeni...
Amjad Khan1,*, Muhammad Hassan Mushtaq1, Mansur ud Din Ahmad1, Jawad Nazir1, Zahida Fatima2, Asghar Khan3 and Shahid Hussain Farooqi3
...ce, investigating the EI outbreak 2015-16, and describing the demographic and management risk factors associated with seroprevalence of EIV. Using ELISA kit and HI as serological methods for diagnosis, we found a 24.13% (168/696) overall seroprevalence, where the seroprevalence for H3N8 was 14.51% (101/696), for H7N7 6.03% (42/696), and 3.59% (25/696) as mixed infections, suggesting EIV current and active circulation in equine population of Pakistan. Statistic...
Muhammad Abubakar,1,2,* Aamer Bin Zahur,1,3 Khalid Naeem1,3, Muhammad Azeem Khan1,3 and Subhan Qureshi
...eighty-four (n = 84) PPR outbreaks were investigated during the study (2010 to 2013). The highest number of outbreaks was reported from Punjab province (n = 38) followed by Sindh (n = 21) and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KPK, n = 10). In 48 out of 84 outbreaks, disease occurred in goats only while 18 outbreaks affected sheep only and the remaining occurred in mix...

Muhammad Hidayat Rasool*, Abuzar Muhammad Afzal*, Abu Baker Siddique*, Waseem Akram**, Muhammad Saqalein*, Madiha Basit* and Muhammad Farooq Tahir***

ANTIVIRAL ACTIVITY OF VIRO CARE GZ-08 AGAINST NEWCASTLE DISEASE VIRUS IN POULTRY AND ITS IN-VITRO CYTOTOXICITY ASSAY
... necessary to prevent ND outbreaks. Natural resources have been exploited to obtain antiviral compounds in several latest studies. In this study, the antiviral activity of Viro Care GZ-08™ was checked up invitro, in-ovo and in-vivo. The cytotoxicity assay of the product was performed using Vero cell line. All the trials revealed that the stock solution and 1:2 dilution of GZ-08™ had some antiviral activity as well as were cytotoxic. As the concentr...
Musrrat Fatima, Muhammad Saad Khan, Hamid Rashid, Asim Mehmood, Sumaira Kanwal, Muhammad Asif Rasheed and Farrukh Jamil*
...terests after its recent outbreak in Brazil and America in 2015, where it affected millions of people. Studies have shown its role in developing microcephaly and GBS Syndrome. There is a need to develop drugs against ZIKV. Here we uses pharmacoinformatics techniques to identify potential inhibitors against ZIKV protease NS2B-NS3, which has a well-known role in the viral replication. By using three dimensional structure of the NS2B-NS3, an allosteric site has b...
Abdul Wajid1,*, Asma Basharat2, Muhammad Akbar Shahid3, Sidra Tul Muntaha1, Abdul Basit4, Tanveer Hussain5, Muhammad Farooq Tahir6, Muhammad Azhar7, Masroor Ellahi Babar1 and Shafqat Fatima Rehmani2
...gical studies of disease outbreak and the adaptation of vaccine strategies. In spite of appropriate administration of vaccination, FAdV outbreaks have been reported and caused significant losses in poultry flocks throughout Pakistan in recent years. To identify the serotype and gain a better understanding of the genetic properties of the FAdV strains responsible for recent outbreaks, the s...
Bo Wu1, Hui Zhang2, Kun Li2, Khalid Mehmood2,7, Yan Zhao1, Bin Jiang1, Chengjun Xue3, Muhammad Tariq Javed6, Fazul Nabi2, Zhaoqing Han5,* and Houqiang Luo4,*
...egions of China and many outbreaks are not reported. This study was undertaken to investigate the sero-prevalence and immunization program optimization of serotype O of FMD through ELISA and IHA in pigs in Zhejiang. A total of 368 serum samples were collected from June to July in 2016. Out of these samples, 23 (6.79%, 95% CI 4.4-9.9) pigs were found positive for FMD antibodies with the further distribution of 9.09% (95% CI 4.6–15.7), 6.90% (95% CI 2.6&nd...
Sana Rafique1, Hina Saqib1, Khushi Muhammad2, Nazia Akbar2, Abdul Rauf3, Muzafar Shah4,*

Ahmed Zein Elabdeen Mahmoud1, Muaz Magzob Abdellatif2* and Mohamed Abdelsalam Abdalla

...Hail, Saudi Arabia where outbreaks are regularly reported. This study was carried out to analyze nucleoprotein (N) gene of PPRV from fatal infections in small ruminants. For this purpose, RNA was extracted from suspected animal samples (n=18) and were screened by real time-PCR. Additionally, to assess the phylogenomics, the N gene was amplified and sequenced from sheep and goats (n=12). Nucleotide identity among Hail strains was identified to be 96.2-100%, whi...

Waqas Ali* and Mudasser Habib 

... causing majority of the outbreaks in the Pakistan during recent years. Moreover, only one residue of VP1 region was under positive selection pressure for serotype A (position 141) located in known critical antigenic region but as a whole protein was under negative selection pressure for serotype O, A and Asia 1. Therefore, under mass vaccination campaigns and drastic environmental conditions strains under negative selection has the ability to make escape muta...

Ahmed Samy1*, Hala Mohamed Nabil Tolba2, Gamelat Kotb Farag3 and Ahmed Abd El Halim1 

...reduce the risk of PPMV1 outbreaks. 

...
Temel Göktürk1,* and Göksel Tozlu2
... the globe. Recently, an outbreak has been reported in young Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) forest in Artvin - Borçka, Turkey. In order to propose effective control measures, this study was conducted to estimate the effectiveness of two biopesticides against D. pini ile N. sertifer larvae. Different doses of Pyrethrum and Bacillus thuringiensis biopesticides (Spruzit® Neu from 150ml to 600ml/100 l, and DiPel<...

Ragia S. Mohamed1, Rania F. El Naggar2, Mamdouh. M. Hamoud1, Mohamed M. Hamoud3, Abdulrhman M. Gamal1, Samah E. Laban1, Shimaa A.E. Nasr1, Manal M. Zaki1, ElShaimaa Ismael1, Osama K. Zahran1* 

...o the poultry flocks and outbreaks have occurred even in vaccinated flocks. Commercial Newcastle disease virus vaccines can provide various levels of protection against challenge with different NDV genotypes, raising the importance of the relationship between vaccines and field strains. The aim of the current work is to evaluate the effect of moisture percentage and pH on the persistence of velogenic NDV genotype VII in the poultry manure which considers a maj...

Muhammad Rehan1, Asim Aslam1, Muti-ur-Rehman Khan1, Muhammad Abid2, Shakeel Hussain3, Javeria Umber4, Ahsan Anjum1 and Altaf Hussain2* 

...s and continuously cause outbreaks in commercial poultry throughout the world. Despite intensive vaccination, ND is endemic in Pakistan and locally known as Ranikhet. Wild birds are considered natural reservoirs of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) and some common resident or migratory wild birds are associated with outbreaks of ND in commercial poultry in Pakistan. Continuous isolation of new genotypes in Pakistan shows the evo...

Hala Mohamed Nabil Tolba1, Naglaa Fathy Saeed Awad1*, Gamelat Kotb Farag Kotb2, Amany Adel3 

...-align: justify;">Severe outbreaks of Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) were reported in Egypt despite vaccination. Therefore, this study was conducted to characterize infectious bursal disease (IBD) viruses circulating in Egypt during the period of 2017 - 2018. Sixteen pooled bursal tissue samples were collected from IBD suspected (9 Egyptian balady and 7 broiler) chicken flocks located in different localities at Sharkia governorate, Egypt. These sa...

Ali Mahmoud Zanaty, Naglaa Mohammed Hagag, Neveen Rabie, Mahmoud Saied, Karim Selim, Saad A. Mousa, Azhar Gaber Shalaby, Abdel-Sattar Arafa and Mohamed Khalifa Hassan 

...015-2018. Out of 588 NDV outbreaks 95 flocks were confirmed positive NDV by rRT-PCR using genotyping primers, with a prevalence rate of 16.2%. NDV outbreaks were recorded in 16 governorates, from total of18 investigated governorates and the recorded geo-prevalence of 89 %. Twenty-five samples were selected for further sequencing for the partial fusion protein. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that 20 samples are genotyped as v...
Muhammad Shahid1, Iram Amin1, Samia Afzal1,*, Zareen Fatima1 and Muhammad Idrees2
...genomic status of dengue outbreak in Pakistan through ELISA and PCR. In this study 720 samples were collected from different diagnostic centre’s/laboratories of Pakistan for ELISA and PCR tests. Out of 703 dengue positive samples, 93.5% were anti-dengue IgM positive, 71.5% were anti-dengue IgG positive and 81.3% were anti-dengue NS1 positive. Among these seropositive samples, 39.66%, 40.15% and 36.88% were PCR positives, respectively. This immunological ...
Irfan Irshad1, Asim Aslam1,*, Muhammad Yasin Tipu1, Kamran Ashraf2, Beenish Zahid3 and Abdul Wajid4
...in Pakistan and repeated outbreaks are continuously being reported with high mortality in poultry and non-poultry avian species. In this study, five AAvV-1s have been pathotyped and genetically characterized from vaccinated birds collected between 2013-14. A phylogenetic analysis revealed that all the isolates belonged to sub-genotype VIIi with high similarity of 97.9 to 99.8% with similar viruses in this clade. Analysis of the hemagglutinin (HA) gene sequence...

Khaled Kaboudi* 

... Africa, where the first outbreaks were described since the end of 1990s, many features about epidemiology and genetic characteristics are still little known. This review summarized the epidemiological situation of H9N2 subtype in poultry in Algeria, Egypt, Libya, Morocco, Sudan and Tunisia. Human infection was reported in Egypt and serosurveys programs showed high positivity, particularly in poultry workers. Genetic analysis demonstrated that the most of H9N2...
Syed Maaz Nadeem1*, Muti ur Rehman Khan1, Asim Aslam1, Ali Ahmad Sheikh1, Arfan Ahmad1* and Muhammad Anees2
...genes of CAV strain from outbreaks in broiler flock (n=45) were undertaken in the Punjab Province of Pakistan. The phylogenetic analysis clustered study strains of CAV in group II similar to those reported previously from China. These findings are helpful for an understanding of currently circulating strains of CAV; however, they require further analysis to intervene in necessary strategies to avoid future outbreaks in comme...
Umm-i-Habiba1,*, Ayesha Maqbool2, Muhammad Safdar3, Nida Zia1Altaf Mehmood4, Muhammad Usman5, Mehwish Sharif6, Amanullah Khan7 and Sajid Umar8
...ndustry worldwide. Field outbreaks of IBD in 18 different poultry farms in the Chakwal district were confirmed by clinicopathologic examination and PCR. A total of 6 isolates of IBDV from these outbreaks were genetically characterized based on hyper-variable region of the VP2 gene. IBDV strains were grouped into two distinct clusters on the basis of nucleotide sequences of hyper-variable region of the VP2 gene. According to ...
Bhandari Jyoti1,2, Yasen Shali3, Zhang Zehua4, Yao Xiaoho5, Deng Jiang3, Zhang Yaling5, Wang Cuiling5, Li Yang5, Lei Xueping5, Wang Wenfeng5, Mohammad Farooque Hassan6 and Li Can1,*
...ry of this pest on their outbreak sites. The second objective was to analyze the spatial distribution pattern of L. m. tibetensis Chenon both meadow and farmland. The lowest and highest population densities in meadow were recorded in early May and mid June respectively whereas in farmland lowest was recorded in late June and highest was in early June. The average population density in meadow was 3.1 m-2 and in farmland was 4.52 m-2...
Abdul Kabir¹, Amjad Hussian Mirani¹, Jam Kashif1, Shumaila Manzoor2, Abdullah Iqbal3*, Ihsan Ullah Khan4 and Muhammad Abubakar2
...tections showed that the outbreaks were going in study population and confirmed positive for PPRV by IcELISA and RT-PCR (N-gene). The study revealed a comparison of PPRV occurrence in the different production system of small ruminants and on-going disease outbreaks in the target area.
...

Shilong Chen1,2, Shifeng Xiao1,2, Shao Wang1,2, Fengqiang Lin1,2, Xiaoxia Cheng1,2, Xiaoli Zhu1,2, Dandan Jiang1,2, Shaoying Chen1,2* and Fusong Yu3* 

...goose parvovirus causing outbreaks of short beak and dwarfism syndrome duckling in Chinese duck flocks. The aim of this review is to describe the current knowledge on SBDSV with an emphasis on epidemiology, clinical symptoms, laboratory diagnosis, genomic organization and pathogenesis. However, the pathogenesis mechanisms of cross-species transmission, retardation and beak atrophy are still needed to be elucidated. 

...
Samia Afzal*,Sadia Zahid, Iram Amin, Muhammad Shahid and Muhammad Idrees
...ean have faced the major outbreaks of Chikungunya virus because of its travel associated febrile nature. An inexplicable paralyzing disease has trapped thousands of people in Karachi region of Pakistan and the symptomatology among suspected cases was compatible with Chikungunya fever. Thus Chikungunya outbreak was reported in Pakistan but actually the recent reports about the occurrence of Chikungunya <...
Muhammad Saeed Imran1, Asim Aslam1*, Muhammad Yasin2, Tahir Yaqoob2 and Beenish Zahid3
...fectious Bronchitis (IB) outbreaks are not uncommon in endemic countries. Therefore, the current study was conducted to investigate the efficacy of commercially available vaccines against each virus alone as well as co-infections with NDV and IBV in commercial poultry. For assessment of vaccine efficacy, commercial chickens were vaccinated with La Sota (against NDV) and Massachusetts (against IBV) vaccine preparations. After screening the protective titers in ...
Murtala Muhammad, Ting Zhang, Siyu Gong, Jing Bai, Jiansong Ju, Baohua Zhao* and Dong Liu*
...ponsible for the disease outbreak that caused massive mortality of Chinese sturgeon (Acipenser sinensis) in 2016. We isolated the pathogenic bacteria (HNM-1) from the infected A. sinensis and identified its identity by conventional physiological, biochemical, and molecular techniques. Virulence and pathogenesis of the disease were determined by intraperitoneal injection of the etiological agent to the healthy A. sinensis. Physiological and...

Hafiz Muhammad Imran Javed* and Mushtaq Ahmed 

...iginating from the field outbreaks for phylogenetic analysis, nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequence analyses, and a comparison of three-dimensional protein structures. The N gene ORF was 1578 nucleotide long with a single open reading frame encoding 526 amino acids. Similarly, the ORF of F gene was 1641 nucleotide long which encoded 547 amino acids. Upon phylogenetic analysis of the country isolates with the vaccine strains, it was revealed that isolates ...

M. Hammouchi1*, G. Sebbar1, N. Touil2, C. Loutfi1, Y.S. Malik3, M. El-Harrak1 and O. Fassi-Fehri4 

...RV) has caused a serious outbreak of disease in small ruminants recently in 2008 in Morocco. The field data obtained during the outbreak indicated that there were marked differences in breed susceptibilities to PPRV infection. In the field exotic breeds of Alpine goats were observed to be highly susceptible to the disease, with mortality rates approaching 100%, contrary to local breeds which were less susceptible to the dise...

Parakriti Gupta1, Kapil Goyal2 and Mini Pritam Singh3*

Hepatitis E Virus and Zoonosis
...veloping nations and the outbreaks occur mainly in the post monsoon season when the drinking water gets contaminated with sewage. However, the mode of acquisition of infection is different in developed nations with good sanitary conditions where the infection is a zoonosis. Though the virus has only one serotype, 8 genotypes have been documented. Out of these, HEV 1 and 2 have been reported from developing countries and are transmitted mainly through faeco-ora...

Zeeshan Ahmad Bhutta1,2*, Muhammad Fakhar-e-Alam Kulyar3*, Muhammad Shoaib4, Wangyuan Yao3, Muhammad Asif5, Shah Nawaz6, Moazam Ali7 and Ayesha Kanwal8

Exploratory Study on the Psychological Impact of COVD-19 on Students
...severe novel coronavirus outbreak (COVID-19) on domestic students who were at high risk of exposure. A cross sectional study was conducted through a semi structured questionnaire. Recruitment of participants was done from different universities of Pakistan. The results showed that the students are more concerned about their family members (p=0.00). Under this influence they have increased the frequency of handwashing and use masks when they have to go outside....

Mohammad Enamul Hoque Kayesh1,2*, Mohammad Tufazzal Hussan3, Md. Abul Hashem2,4, Mohammad Eliyas5 and A.K.M. Mostafa Anower1

Lumpy Skin Disease Virus Infection: An Emerging Threat to Cattle Health in Bangladesh
... first occurrence of LSD outbreak in Bangladesh has been reported to the OIE (World Organization for Animal Health). LSD is a vector-borne disease, and climatic conditions of Bangladesh are favorable for the propagation of vectors, which should influence the rapid transmission of LSD in the cattle population of Bangladesh. Therefore, LSD may appear as a big challenge to cattle health in Bangladesh in the near future. Consequently, it is very important to take ...

Joseph Anejo-Okopi1*, Obinna Oragwa Arthur2, Ocheme Julius Okojokwu1, Sarah Joseph1, Geoffrey Chibueze1, Joshua Adetunji1, Joseph Ameh Okwori3, David Ochola Amanyi4, Otobo I. Ujah5 and Onyemocho Audu6

Seroprevalence of Rift Valley Fever Virus Infection among Slaughtered Ruminants in Jos, North-Central, Nigeria
...e the risk of unexpected outbreaks.

...

Md. Sahidur Rahman

Origin and Spillover of Coronaviruses: Prospects of One Health Action
...ent the next coronavirus outbreak in humans.

...

Christian Marco Hadi Nugroho1 and Jeanne Adiwinata Pawitan2,3,4*

Production of Antibody for Direct Fluorescence Antibody Assay against Avian Influenza H9N2
...us strain, and causes an outbreak in unimmunized humans or chickens. In reducing losses due to H9N2 infection, rapid diagnosis is an option to prevent further infections. Office International des Epizooties (OIE) suggested some methods for the detection of H9N2 infection including the immunofluorescence method that is commonly known as the direct fluorescent antibody (DFA) assay. This method is a combination of immunology and bio-imaging. This DFA assay is rap...
Muhammad Ramzan, Unsar Naeem-Ullah*, Mudssar Ali and Hasan Riaz
... of insect to avoid pest outbreak

Sidra Shehzadi, Sher Bahadar Khan*, Umar Sadique and Saqib Nawaz

Isolation and Molecular Identification of Clostridium perfringens Type D in Goats in District Peshawar
... Pakistan due to endemic outbreak in every spring season; therefore the current study was conducted for isolation  and molecular identification of new strains of C. perfringens Type D for effective diagnosis, treatment and vaccination. A total of 100 fecal samples  were collected aseptically from four different zones of district Peshawar during the period of February, 2019 to April, 2019. C. perfringens  Type D was confirmed through bacterial cu...

Muhammad Tariq Mahmood1*, Muhammad Akhtar2, Mushtaq Ahmad1, Muhammad Saleem2, Ali Aziz2, Irfan Rasool2, Zeshan Ali3 and Muhammad Amin2

An Update on Biology, Extent of Damage and Effective Management Strategies of Chickpea Pod Borer (Helicoverpa armigera)
...s). In case of pod borer outbreaks, chemical insecticides remain as last option for farmers. However, management of chickpea pod borer through use of resistant cultivars, adopting recommended cultural practices and biological control measures have been found more effective, economical, sustainable and eco-friendly.

...

Shishir Sharma* and Laxmi Prasad Joshi

Current Insights on Stemphylium Blight of Lentil with its Management Strategies
...al in avoiding severe SB outbreaks. A comprehensive review article discusses the morphological as well as molecular dimension of pathogens, their effects, pathogenicity, integrated disease management approaches, and future views.

...
Luka Anthony*, Olugbenga Omotayo Alabi, Elizabeth Samuel Ebukiba and Vandi Gamba
...oice which include: Fire outbreak, thieves, cattle herdsmen attack, flood occurrence, transportation problem, poor storage facility, inadequate capital, lack of land/ tractor, poor price, high cost of chemical, inadequate fertilizer, lack of improved seed, inadequate extension officers, and lack of credit facilities. This study recommends that new innovations and technology that targets increased productivity should be promoted, provision of adequate extension...
Muhammad Akram Muneer1, Khalid Munir1, Ghulam Abbas1’*, Isra Munir1Mumtaz Ahmad Khan1, Asif Iqbal1, Munsoor ud Din Ahmad1, Muhammad Arshad Javid2, Zareen Fatima1 and Maria Arshad1
Saad A. Moussa1, Mohammed Ahmed Mahmoud Abdullah2*, Mahmoud Saied1, Mustafa Saleh1, Mohamed A. Soliman2 and Ali Mahmoud Zanaty2
...ative agent of recent ND outbreaks in vaccinated broiler flocks in Menofia governorate, Egypt was found to belong to very virulent genotype VII. This strain was genetically identical to Egyptian genotype VII isolates isolated in the last period.
...

Hosts and Viruses

December

Vol. 7, Iss. 6, Pages 129-146

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