Shen Yang1, Guang-Zhi Tong1, 2*

...d causes high degrees of morbidity and mortality. The intracellular signalling cascades of the innate immune system triggered by HP-PRRSV often lead to the elimination of infection. However, HP-PRRSV induces pathological changes and can cause aberrant immune responses in the host, resulting in acute lung injury and immune dysfunction. Studies of the innate immune responses to HP-PRRSV infection are crucial to gaining insight into HP-PRRSV-induced pathogenesis ...

Gurrappa Naidu Govindaraj, Vinayagamurthy Balamurugan*, Habibur Rahman

...on the annual incidence, morbidity, mortality levels etc. derived from literature, discussion with experts, and based upon scientific facts. Different mathematical models were used to assess the losses due to mortality in young and adult sheep/goats, body weight loss in young and adult sheep/goats, milk loss, loss due to increased inter-lambing/kidding period, loss due to increased abortion, cost of high feeding and rearing inputs in young and adult sheep/goat...

Mohammad Mushfiqur Rahman1, Rokshana Parvin1, Ataur Rahman Bhuiyan1, Mohammad Giasuddin2, Shah Md. Ziqrul Haq Chowdhury3, Mohammad Rafiqul Islam1, Emdadul Haque Chowdhury1*

 

...c losses due to its high morbidity and mortality. The study was undertaken to detect and characterize the PPR virus (PPRV) circulating in Bangladesh. Twelve local isolates of Bangladeshi PPRV were successfully detected from post mortem samples (lymph node, spleen and trachea) of goats and a sheep during the year 2008-2012. The partial N gene of ten isolates and partial F gene of eight isolates were amplified by RT-PCR, and were sequenced. The phylogenetic anal...

Erum Bughio1, Ahmed Sultan Jatoi*1, Muzamil Memon2, Reema Bughio3, Pervez Ahmed Khoso4, Zafar Ali Khoso1 and Ali Asghar Baloch5

...ally infected chicks, No morbidity and mortality were observed. During present study, some milder infection with field strain of IBDV almost a week ago recorded were also found in the control group when challenged with IBDV, IBD vaccines in the presence of specific maternally antibodies of IBD could no induce antibodies titer 1500 with live vaccines were protective against the IBDV. Based on the findings of present study, it can be concluded that all vaccinate...
Irum, Akram Shah*, Sobia Wahid, Nazma Habib Khan and Qaisar Jamal
...rm disease causes severe morbidity and disability among effected populations. Pakistan was declared dracunculaisis-free in 1996. The present study is a follow-on to the declared eradication of dracunculiasis in Dera Ismail Khan district of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KP) Province, Pakistan through investigating disease recurrences and Cyclops species in drinking water sources. A cross-sectional household survey was carried out using in-person questionnaire eval...

Muhammad Abid1*, Tahir Yaqub2, Arslan Mehboob3 and Muhammad Zubair Shabbir4

...being reported with high morbidity, drop in egg production and reduced weight gain. Besides economic losses to the poultry industry, these viruses pose a significant threat to public health. Owing to significant involvements of neuraminidase (NA) gene in virus pathobiology by mediating virus entry and release, the present study was conducted to determine the phylogenetic relationship of currently prevailing H9N2 isolates in Pakistan. A sum of ten H9N2 AIVs wer...

Ahmed Zein Elabdeen Mahmoud1, Muaz Magzob Abdellatif2* and Mohamed Abdelsalam Abdalla3

...ted animals, the overall morbidity in goats (33.3%) was higher as compared to sheep (12.3%), with a case fatality rate in goats reached 74.69% in the 2nd outbreak. Affected animals exhibited fever, stomatitis, mucopurulent to bloody nasal/ocular discharges, watery to bloody diarrhea and lameness. The major gross lesions were erosive stomatitis, hemorrhages in lung, liver, abomasum, small and large intestine. PPRV NP was detected in sheep (n=20) and goats (n=18...
Shumaila Ashfaq1, Liaqat Ali2*, Muhammad Ashraf Zia2, Rizwan Ahmad Khan2 and Mehtash Butt3
...nd causes a considerable morbidity. PDPH depends on several factor and various methods have been used to reduce and treat the pain of PDPH. We evaluated effects of hydrocortisone on the treatment of PDPH in obstetrical patient.To compare mean decrease in Visual Analogue Scalepain score in patients who developed PDPH after elective caesarean section under spinal anaesthesia who were given conventional treatment versus conventional treatment plus hydrocortisone....
Muhammad Abubakar,1,2,* Aamer Bin Zahur,1,3 Khalid Naeem1,3, Muhammad Azeem Khan1,3 and Subhan Qureshi
...mparison with goats. The morbidity, mortality and case fatality rate were 26.79%, 10.83% and 40.41% in sheep in comparison with 34.90%, 16.34% and 46.82% in goats, respectively. Overall, disease affected all three age groups of sheep and goats but the younger animals were more severely affected with a morbidity rate of 37.19%. The mortality and case fatality rates were also higher in young which were 46.86% and 17.39%, respe...

Noreen Rasul1*, Madeeha Rashid2, Aqeela Abbas1 and Rubina Sohail

...tes in reducing neonatal morbidity and mortality. This is a case series design of 121preterm and low birth weight neonates, weighing less than 2500 gram, enrolled from 1 August 2016 till31 January 2017.Kangaroo Mother Care is initiated after birth, after performing early essential newborn care practices. Weight gain of 20-30 gram for three consecutive days, establishment of breast-feeding for 20-30 minutes every two hourly and maintenance of body temperature a...

Sadaf Ghulam Rasul1*, Uzma Yaqub2, Maida Manzoor1 and Hafsa Mubasshar

...al cause of long lasting morbidity, mostly from serious pelvic pain(1). Endometriotic tissue has the potential for aromatase gene expression that leads to aromatase and estrogen production. Danazol is a synthetic androgen whereas Letrozole is aromatase inhibitor. This study was conducted to compare the mean decrease in visual analogue scale (VAS) pain score with Danazol versus Letrozole for the pain management of endometriosis in females. A total of 140 female...

Nukhbat-Ullah Awan1*, Muhammad Sohail2, Zeeshan Sarwar3, Muhammad Mustahsen Bashir4, Muhammad Abbas Khokhar5 and Asad Aizaz Chatha

...spital stay with minimal morbidity

...

Ayesha Saeed*, Mobina Naqvi and Ahsan Javed 

...can help reduce neonatal morbidity and mortality. 

...

Abida Sajid* and Aqsam Sajid 

...oblem in order to reduce morbidity and mortality associated with it. 

...

Muhammad Hidayat Rasool*, Abuzar Muhammad Afzal*, Abu Baker Siddique*, Waseem Akram**, Muhammad Saqalein*, Madiha Basit* and Muhammad Farooq Tahir***

ANTIVIRAL ACTIVITY OF VIRO CARE GZ-08 AGAINST NEWCASTLE DISEASE VIRUS IN POULTRY AND ITS IN-VITRO CYTOTOXICITY ASSAY
...it significantly reduced morbidity and mortality as compared to the use of vaccines alone. However, further work is recommended in future on GZ-08™ for its use as post-treatment of ND as well as on other antiviral compounds of natural origin to develop a novel antiviral drug against NDV in poultry.

...
Grace C. Onyishi, Ifeanyi Oscar N. Aguzie, Christopher D. Nwani*, R.N.N. Obiezue and I.C. Okoye
...aria is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in sub-Saharan Africa. The present study explored the dynamics of malaria infection relative to Anopheles mosquito abundance, relative humidity and temperature in Nsukka, Nigeria. Hospital records from three hospitals in Nsukka town: Bishop Shanahan Hospital, University of Nigeria Medical Centre and Sadiq Hospital were examined for malaria prevalence and intensity from January to July 2015. Indoor biting ...
Grace Chinenye Onyishi, Ifeanyi Oscar Aguzie, Joseph O. Okoro, Christopher Didigwu Nwani*, Ngozi Ezenwaji, Ndubisi Stanley Oluah and Fabian C. Okafor
... cycles, associated host morbidity, and direct and indirect cost of such parasitism to human is important, first for human health and welfare, secondly for sustainable snail farming, and finally for maintenance of snail biodiversity.
...

G. Venkatesan* and Amit Kumar  

...nes. ORFV can cause high morbidity in adults along with considerable mortality in young suckling animals and showing an expanding host range even to marine species make this contagious virus, an important animal pathogen globally. Being zoonotic and endemic in most parts of the developing world, it is necessary to prevent and control the infection using latest molecular diagnostics and effective vaccine along with anti-viral therapeutics. This short commentary...
Junaid Akhtar1,2, Sidrah Saleem1, Naveed Shahzad3, Abdul Waheed1, Iqra Jameel1, Farhan Rasheed4 and Shah Jahan5,*
... a substantial amount of morbidity and mortality among hospitalized patients across the globe. Currently, β-lactam ring containing antibiotics predominantly carbapenems, are considered as last treatment option against multi-drug resistance GNR infections. However, the emergence of carbapenemases particularly metallo β-lactamases (MBLs) in bacteria have severely mitigated the efficiency of carbapenems. MBLs producing gram-negative bacteria have been r...

Riffat Mehboob1*, Sami Ullah Mumtaz2, Zoya Manzoor3, Sajid Abaidullah2, Fridoon Jawad Ahmad1

Deranged biochemical and hematological profile of septicemia patients in Mayo hospital, Lahore
... (45.56%) was the main comorbidity of septicemia. Most of the patients were between 51-70 years while septicemia occurred equally in both genders. Major predictors for diagnosis were WBCs, hemoglobin, AST, ALT, ALP, urea and creatinine. Other biomarkers gave no information regarding septicemia diagnosis. This demands the use of improved diagnostic biomarkers in developing countries.

...

 Attaur Rahman1, Sadeeq ur Rahman1,*, Ashfaq Ahmad2, Abdul Sajid1, Muhammad Asif Hussain1, Mian Muhammad Salman1, Niamat Ullah Khan1, Kamran Khan3, Fazli Rabbani1, Muhammad Akbar Shahid4, Irshad Ahmad5 and Shakoor Ahmad6

...culation. Interestingly, morbidity was observed 100%, while maximum mortality of 100% in broiler and 33% in ostriches was observed on day 7 and 6 post-inoculation, respectively. Interestingly, gross lesions were found similar comprising hydropericardium, hepatomegaly, hepatitis, nephritis and spleenomegaly. Altogether, albeit, FAdV-4 caused similar symptoms and lesions in ostriche, however, mortality remained comparatively lower.

...
Muhammad Shahid1, Iram Amin1, Samia Afzal1,*, Zareen Fatima1 and Muhammad Idrees2
...v>...
Ali Mujtab Shah1,2,3, Muhammad Naeem2, Muhammad Giasuddin Shah2, Muhammad Haaroon2, Quanhui Peng1 and Zhisheng Wang1,*
...5) among the groups. The morbidity rate of calves fed different levels of colostrum by ST, NF and NS, diarrhea was found 40, 80 and 60% calves affected among the groups respectively, whereas pneumonia problem was observed as 20, 40 and 60% calves were affected accordingly. It is concluded from the present study theconcentration of serum IgG following administration of colostrum by ST method increases at a rate to that in calves fed by NS and NB and reaches a l...
Muhammad Siddique1, Muhammad Shafique2,*,Abdul Mateen3, Naveed Shahzad4, Bilal Aslam2, Nasir Ahmad1 and Muhammad Usman Qamar2
...the significant cause of morbidity and mortality globally due to the lack of HCV vaccine. HCV genotypes are helpful for analyzing disease severity and start of therapy. Therefore, this study was designed to determine the genotyping of clinically isolated HCV from a Liver Center Faisalabad, Pakistan. A total of 3200 clinical samples were screened for the presence of anti-HCV antibodies by ICT method. Among positive samples, confirmation was carried out by RT-PC...

Anand Kushwaha, Amit Kumar, Aparna Madhavan, Durga Goswami, Golmei Poulinlu and Gnanavel Venkatesan* 

...ction losses due to high morbidity, high mortality rate and animal trade restrictions. Though several diagnostics including molecular tools are available, recombinant protein based diagnostic assays namely ELISA is safer and robust to handle large sample size and also to minimize labor/time. However, the genus Capripoxvirus encodes putative 147 proteins in their genome, among which some of them are reported as potential immunogenic candidate genes. Selection a...
Rida Younas1*, Tamseela Mumtaz1, Nabeela Roohi2 and Muhammad Amir Iqbal3
...D) is the major cause of morbidity and mortality around the world. Evaluation of expressed of proinflammatory cytokine and chemokine as biomarker was obtained in moderate, severe and very severe COPD patients and established their relationship with lung obstruction. Samples were collected between April and August 2017, total 35 COPD patients with lung obstruction (FEV1/FVC< 70) were enrolled as well as age and sex matched healthy subjects were also recruite...
Mumtazur Rahman1, Farhan Anwar Khan1,*,Umar Sadique1, Ijaz Ahmad1, Shakoor Ahmad1, Faisal Ahmad1,2, Hayatullah Khan1,3, Muhammad Saeed1, Faiz Ur Rehman1, Ibrar Hussain1, M. Faraz Khan1, M. Izhar ul Haque1 and Hanif-ur-Rehman1,3

...nt disease, causing high morbidity and mortality in goats. More recently Mccp Pakistan strain has been identified and isolated by our laboratory. Alarmingly, antimicrobials in animals are inappropriately using and resultantly leading to antimicrobial resistance (AMR) including mycoplasmas, which are causing serious infections in ruminants. Since the growth curve of our local strain and its susceptibility to commonly using antimicrobials is unknown. Therefore, ...
Muhammad Akram Muneer1, Khalid Munir1, Ghulam Abbas1’*, Isra Munir1Mumtaz Ahmad Khan1, Asif Iqbal1, Munsoor ud Din Ahmad1, Muhammad Arshad Javid2, Zareen Fatima1 and Maria Arshad1
...using exceptionally high morbidity and mortality. Amongst the South Asian countries India is worst hit by this deadly COVID-19. Pakistan’s neighboring Iran is also very badly infected and reported 57,057 deaths of 1,348,316 infected people. In Pakistan 52,411,930 confirm cases of COVID-19 and around 11,000 deaths are reported in various region of the country.
...

Muhammad Suhail Ibrahim1*, Asif Ahmad1, Anwaar Ahmed1, Amer Mumtaz2, Muhammad Javaid Asad3, Saqib Jabbar2, Ahmad Mujtaba1 and Muhammad Nadeem4

...neous agents are causing morbidity and mortality. Contamination of food by various agents includes physical, chemical, and microbiological. Food safety ensures that what we eat, chew, or drink is safe for human health. The whole food chain should be monitored right from production to consumption. The public health burden of developing countries is increasing beyond their resources. In developing countries like Pakistan, food safety issues result in serious hea...

Md. Mukthar Mia1 and Mahamudul Hasan2

...dst a high mortality and morbidity rate. CPV is distributed in the family Parvoviridae beneath the subfamily Parvovirinae that pertains to the genus Protoparvoviorus with a high genomic replacement unlike other DNA virus; the organism is primarily segmented into three forms acknowledged as (CPV-2a, CPV-2b, and CPV-2c), which resembles to be liable for the infection’s statewide spread. For transmission, the fecal-oral pathway is deemed the most obvious ro...
RehamM. El-Bakrey1, Shimaa M.G. Mansour2, Mohammed A. El Sisi1 AndAmal A.M. Eid1
...otection from mortality, morbidity and reduction in virus shedding from respiratory and/orintestinal tracts. Despite the H5 antibody responses in vaccinated chickens with program I (rFP-AI-H5" vaccine then Re-5) being significantly lower prior to challenge, it provided good protection (73.3%) against the lethal A/chicken/Egypt/SHAH-1403/2011 (H5N1) AIV challenge, with no evidence of virus shedding. Keeping in mind that each bird was potentially challenged...

Safaa M. Mohammed*, Shahira A. Abdelwahab**,Fetaih,H⃰ ⃰ ,Neveen,R⃰ ,Abdel satar ,A⃰ and Mohamed S. Elshahidy**

Manar F. Seioudy1, Magda M. Sayed1, Ahmed A. El-Sanousi2 and M. A. Shalaby2

...heep and goats with high morbidity and mortality rates. A live attenuated PPR vaccine has been produced in Veterinary Serum and Vaccines Research Institute (VSVRI), Abbasia. It has and still been utilized to control PPR disease in endemic areas of the Arabian Gulf. In this study, the identity of four batches of PPR vaccines was tested as per the Office International des Epizooties (OIE) guidelines and Couacy-Hymann et al., 2002 using RT-PCR technique that base...

Wesley D. Nafarnda, Japhet H. Baraya, Olatunde H. Olabode, Malang K. Simon

...ad significant effect on morbidity, mortality, hatchability, culling and
ultimately the flock productivity.
Conclusion: Corn-bran feed based vaccination demonstrated effective delivery and suitability of V4
thermostable ND vaccine use in scavenging village chickens in Adamawa State, Nigeria.
...
Karim M. Selim1, Abdullah A. Selim1, abdelsattar Arafa1, Hussein A. Hussein2, Ahmed A. El-Sanousi2
...s shedding and increased morbidity and mortality in contact birds.
Conclusion: The combined inactivated and live NDV vaccination programs have the
potency to prevent mortalities of virulent genotype VII challenge virus. The vaccination
program used genotype VII inactivated and live vaccines initiated a high level of antibody
titers that can limit the transmission and virus shedding to the contact birds. These res...

Muhammad Abdullah1, Sana Zahoor1*, Akhtar Ali2 and Masroor Ellahi Babar3

...oke asthma which lead to morbidity and mortality in the population. The objective of the study was to look into single nucleotide polymorphism in upstream region of -238TNF-α and -308 by ARMS PCR technique in asthmatic and control group. It was a prospective study constituting 17 clinical diagnosed asthmatic patients (Diseased) and 19 non-asthmatic patients (Control). The female was 6 (31.6%) and males were 13 (68.4%) in control group while females were ...

Saima Parveen1, Altaf Mahmood2*, Ayesha Azad3, Sajid Umar4, Nosheen Shoukat6, Mirza Muhammad Arsalan Azam5, Qurat-Ul-Ain5 and Nausheen Akhtar Malik1

...d highest (44.64%) crude morbidity during monsoon season followed by 23.92%, 22.12% and 17.49% for winter, spring and post-monsoon seasons respectively. The highest (14.90%) prevalence was recorded for new castle disease followed by infectious bursal disease (11.79%), pullorum disease (11.17%), colibacillosis (8.71%), infectious bronchitis (7.87%), inclusion body hepatitis (7.79%), chronic respiratory disease (7.67%), necrotic enteritis (6.48%), coccidiosis (6...

Tao Ren1, Guiqiu Cao2, Xiao Han3, Feng Tan1, Qiaoli Chen4, Shicheng Yang5 and Haiyan Zhang6*

...ributor to mortality and morbidity worldwide and causes a serious threat to human life and health. Naringenin, a flavonoid possesses the potent antioxidant potential and it is proposed to be useful in the treatment of CVD. In this experimental study, we aimed to scrutinize the cardio-protective effect of naringenin against the I/R induced myocardial injury and elucidate the possible mechanism of action. In vitro studies, the H9c2 cardiomyocytes cells were trea...

Ida Bagus Oka Winaya1*, Anak Agung Ayu Mirah Adi1, Putu Henrywaesa Sudipa2, I Gusti Ketut Suarjana2

...on is systemic with high morbidity and mortality, especially in young pigs. This disease causes significant economic losses to the swine industry worldwide. This study aims to determine the histopathological changes of meningoencephalitis and arthritis in post-weaning piglets suspected of streptococcosis. The samples were 35 cadaver of post weaning piglets that showed muscle spasm and swollen joint at several villages in Badung Regency, Indonesia. Samples of t...

Pakistan Journal of Zoology

August

Vol. 54, Iss. 4, Pages 1501-2001

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