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Distribution of Cyst Nematodes in Gilgit-Baltistan, Pakistan

PJN_39_1_65-67

Distribution of Cyst Nematodes in Gilgit-Baltistan, Pakistan

Sagir Hussain*, Qamar Abbas, Abdur Razzaq and Sher Wali Khan

Department of Biological Sciences, Karakuram International University, Gilgit, Pakistan.

Abstract | Cyst nematode, the Heterodera Schmidt (1871) is one of the most widely distributed and economically important plant parasitic nematode genus. During the present investigation of plant-parasitic nematode fauna from Gilgit-Baltistan, Pakistan, four cyst nematode species viz., Heterodera avenae Wollenweber, 1924; H. mani Mathews,1971; H. schachtii Schmidt, 1871 and H. zeae Koshy, Swarup and Sethi, 1971 were detected from all four districts.


Received | May 27, 2021; Accepted | June 24, 2021; Published | July 08, 2021

*Correspondence | Sagir Hussain, Department of Biological Sciences, Karakuram International University, Gilgit, Pakistan; Email: sagirhussain72nnrc@gmail.com

Citation | Hussain, S., Abbas, Q., Razzaq, A. and Khan, S.W., 2021. Distribution of cyst nematodes in Gilgit-Baltistan, Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Nematology, 39(1): 65-67.

DOI | https://dx.doi.org/10.17582/journal.pjn/2021.39.1.65.67

Keywords | Cyst, Nematode, Gilgit, Baltistan, Distribution



Introduction

Genus Heterodera Schmidt (1871) as a member of cyst forming nematodes is one of the most widely distributed and economically important plant parasitic nematode. During the present investigation of plant parasitic nematode fauna from Gilgit-Baltistan, Pakistan, four cyst nematode species viz., Heterodera avenae Wollenweber, 1924; H. mani Mathews, 1971; H. schachtii Schmidt, 1871 and H. zeae Koshy et al., 1971 were detected from all four districts of Gilgit-Baltistan.

For the extraction of cyst nematodes (Heterodera spp.) Cobb’s sieving and decanting technique (Cobb, 1918) was followed using different mesh sieve sizes. The deposit of 100 mesh sieve was used for the collection of cyst nematodes. Identification of cyst nematodes up to species level was made according to methods given by Hesling, 1978 using the general shape of the cyst, the structure, size of the vulva, vulval cone, fenestration and body wall. Golden (1978) method was used for the preparation of cyst vulval cone mounts. For the diagnosis of male and juveniles method of Wouts and Baldwin (1998) was followed.

The most frequently encountered species of cyst in the region was Heterodera zeae, which is the major pest of maize, also called maize or corn cyst nematode. It was encountered from all four districts of Gilgit-Baltistan. Frequency of distribution of H. zeae was comparatively high as compared to other cyst species. During survey it was observed that H. zeae was widely distributed on potato growing areas of all four districts than on maize.

Heterodera mani was the second Heterodera species found from two districts viz., district Hunza and district Nager. Heterodera schachtii was found associated with potato and chickpea from two districts Nager and Hunza. The least frequently distributed species of the genus Heterodera was Heterodera avenae. It was found from only one district Hunza (village Ganish) from pear and potato (Table 1).

Cluster analysis and similarity indices of genus Heterodera species form different districts of Gilgit­­-Baltistan

The dendogram of cluster analysis among the species

 

Table 1: New host records of cyst nematodes from different districts of Gilgit-Baltistan.

Cyst Nematode

Host

Location

District Ghizer

Heterodera zeae

Solanum tuberosum L.

Barkulti and Hundur

District Gilgit

Heterodera zeae

Solanum tuberosum L.

Bagrot, Danyor, Naltar Bala, Naltar Paine and Sultanabad

District Hunza

Heterodera zeae

Solanum tuberosum L.

Zea mays L.

Galmit, Hussainabad, Hussaini, Khanabad, Khyber and Passu

Heterodera mani

Solanum tuberosum L.

Cicer arientinum L.

Ghalapan, Kamarich,

and Khudabad

Heterodera avenae

Solanum tuberosum L.

Pyrus comminis L.

Ganish

Heterodera schachtii

Solanum tuberosum L.

Cicer arientinum L.

Khudabad

District Nager

Heterodera zeae

Solanum tuberosum L.

Zea mays L.

Askurdas, Chaprote,

Hopey, Jafarabad, Minapin, Shayar and Sumayar

Heterodera mani

Solanum tuberosum L.

Allium cepa L.

Hoper and Nager Khas

Heterodera schachtii

Solanum tuberosum L.

Hoper

 

of genus Heterodera of surveyed areas of Gilgit-Baltistan showed the two clades. In clade I Heterodera avenae and Heterodera zea are in same clade. In clade II Heterodera schachtii and Heterodera mani are in same clades have similar nematode population (Figure 1). Cluster analysis was made by using PAST 3 software. The similarity indices of identified species of genus Heterodera from different districts of Gilgit-Baltistan shown in Figure 2.

 

 

Novelty Statement

During the present investigation of plant-parasitic nematode fauna from Gilgit-Baltistan, Pakistan, four cyst nematode species viz., Heterodera avenae Wollenweber, 1924; H. mani Mathews,1971; H. schachtii Schmidt, 1871 and H. zeae Koshy, Swarup and Sethi, 1971 were detected from all four districts

Author’s Contribution

Sagir Hussain: Did Survey, Processing, Identification, Drawing and wrote manuscript.

Qamar Abbas: Wrote manuscript.

Abdul Razaq: reviewed the paper, contributed in data collection and compiling of data.

Sher Wali Khan: Identification of the host plants of the study area

Conflict of interest

The authors have declared no conflict of interest.

References

Cobb, N. A. 1918. Estimating the nema population of the soil, with special reference to the sugar-beet and root-gall nemas, Heterodera schachtii Schmidt and Heteodera radicicola (Greef) Muller, and with a description of Tylencholaimus aequalis n. sp. USDA, Agr. Tech. Circ. 1. 47 pp

Golden, A.M., 1978. Printed notes on methodology. Nematology Lab. PPI.USDA, Beltsville, Maryland, USA. pp. 2.

Hesling, J.J., 1978. Cyst nematodes: morphology and identification of Heterodera, Globodera and Punctodera. In: Plant Nematology. Southey. J.F. Reference Book, Ministry of Agriculture Fisheries and Food, London, pp. 125-155.

Koshy, P.K., Swarup, G. and Sethi, C.L., 1971. Distribution of Heterodera zeae n. sp. (Nematoda: Heteroderidae), a cyst forming nematode on Zea mays. Nematologica, 16: 511-516. https://doi.org/10.1163/187529270X00694

Mathews, H.J.P., 1971. Two new species of cyst nematode, Heterodera mani n. sp. and H. iri n. sp., from Northern Ireland. Nematologica, 17: 553-565. https://doi.org/10.1163/187529271X00279

Schmidt, A., 1871. Uber den Ruben-Nematoden (Heterodera schachtii A. S.). Z. Zucklnd. Zoolversein, 21: 1-19.

Wollenweber, H.W., 1924. ZurKenntnis der Kartoffel-Heterodera. Illuster. Landwirtsch. Ztg., 44: 100-101.

Wouts, W.M. and Baldwin, J.G., 1998. Taxonomy and identification. In: Sharma, S.B. (Ed.) The Cyst nematodes. Kluwer Academic Publishers, London, UK. pp. 83-122. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-015-9018-1_4

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Pakistan Journal of Zoology

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