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Murtaza Ali*, Yasser Durrani and Muhammad Ayub

... Gilgit Baltistan. After drying, mulberry fruit was stored for 150 days and evaluated for physiochemical and sensory parameters (water activity, ash content, percent acidity, pH, moisture content, reducing and non-reducing sugars, taste, texture, color and overall acceptability). Statistically minimum decrease was observed in water activity, pH, moisture content and organoleptic characters. While, stable increase was noted in percent acidity and ash content du...
Nadeem Rashid1,*, Masroor Ahmad Bajwa1, Mohammad Masood Tariq1, Tanvir Ahmad2, Majed Rafeeq1, Zafar Ahmad1, Mohammad Arif Awan1, Mohammad Ali1, Muhammad Zahid Mustafa1, Muhammad Shafee1, Asad Ulah1 and Amanullah Khan3
... were determined by oven drying and pH meter, respectively. Viable fungal count of the feed samples was estimated by using spread plate technique. Identification of fungal isolates was carried out on the basis of cultural and morphological characters by using slide culture technique. While mean moisture percentage was recorded as 5.3% with a significant difference (P<0.05), the pH was noted to be slightly acidic with non-significant difference (P>0.05) a...
Ozgur Altan*
...efore being subjected to drying and grinding in the flash dryer system, the FBP have been passed through the press and decanter, and it has been endeavored to separate the liquid part to the extent possible and to store them separately. At the end of the study, the fatty acids content in the liquid part, the nutrient content, amino acid and fatty acid profile in the solid part have been analyzed. According to the results obtained, it was observed that the soli...

Saeeda Raza, Muhammad Naeem Safdar, Amer Mumtaz, Nouman Siddiqui, Khalid Nasim and Muhammad Amjad*

...blanching of vegetables, drying, roasting, grinding and mixing of ingredients were used. Recipe “A” containing rice, mung, potato and poppy seed was organoleptically preferred. No significant change in moisture content, peroxide value and free fatty acid were observed during three months storage in double polyethylene bags at ambient temperature (20-25 ºC).

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 Sarfraz Ahmad, Shaista Koukab, Nayyar Razzaq, Muhammad Islam, Aneel Rose*, and Muhammad Aslam**

...chanized flower picking, drying/storage techniques and cultivation practices in the existing cropping patterns.

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 Munir Ahmad* and Asif Ali Mirani**

HEATED AIR DRYING OF GROUNDNUT
...fe moisture level by sun drying. Therefore, the chance for developing aflatoxins in it is high. To solve this problem of the groundnut growers, a low cost mobile flat-bed dryer designed and developed at Agricultural and Biological Engineering Institute (ABEI), National Agricultural Research Centre, Islamabad was evaluated for drying groundnut. The dryer had been found capable to dry about 1818 kg groundnut from 23.3% moistur...

 Munir Ahmad*, Asif Ali Mirani**, Hafiz Sultan Mahmood**, Tanveer Ahmad** and Muhammad Azhar Saeed**

PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF CROSS-FLOW RICE DRYERS
...ilability of postharvest drying and processing technologies. About 70% of the rice produced in the country is dried through sun heat. which is one of the major causes of reducing head rice recovery during the milling operation. Recently, cross-flow rice dryers have been adopted in the rice milling industry of the country. The heat source of these cross-flow dryers can be a gas or rice husk. This study focussed on the performance evaluation of cross-flow rice d...

 Anwar Hussain* and Muhammad Rahman**

ROLE OF TRAININGS ON FARMERS' PROFITABILITY OF MEDICINAL AND AROMATIC PLANTS IN MOUNTAINOUS AREAS OF DISTRICT SWAT, KHYBER PUKHTUNKHWA
...n, harvesting, cleaning, drying, packing and marketing of MAPs. The overall findings revealed that the training had positive impact on farmers' revenue. If standardized, the MAPs collected, they can get fair prices for their products. The study recommends that the government and non-governmental organization should arrange such type of trainings in other regions of the country which will not only increase the trade volume of the MAPs but would also improve the...
Yang Liu1,2,3, Baimei Liu1,2,3, Chenchen Li1,2,3 and Meiwen An1,2,3,*
...ricated by vacuum freeze drying. Keratinocytes and fibroblasts were seeding on scaffolds to form systems as: keratinocytes monoculture (KM), fibroblasts monoculture (FM), co-culture of keratinocytes and fibroblasts (KM&FM). Systems was treated with 3.4 kPa pressure for 1 day, systems without pressure was considered as control groups. The mRNA expression and protein secretion of supernatant were tested using Q-PCR and ELISA method, respectively. Co-cultur...

Asma Sohail1*, Aina Rafique2, Kashif Sarfraz Abbasi1 and Maryum Arif3 

...bial activity. Effect of drying methods (sun-, oven- and freeze drying) on antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of date fruit powders from three varieties Zahidi, Aseel and Muzafati were investigated. The DPPH activity was significantly higher in Muzafati sundried date powder, whereas maximum phenolic and flavonoid contents were significantly higher in Muzafati freeze dried date powders. Results suggest that freeze dried...

Faheem Ali1*, Muhammad Naeem Arbab1, Abdul Basit2, Muhammad Kashif Khan1, Gulzar Ahmad1 and Muhammad Amir

...ng, pumping, harvesting, drying, cooking, baking, woodworking, forging and smelting etc. This results in lagging Volt-Ampere-Reactive (VARs), which must be balanced by the same number of leading VARs in order to ensure unity power factor, thus avoiding penalties on agricultural industry. Switched Capacitors and Voltage Regulators are used to cope with such a situation. Regulators results in higher line currents thus resulting in excessive losses in addition to...

Waqar Akhtar1*, Munir Ahmad2, Nadeem Akmal1, Hassnain Shah1 and Asif Ali Mirani2 

...dence on traditional sun drying methods for processing of dates remained main source of low resource use efficiency of the system. Policy interventions needed to enhance the resource use efficiency in the production and processing of dates in study area through investment in research and development for processing and value addition technologies. 

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Rashid Iqbal1,2, Mathias Neumann Andersen1*, Muhammad Aown Sammar Raza2, Muhammad Adil Rashid1 and Salman Ahmad2 

...I) and partial root-zone drying (PRD) on physiological, water relations, water use efficiency (WUE), and yield related attributes of wheat. These irrigation treatments were started at anthesis stage and maintained for 30 days. For FI and DI, 100 and 50% of evapotranspiration (ET) was replaced by irrigating the entire pot surface every 4-5 days. For PRD, root system was split into two equal halves and during each irrigation event, only one-half of the root syst...
Muhammad Mansoor1, Khalid Usman2*, Shahid Hameed Khan Khalil3, Abdul Mateen Khattak4, Muhammad Ehsan Elahi1, Muhammad Waqas Imam Malik2 and Amir Hamza2
...switched to solar tunnel drying but couldn’t get the required results. The protocols of using solar tunnels needed fine-tuning of temperature and relative air humidity, which affect fruit quality. During dates’ drying process high temperature and low humidity is required. This research was conducted at Arid Zone Research Center, D.I. Khan, Pakistan for quick and safe ripening of date fruits under controlled condi...

Arjumand Nizami1, Muhammad Zulfiqar2*, Jawad Ali1, Naushad Khan2 and Imran Sheikh

Shabana Rafique1, Shahnaz Parveen Khattak1, Tanveer Hussain2, Faiza Tauqeer1, Bashir Ahmad3 

EVALUATION OF FLEXURAL RIGIDITY AND ABRASION RESISTANCE OF POST AND META-FINISHED PIGMENT DYED P/C FABRICS
...y for dyeing, finishing, drying and curing. Furthermore, elimination
of post wash treatment in this method caused little or no contamination. Despite its manifold advantages, the rubbing
fastness and fabric stiffness of pigment dyed fabrics in deeper shades is doubtful, hence needed further exploration.
The effect of various parameters i.e. finish type and concentration were taken in to consideration along different modes
of applica...

Muhammad Farooq1*, Elham Azadfar2, Zohre Bahrami3, Mahniya Sharifi3, A. Shakoor4, Shabir Ahmed5, Iftikhar Ahmed Solangi1, Muhammad Noman Khan6, Memona Siddique7, Naila Ilyas8*, Muhammad Bakhtiar9, Mohamed El-Fatieh Ismael1 and Wang Yunyang1

Optimization of Drying Process of Rambutan by Combined Method of Osmosis Ultrasound and Complementary Drying of Hot Air
...smosis-ultrasound before drying with hot air causes the preservation of nutrients in products and reduces heat energy to remove the produc water. In this study, after osmosis pretreatment, samples were put under an osmosis dehydration process. First, using Osmosis-ultrasound with 40.5% concentration in Sekanjabin solution then dried in an oven at a temperature of 70°C. The characteristics of solid gain, water and weight loss, shrinkage and rehydration were...
Muhammad Farooq1*, M. Javed Iqbal2, Rizwan Shukat2, Qayyum Shehzad3, Shabir Ahmed4, Elham Azadfar5, Abdul Saboor6, Ibrar Ahmad7, Iftikhar Ahmed Solangi1, Kaleem Kakar8, Shoaib Khan9 and Wang Yunyang1
Development of Onion Powder by using Egg Albumin as a Foaming Agent by Foam-Mat Drying Process
...was prepared by foam mat drying technique in which onion paste was treated with different concentration of egg albumin (0%, 4%, 8% and 12%) as foaming agent and Carboxyl methylcellulose (0.5%) as foam stabilizer and these were dried in hot air tray drier at different temperatures (55°C, 65°C and 75°C) with 3mm sheet thickness of onion foams. Effect of different concentration of foaming agent and drying temperatur...
Shakeel Ahmed Soomro1,2, Sikandar Almani3, Lal Bux4, Khalil Ahmed Ibupoto2, Muhammad Sohail Memon2, Farman Ali Chandio2, Shakeel Hussain Chattha2, Zaheer Ahmed Khan2, Zubair Ahmed Soomro5,Babar Mustafa Ansari6 and Kunjie Chen1*
... to assess the effect of drying on physical properties of Nanjing 9108 paddy variety using response surface methodology. A mathematical model was used predicting the effects of indicators i.e. temperature (40.86, 45, 55, 65 and 69.14 ºC) and time (4.11, 30, 92.5, 155 and 180 min) each with five levels on observed parameters. The suitability of quadratic model for present study was described by the responses having acceptable R2 and Adj. R2...
Asma Chaudhary1, Qurat-ul-Ain Ahmad1, Afia Muhammad Akram1, Sadia Roshan2 and Javed Iqbal Qazi3*
...in formulated fish feed, drying and storing in refrigerator. Mortalitiesof Labeo rohita fingerlings challenged to P. fluorescens intraperitoneally appeared in a dose dependent manner with symptoms like hemorrhage, swelling of the belly and anus, scale damage etc. The pathogen challenged fish were administered with Sphingomonas sp.AsCh-P3 (group-G1) and B. aerius AsCh-A7 (group-G2) treated feed in different experimental set ups. High...
Suwati Suwati1, ErniRomansyah1,*, Syarifudin Syarifudin1, Yahya Jani2, Agus Heri Purnomo3
Damat Damat4 and Erkata Yandri5,6
...and beta-carotene. Right drying methods are needed to preserve the quality of dried seaweed. This study aims to compare the trend of weight reduction in seaweed during drying by natural and cabinet methods. The methods were used experimentally in the field and laboratory. And the data were analyzed using simple linear regression to formulate a trend of reduction in the weight of seaweed while drying<...

M. Javed Iqbal1, Rizwan Shukat1, Muhammad Farooq2*, Iftikhar Ahmed Solangi2, Naila Ilyas3, Rahman Ullah4, A. Shakoor5, Muhammad Bakhtiar6 and Faraz Ahmed7 

...was prepared by foam mat drying technique in which onion paste was treated with different concentration of soy protein (0%, 4%, 8% and 12%) as foaming agent and Carboxyl methylcellulose (0.5%) as foam stabilizer and these were dried in hot air tray drier at different temperatures (55°C, 65°C and 75°C) with 3mm sheet thickness of onion foams. Effect of different concentration of foaming agent and drying temperatur...
Suherman Suherman1*, AndhiniPutri Trianita1, Hadiyanto Hadiyanto1 and Wea Aanisah Mentari Putri2
...ine the effect of freeze-drying time (t) and pressure (P) on mass balance and characteristics of dried mango slices produced through treatments based on time 13 h and 17 h and pressure 25 Pa, 30 Pa, and 35 Pa, with temperature constant -50 oC. Freeze-dried mango was calculated for mass balance and analyzed for water content, color, and hedonic test. The mass balance yield was around 82.47 % of the product wasted during the d...

Riaz Shah1*, Shaikha Hilal Al Ismaili2, Sheikha S. Al-Siaby1, Amal Mohammed Al Nasiri2, Thuraiya Hafidh Al Maskari2, Jamal AlSabahi3 and Huda Al-Ruqaishi3

..., growing conditions and drying methods of basil may change its essential oil quantity and composition. The aim of this study was to determine the chemical composition of essential oils extracted from commercially available fresh and dried organic or conventionally grown basil available in Oman. The essential oils from Omani and Indian fresh conventionally grown basil, fresh organic Belgian basil, dried organic Egyptian basil and dried conventionally grown UAE...
Roy Hendroko Setyobudi1, Erkata Yandri2, Yogo Adi Nugroho3, Mardiana Sri Susanti4
Satriyo Krido Wahono5, Wahyu Widodo1, Lili Zalizar1, Elfi Anis Saati1, Maftuchah Maftuchah1
Manar Fayiz Mousa Atoum6, Muhannad Illayan Massadeh6, Dwi Yono3, Rangga Kala Mahaswa7
Herry Susanto2, Damat Damat1*, Dyah Roeswitawati1, Praptiningsih Gamawati Adinurani8 and 
Susi Mindarti1
...ably degraded due to the drying process at the temperature of 80 °C for 15 h.
...

Farzana Begum* and Gohar Ayub

...ra, after harvesting and drying were packed in polythene bags and stored for 0, 3 and 6 months at room temperature. The seed quality attributes were evaluated at the specified storage duration. It is evident from the results that sowing dates, harvesting stages, storage duration and their interaction significantly affected seed yield and quality parameters of okra. The average of two years results showed that maximum pod length (15.23 cm), number of seeds pod-...

Muhammad Mansoor1, Shahid Hameed Khan Khalil2*, Zafar Islam2, Muhammad Asif2, Ghani Akbar2, Muhammad Ashraf Khan3 and Ibadullah Jan4

..., hindering ripening and drying processes at the end. Growers are adapting some alternate options of making ‘Chuhara’ (dried dates) at Khalal stage instead of processed Rutab dates. Experiments were conducted to find out comparative yield potentials of ‘Chuhara’ as well as processed dates produced from the fruits collected from trees protected from rain-fall. The results show that BCR for fresh dates was 2.85, while, it was 1.06 for dry...

Hassan Raza1, Muhammad Zeeshan Majeed1*, Muhammad Irfan Majeed2, Mujeeb-Ur-Rehman1 and Muhammad Asam Riaz1

... episodes of wetting and drying and were able to attract more than 50% termite individuals exposed. This formulation suppressed the termites in field as no termite foraging was recorded inside the bait-treated monitoring stations for about a month post-treatment, while the termites fed on all beads in the control monitoring stations. Overall study findings validate the effectiveness of fipronil and formulated beads for their potential incorporation in the mana...

Ishtiaq Ahmad1*, Muhammad Nafees1, Maryam2, Irfan Ashraf3, Ambreen Maqsood4 and Muhammad Saqib5 

... evaluation of different drying methods to improve shelf-life of dry mulberry fruits for their sustainable availability in the market for human consumption. For this purpose, common drying methods viz., sun drying, shade drying and oven drying were applied on freshly harvested black and white mulberry fruits to evaluat...
 
 SYED ALI RAZA1, MUHAMMAD WASEEM MUMTAZ2*, AYOUB RASHID CH1, ABDUL WAHEED1, JAMES WILLIAM3 & MUHAMMAD ARSHAD
... lancifolius. Freeze drying assisted ultra-sonication was adopted for extract preparation. The results showed that highest total antioxidant power of 291 ± 0.50 mg ASE/g DE was exhibited by 60% ethanolic extract which was slightly lower than antioxidant power of BHA (309.16 ± 3.90 mg ASE/g DE). The β-carotene bleaching inhibition of 87.44 ± 1.20% was computed for 60% ethanolic leaf extract being statistically non-significant from ...

Riko Noviadi, Dwi Desmiyeni Putri, Gusma Gama Maradon*, Agung Adi Candra, Nani Irwani, Gadis Apriani, Made Guntur Candra Adinata, I Made Krisnanda

...roiler rations. The oven-drying (P2) can improve the water quality, roasting (P3) can increase metabolic energy, and hot water scalding (P4) can reduce production costs and has economic value by analysis results price BEP of Rp. 25,645.35, Product BEP of 21.38 kg, IOFC of Rp. 734,032.90, R/C value of 1.44, and B/C value of 0.44.
 
Keywords | Economic, Maggot, Metabolic, Processing, Productivity
...

Behari Lal Meghwar1*, Attaullah Khan1, Imran Ali Lakhiar1, Asif Ali Mirani2, Muhammad Siddique Daper1 and Muhammad Waseem Kalroo

...ind an alternative chili drying method for the study area. To achieve the desired goal, we considered two different drying methods, solar tunnel (T1) and solar cum gas (T2), and compared the rate of reducing the moisture over time with T3 method. The T1 and T2 methods are substitutes for the T3 drying method. Therefore, a small-scale natural convection solar tunnel dryer and solar cum gas-...

Isatay Tusupovich Jakupov, Gulzhan Tursunovna Yeszhanova, Gulnur Kurbanalievna Mamytbekova* 

...ocladum were obtained by drying, grinding, extracting extract from roots, stems in the Soxlet extractor. The pharmacological and therapeutic efficacy of the ethanol extract of C. leucocladum has been studied. A toxicity test was carried out on white mice using 10%, 20%, 40% concentration of C. leucocladum, no death of mice was recorded within 30 days. When studying the irritating and allergic effects of C. leucocladum on rabbits, it was found that no irritatin...

Nadia Jabeen1, Abdul Mubeen Lodhi1*, Rehana Naz Syed1, Muhammad Ali Khanzada2 and Alia Gul3

...reserved by sun and oven drying methods. The area of District Mansehra is enriched with natural vegetation and can be explored for new species.

...

UMER YOUNAS, SHAHID IQBAL* & JAMSHED AKBAR

...rk, effects of different drying procedures as well as of different solvents on extraction of antioxidants from M. nigra leaves have been studied. Initially, samples were dried using different drying procedures (shade, oven and microwave drying) and extracted using different solvents (ethyl acetate, acetone and methanol) in combination with microwave-assisted extraction technique. Antioxida...

MUHAMMAD NADEEM1, MUHAMMAD WASEEM MUMTAZ1&MUHAMMAD DANISH1

... of Vitexnegundo. Freeze drying assisted ultrasonicated extraction revealed highest level of total phenolic contents (258.29±2.52 mgGAE/g DE) and total flavonoid content (155.91±1.75 mgRE/g DE) in 60% hydro-ethanolic V. negundo leaf extract. Furthermore, total antioxidant power (254.35±1.56 mg AAE/g DE) and antidiabetic effectbased on α-amylase inhibitory assay (IC50=42.91±1.24 μg/mL) was also depicted to be highest in the ...

Deni Novia*, Indri Juliyarsi, Rizki Dwi Setiawan, Clara Mustika, Cindi Melani

...deg;C for five different drying times (2, 3, 4, 5, and 6 h). The parameters evaluated were antioxidant activity, energy value, moisture, protein, fat, ash content, solubility, color (L*, a*, b*), and sensory evaluation of hedonic preferences and qualities. The results revealed that different drying times showed significant differences (P<0.05) in antioxidant activity, energy value, protein, fat, ash, moisture content, col...

Iqra Munir*, Farrah Iftikhar, Hira Fatima, Sunbal Khalil Chaudhari and Roha Ramash

...mens underwent pressing, drying, and mounting onto herbarium sheets. The identification process was conducted for all gathered samples. In this research study, documentation was carried out for 50 plant species distributed across 27 families. These species arranged with scientific names, common names, family names, plant part used and ethnopharmacological applications. There were 20- herbs, 13- shrubs and 18 tree species documented on the basis of their import...
Masood Ur Rahman,Muhammad Hanif,Muhammad Amin,Salim Shah,Subhan Uddin,SAJJAD ALI,Rafi Ud Din,Anwar Ali Shad

Pakistan Journal of Weed Science Research

September

Vol. 24, Iss. 3, Pages 187-201

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