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Effect of Different Sowing Dates and Cultivars on Growth and Productivity of Mungbean Crop

JIS_7_1_190-198

Research Article

Effect of Different Sowing Dates and Cultivars on Growth and Productivity of Mungbean Crop

Maqsood Ahmad1, Muhammad Umer Chattha1, Imran Khan1, Muhammad Bilal Chattha2*, Faqir Hussain Anjum3, Sadia Afzal4, Muhammad Faran1, Fiaz Hussain3, Muhammad Talha Aslam1, Abdul Jabbar5, Muhammad Sultan Ali Bazmi5, Mahnoor Mehmood6 and Muhammad Umair Hassan1

1Department of Agronomy, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, 38040, Pakistan; 2Institute of Agricultural Sciences, University of the Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan; 3Directorate of Agronomy, Ayub Agricultural Research Institute, Faisalabad, Pakistan; 4Department of Chemistry, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, 38040, Pakistan; 5Fodder Research Institute Sargodha, Pakistan; 6Department of Botany, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan.

Abstract | Sowing time is an important agronomic factor that significantly affects plant growth, development and final production. Similarly, suitable cultivar also plays an appreciable role in final productivity. Therefore, the present study was conducted to determine the effect of variable sowing dates and cultivars on the growth and productivity of mungbean. The study was conducted in RCBD with a split arrangement having three replications at Agronomic Research Area, University of Agriculture Faisalabad. The experiment consisted of different sowing dates (SD); 25th April, 5th May and 15th May and variable mungbean cultivars Azri Mung-2006, NM-2011 and NM-2006. The maximum plant height (52.67 cm), pod length (11.39 cm), pods/plant (22.11), seed yield (1300.22 kg ha-1) and biological yield (4439.56 kg ha-1) was recorded in crop sown on 25th April and minimum plant height (43.67 cm), pod length (9.92 cm), pods/plant (18.33), seed yield (1975.22 kg ha-1) and biological yield (3761.67 kg ha-1) was recorded in crop sown on 15th May. In the case of cultivars, NM-2006 performed remarkably well and had maximum plant height (50.56 cm), pod length (11.59 cm), pods/plant (21.56), seed yield (1279.67 kg ha-1), biological yield (4373.11 kg ha-1) and Azri-Mung 2006 had minimum plant height (44.78 cm), pod length (9.60 cm), pods/plant (19.22), seed yield (1029.22 kg ha-1) and biological yield (3794.22 kg ha-1). In conclusion, mungbean should be sown on 25th April to get the maximum production in rice-wheat cropping system (RWCS). Additionally, cultivar NM-2006 can be grown in RWCS to get maximum production.


Received | April 25, 2021; Accepted | May 18, 2021; Published | June 26, 2021

*Correspondence | Muhammad Bilal Chattha, Institute of Agricultural Sciences, University of the Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan; Email: bilal1409@yahoo.com

Citation | Ahmad, M., M.U. Chattha, I. Khan, M.B. Chattha, F.H. Anjum, S. Afzal, M. Faran, F. Hussain, M.T. Aslam, A. Jabbar, M.S.A. Bazmi, M. Mehmood and M.U. Hassan. 2021. Effect of different sowing dates and cultivars on growth and productivity of mungbean crop. Journal of Innovative Sciences, 7(1): 190-198.

DOI | https://dx.doi.org/10.17582/journal.jis/2021/7.1.190.198

Keywords | Cultivars, Mungbean, Rice wheat cropping system, Seed yield, Sowing times



1. Introduction

Legume grains provide food for humans and feed for livestock, along with providing these benefits legume crops also improve soil fertility (Baddeley et al., 2013). Mungbean (Vigna radiate) being a leguminous crop can replenish soil fertility and avert land degradation and improves crop production and livestock rearing while sustaining the ecosystem (Chattha et al., 2017a). Cultivation of such dual-purpose leguminous crops enhances the overall productivity of the agricultural system and conserves the natural resources and helps for gaining more output from the agricultural system (Kassie, 2011).

The rice-wheat cropping system (RWCS) is a vital system globally especially in South Asia where it provides the most of the grains for consumption to meet the daily dietary needs (Timsina and Connor, 2001). As for the growing population, this system suits best producing cereals in a year to fulfill the demands of the mushrooming population. As the sustainability of this system depends upon the efficient usage of the nutrients, thus it is demanded to develop and implement soil managing techniques that would enhance the soil organic matter along with increasing the activity of the microbes and retain the productivity of the soils in a sustainable way (Ali et al., 2012). The inclusion of legumes as green manure crops in prevailing RWCS can enhance soil fertility in a sustainable manner (Ali et al., 2012).

Among different reasons for the lower production of pulses in Pakistan, seeding time and plant population have special importance. In the changing scenario of different abiotic and biotic stress, the managerial practices must be optimized for ensuring the better crop production (Hassan et al., 2020a, b). Agro-ecological conditions play a vital role in the determination of planting time. Similarly, optimum sowing time in mungbean may vary from variety to variety (Sarkar et al., 2004). Planting time is of paramount importance and it has a significant effect on growth, development and yield (Asghar et al., 2006; Aslam et al., 2015; Hassan et al., 2020c; Mohsin et al., 2021). The planting time significantly varies among cultivars, therefore proper planting times should be adopted in order to get higher productivity (Aslam et al., 2000).

The early sowing enhances final yield and biomass production owing to an increase in grain weight and other production traits (Barros et al., 2004; Hassan et al., 2020). The decrease in the growth cycle due to late sowing reduced the interception of radiations that decreases the accumulation of total dry matter and consequently leads to poor yield (Vega and Hall, 2002). Selection of the cultivar and appropriate sowing date is very essential to attain yield (Jan et al., 2002). Various varieties of mungbean respond differently to sowing dates and growing season. Thus, for different varieties of mungbean there should be varied optimum sowing dates (Reddy, 2009). After identifying high yielding cultivars, sowing at optimum dates can result in higher yields (Ali and Gupta, 2012). The variable authors reported the significant differences in the seed yield of mungbean with variable planting times. The sowing of the crop from 15th April to 15th May produced the maximum yield compared to crop sown before 15th April and after 15th May (Yan-sheng et al., 2010). The late sowing after 15th May results in less dry matter production, smaller pods with lower seeds, and poor yield as compared to sowing before 15th May (Yoldas and Esiyok, 2007). We hypothesized that variable sowing dates and cultivars can have differential responses in terms of growth and seed production. Therefore, the study was conducted to determine the impact of cultivars and sowing times on the growth and productivity of mungbean crop grown in RWCS.

2. Materials and Methods

2.1 Experimental site

The current study was executed at Agronomic Research Area, University of Agriculture Faisalabad in 2018 to determine the potential of mungbean as a catch crop in RWCS. The experimental site has hot and humid semi-arid conditions (Chattha et al., 2019; Zamir et al., 2020) further prevailed weather conditions during the crop period are given below in Table 1. The composite samples were collected with the help of a soil auger from a depth of 0-30 cm. The soil was tested according to the procedure of Homer and Pratt (1961). The soil was sandy loam with pH 7.84, organic matter 0.84%, available nitrogen 0.041%, available phosphorus 6.63 mg kg-1, and available potassium 179 mg kg-1.

 

Table 1: The climatic conditions during the study period.

Months

Monthly average temperature (oC)

Rainfall (mm)

Relative humidity (%)

April

28.5

7.9

47.3

May

32.0

21.6

29.8

June

33.9

92.0

56.5

July

33.0

195.8

70.2

 

2.2 Experimental detail and crop husbandry

The experiment was conducted using a net plot size of 15 m2 under randomized complete block design (RCBD) with a split plot arrangement having three replications. The study was comprised of mungbean cultivars; AZRI Mung-2006, NM-2011 and NM-2016 and different sowing dates; 25th April, 5th May and 15th May. The soil was pulverized with cultivation followed by planking to prepare the fine seedbed. The mungbean crop was sown in 30 cm apart rows using the hand drill. Urea (46%N), di-ammonium phosphate (46%P, 18%N) and sulphate of potash (50% K) were used to apply recommended dose of NPK @ 20:40:40 per hectare. The full dose of P and K and half of N was applied as basal dose and the remaining N was applied at first irrigation. All other agronomic practices were kept the same for getting optimum yield production.

2.3 Observations

In each plot, one square meter area was marked and both broad and narrow weeds were uprooted and weighed to determine their biomass 30 and 60 days after sowing (DAS) of mungbean crop. For the determination of leaf area one meter long row in each plot was harvested and a sub-sample (10 g) of leaves was taken and leaf area was measured by leaf area meter and leaf area index was measured by the method of Watson (1947). Moreover, leaf samples taken for determining leaf area were oven-dried and crop growth rate was determined by methods of Hunt (1978). Ten plants were marked in each plot, plant height was measured and pods were counted and averaged. Likewise, ten pods were taken and their length was measured and grains were counted from each pod and the average was worked out. Complete plots of each treatment were harvested and bundles were made and weighed to determine biological yield and threshed to determine seed yield and later converted into t ha-1.

2.4 Statistical analysis

The observations on growth, yield and weed traits were analyzed by Fisher’s analysis of variance technique (Steel et al., 1997). Furthermore, the differences among treatment means were compared by LSD test at a 5 % level of probability.

3. Results and Discussion

3.1 Weeds biomass

The results indicated that sowing dates (SD) significantly affected broad and narrow leaves weed biomass however mungbean cultivars had a non-significant impact on weeds biomass (Table 2). The maximum broad and narrow leaves weeds biomass was noted in the crop sown on 15th May, followed by the crop sown on the 5th May and minimum broad and narrow weeds biomass was noted in crop sown on 25th April (Table 2). The higher rainfalls in mid-May and the start of June reduced the seedling emergence of mungbean and provided the opportunity for weeds to emerge which resulted in higher weeds biomass in this sowing date. These results are the same with outcomes of Knezev et al. (2002) they also noticed more weed biomass in the later sown crops.

3.2 Growth attributes

The variables SD and cultivars had a significant impact on the leaf area index (LAI) and crop growth rate (Figures 1, 2). LAI and CGR increased over time and reached to maximum values at 60DAS, afterwards the LAI and CGR started declining. The maximum LAI and CGR were noticed in the crop sown on the 25th April, and the lowest LAI and CGR were recorded in the crop sown on 15th May. Amongst cultivars, NM-2006 had maximum LAI and CGR and lowest LAI and CGR were noticed for Azri-mung, 2006. After 60DAS both LAI and CGR started decreasing and minimum reduction in LAI and CGR was recorded from crop sown on 25th April and in cultivar NM-2006 (Figures 1, 2). The early sown crop faced better climatic conditions during the life cycle, and it produced longer leaves with maximum width, therefore, had more leaf area. Likewise, in early sowing higher LAI resulted in maximum light-harvesting which favored higher dry matter production and consequently led to higher CGR in crop sown on 25th April. Variations amid the cultivars for the LAI can be due the differences in the leaf length and leaf width. Cultivar NM-2006 had longer leaves therefore, had more LAI, likewise, higher LAI was responsible for the higher CGR in this cultivar compared to others. The earlier plating provides a longer growth period for the crops which ensures better light-harvesting and produced more assimilates therefore, had better LAI and CGR (Rao et al., 2012; Darany, 2016). Moreover, these outcomes are the same with the finding of Wiedenfeld and Matocha (2010), Hassan et al. (2018a, b) they also found differences amid cultivars for LAI and CGR.

3.3 Yield and yield traits

The results indicated that different SD and cultivars significantly affected plant height, pod length and pods/plant (Table 3). The maximum plant height (52.67 cm), pod length (11.39 cm), pods/plant (22.11) and grains/pod (13.56) were noticed in crop sown on

 

Table 2: Effect of different cultivars and sowing times on broad and narrow leaf weeds grown in mungbean crop.

Cultivars

Broad leaf weeds biomass (g) 30 DAS

Broad leaf weeds biomass (g) 60 DAS

Narrow leaf weeds biomass (g) 30 DAS

Narrow leaf weeds biomass (g) 60 DAS

Azri-Mung 2006

427.00

561.22

56.89

64.00

NM-2011

432.22

569.67

59.78

67.22

NM-2006

431.11

577.00

59.11

63.67

LSD≤0.05P

NS

NS

NS

NS

Sowing dates (SD)

25th April

392.11C

469.11C

47.22C

57.22B

5th May

415.11B

580.22B

59.22B

68.00A

15th May

483.11A

658.56A

69.33A

69.67A

LSD≤0.05P

4.77

25.17

6.65

6.28

Cultivars × SD

Azri-Mung 2006 ×25th April

391.67

456.33

45.00

55.00

NM-2011×25th April

397.33

464.00

48.67

58.67

NM-2006×25th April

387.33

487.00

48.00

58.00

Azri-Mung 2006 ×5th May

413.67

576.00

57.67

67.67

NM-2011×5th May

416.00

586.33

60.33

70.67

NM-2006×5th May

415.67

578.33

59.67

65.67

Azri-Mung 2006×15th May

475.67

651.33

68.00

69.33

NM-2011×15th May

483.33

658.67

70.33

72.33

NM-2006×15th May

490.33

665.67

69.67

67.33

LSD≤0.05P

NS

NS

NS

NS

 

Means with different letters differed at 0.05 P level. DAS: days after sowing.

 

Table 3: Effect of different cultivars and sowing times on yield traits of mungbean crop.

Cultivars

Plant height (cm)

Pod length (cm)

Pods per plant

Grains per pod

Azri-Mung 2006

44.78C

9.60C

19.22B

10.56C

NM-2011

48.22B

10.71B

20.11B

11.44B

NM-2006

50.56A

11.59A

21.56A

12.67A

LSD≤0.05P

2.03

0.68

1.12

0.85

Sowing dates (SD)

25th April

52.67A

11.39A

22.11A

13.56A

5th May

47.22B

10.59B

20.44B

11.11B

15th May

43.67C

9.92C

18.33C

10.00B

LSD≤0.05P

2.12

0.23

1.56

1.15

Cultivars × SD

Azri-Mung 2006 ×25th April

49.33

10.27de

21.00bc

12.33

NM-2011×25th April

53.00

11.60ab

21.33b

13.67

NM-2006×25th April

55.67

12.30a

24.00a

14.67

Azri-Mung 2006 ×5th May

44.00

9.60ef

19.00cd

9.67

NM-2011×5th May

47.33

10.60cde

20.67bc

11.00

NM-2006×5th May

50.33

11.57abc

21.67b

12.67

Azri-Mung 2006×15th May

41.00

8.93f

17.67d

9.67

NM-2011×15th May

44.33

9.93def

18.33 d

9.67

NM-2006×15th May

45.67

10.90bcd

19.00cd

10.67

LSD≤0.05P

NS

1.19

1.93

NS

 

Means with different letters differed at 0.05 P level.

 

25th April, after that 5th May and minimum plant height (43.67 cm), pod length (9.92 cm), pods/plant (18.33) and grains/pod (10) were noticed in crop sown on 15th May (Table 3). In case of cultivars maximum plant height (50.56 cm), pod length (11.59 cm), pods/plant (21.56) and grains/pod (12.67) were recorded in NM-2006, and minimum plant height (44.78 cm), pod length (9.60 cm), pods/plant (19.22) and grains/pod (10.56) were recorded in Azri-mung 2006 (Table 3). The earlier sown crop produced the taller plants due to optimum temperature and moisture conditions faced by the crop (Soomro, 2003). The cultivars also had significant impact on the plant height; cultivar NM-2006 produced the taller plant owing to vigorous growth as compared to other cultivars (Siddique et al., 2006). The earlier sown crop got the longer time period for the crop growth and development and produced more assimilates thus it resulted in production of longer pods with more grains. Moreover, crop sown on 15th May faced higher temperature and high rains during the flowering stages which led to smaller pods with less grains. The currents outcomes are similar with outcomes of Mondal (2004) they also noticed that early sown crop produced longer pods. The cultivars also behaved differently for the pod length, pods/plant and grains/pod; the difference among the cultivars for the pod length, pods/plant and grains/pod can be described to differences in the genetic makeup (Chattha et al., 2017b; Hassan et al., 2019a, b).

 

The variable SD and cultivars also significantly affected seed and biomass yield and harvest index. The maximum seed yield, biological yield and harvest index were noted in crop sown on 25th April after that 5th May and minimum seed and biological yield and harvest were recorded from crop sown on 15th May (Table 4). Likewise, in the case of cultivars maximum seed and biological yield and harvest index were noticed in NM-2006 after that NM-2011 and minimum seed yield, biological yield and harvest index were recorded in Azri-mung 2006 (Table 4). The seed yield is the interplay of yield components. The maximum seed yield in the early sown crop can be due to maximum emergence count, longer pods with more seeds and seed weight as compared to the other SD (Khattak et al., 2006; Ahmad et al., 2008). Likewise, the maximum biological yield was noticed in crop sown on 25th April that can be due to maximum emergence count, longer pods with more seeds and seed weight as compared to the other SD. The cultivars also behaved differently for the seed and biological yield; NM-2006 had more seed and biological yield as compared to other cultivars owing to higher emergence count, longer pods with more seeds. Earlier Seijoon et al. (2000) and Singh et al. (2006) also noted the significant difference among cultivars for seed and biological yield owing to differences in the yield characters.

 

Table 4: Effect of different cultivars and sowing times on seed, biological yield and harvest index of mungbean crop.

Cultivars

Seed yield (kg ha-1)

Biological yield (kg ha-1)

Harvest index (%)

Azri-Mung 2006

1029.22C

3794.22C

26.99B

NM-2011

1130.11B

4176.33B

27.04B

NM-2006

1279.67A

4373.11A

29.25A

LSD≤0.05P

55.62

155.57

1.92

Sowing dates (SD)

25th April

1300.22A

4439.56A

29.33A

5th May

1163.56B

4142.44B

28.09AB

15th May

975.22C

3761.67C

25.87B

LSD≤0.05P

82.49

166.02

2.67

Cultivars × SD

Azri-Mung 2006×25th April

1195.00bc

4046.67

29.54

NM-2011×25th April

1282.00b

4418.00

29.09

NM-2006×25th April

1423.67a

4854.00

29.36

Azri-Mung 2006×5th May

1076.67de

3887.67

27.74

NM-2011×5th May

1123.00cd

4191.00

26.84

NM-2006×5th May

1291.00b

4348.67

29.68

Azri-Mung 2006×15th May

816.00f

3448.33

23.69

NM-2011×15th May

985.33e

3920.00

25.19

NM-2006×15th May

1124.33cd

3916.67

28.72

LSD≤0.05P

96.34

NS

NS

 

Means with different letters differed at 0.05 P level.

 

Conclusions and Recommendations

The results depicted the significant impact of sowing dates and cultivars on the growth and productivity of mungbean crop. The sowing on 25th April resulted in better growth, and seed yield compared to other sowing dates, however, sowing at 15th caused a significant reduction in growth and yield of mungbean. Therefore, mungbean crop can be grown from 25th April to 5th May in rice-wheat crop system to obtain maximum yield from the mungbean.

Novelty Statement

The yield potential of different mungbean cultivars under different sowing dates was not fully explored. Thus this study was performed to determine the yield potential of different mungbean cultivars under different sowing dates.

Author’s Contribution

Muhammad Umer Chattha and Imran Khan: Conceived and designed the experiment.

Maqsood Ahmad: Performed the experiment.

Maqsood Ahmad, Sadia Afzal and Muhammad Faran: Data collection.

Muhammad Umer Chattha, Imran Khan, Muhammad Umair Hassan and Muhammad Talha Aslam: Writing original draft.

Muhammad Bilal Chattha, Faqir Hussain Anjum, Fiaz Hussain, Abdul Jabbar, Muhammad Sultan Ali Bazmi and Mahnoor Mehmood: Reviewing and editing.

Conflict of interest

The authors have declared no conflict of interest.

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