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A Comparative Study on Using Simple Pollen Substitutes to Improve Brood Rearing Activity and Characteristics of Honey Bee Workers

A Comparative Study on Using Simple Pollen Substitutes to Improve Brood Rearing Activity and Characteristics of Honey Bee Workers

Hossam F. Abou-Shaara

Department of Plant Protection, Faculty of Agriculture, Damanhour University, Damanhour, 22516, Egypt.

 
* Corresponding author: hossam.farag@agr.dmu.edu.eg

Fig. 1.
Number of bees attracted to each feeding type after 5 min (mean±SE).
Fig. 2.

The amount of each feeding type consumed after 72h (mean±SE). Letters denote the significant differences between feeding types according to Tukey test. 

Fig. 4.
Cumulative survival of bees fed with different feeding types over one week.
Fig. 5.

The time (mean±SE) at which bees stopped moving after exposure to low temperature. 

Fig. 3.

Variations in mean number of bees and brood area between the four feeding groups. Means±SE are presented, and letters present significant variations between groups according to Tukey test.

Pakistan Journal of Zoology

February

Pakistan J. Zool., Vol. 56, Iss. 1, pp. 01-501

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