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Toxic Trace Metals Assessment in Selected Organs of Edible Fish Species, Sediment and Water in Head Punjnad, Punjab, Pakistan

Toxic Trace Metals Assessment in Selected Organs of Edible Fish Species, Sediment and Water in Head Punjnad, Punjab, Pakistan

Saeed Fatima1, Khalid Javed Iqbal1, Usman Atique2,3*, Arshad Javid4, Noor Khan2, Sonia Iqbal2, Hamid Majeed5, Hamda Azmat2, Bakhat Yawar Ali Khan6, Irfan7, Muhammad Tausif Shahid1, Gulnaz Afzal1

1 Department of Zoology, The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Pakistan
12Department of Fisheries and Aquaculture, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore, Pakistan
3Department of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Chungnam National University, South Korea
4Department of Wildlife and Ecology, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore, Pakistan
5Department of Food Science and Technology, Cholistan University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences Bahawalpur, Pakistan 
6Institute of Pure and Applied Biology, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan, Pakistan 
7Department of Zoology, Cholistan University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Bahawalpur, Pakistan
 
Corresponding Author: Usman Atique
physioatique@gmail.com

 

ABSTRACT

Arsenic (As), mercury (Hg) and cadmium (Cd) are one of the greatest threats to aquatic biota for their persistence, bioaccumulation and biomagnification across the globe.This study presents the first hand data of toxic trace metals in edible fish muscles, sediments and water sampled from Head Punjnad (HP), Pakistan during 2017. The likely reason for the selection of HP as a study target was its emergent prominence as an irrigation hub and holidaymakers spot largely for angling and feasting. The investigated five fish species are Ctenopharyngodon idella, Oreochromis niloticus, Eutropiichthys vacha, Rita rita and Sperata sarwari. The results divulged the pattern of metals concentration in fish in the order of Cd > As > Hg. However, R. rita, O. niloticus and C. idella showed higher accumulation of the metals that clearly alluded to species-linked metal bioaccumulation, which might be due to their unique feeding mood. Cadmium presence ranged between 0.04 – 1.12 ppm while As and Hg fluctuated between 0.01 – 0.04 and 0.001 - 0.18 ppm, respectively. Conversely, higher bioaccumulation was detected in gills rather than the muscle tissues that evidently indicated gradual water quality degradation conceiving higher metal concentrations in the environment. Similarly, a higher concentration of Cd was observed in water (0.78 ppm) and sediment (0.64 ppm) samples. In acquiescence to the above-given outcomes, the metal concentration hierarchical arrangement in sediment and water was identical to the witnessed in fish species (Cd > As > Hg). In conclusion, this study established that selected metals level in HP water and sediments displayed levels higher than the permissible limits. However, As and Hg remained lower than the international guidelines for sediments. Cd showing the higher levels in edible tissues may produce toxic effects in the fish and its consumers, therefore, it is not safe to consume these studied fish species from Head Punjnad. 
 

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Pakistan Journal of Zoology

August

Vol. 52, Iss. 4, Pages 1225-1630

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