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Selection of A New Site for Epidural Analgesia in Egyptian Goat (Capra Hircus) Based on Anatomy, Ultrasonography and Computed Tomography

Selection of A New Site for Epidural Analgesia in Egyptian Goat (Capra Hircus) Based on Anatomy, Ultrasonography and Computed Tomography

Ashraf Sayed Awaad1 and Mohamed Zaki Fathy2*  

1Anatomy and Embryology Department Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Beni-Suef University, Beni-Suef 62511, Egypt; 2Surgery, Anesthesiology and Radiology Department, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Beni-Suef University, Beni-Suef 62511, Egypt.

awaad2000@yahoo.com 

Figure 1

Photograph of sagittal section of the lumbosacropelvic part of goat cadaver showing, L4,4th lumbar vertebra; L5, 5th lumbar vertebra; L6, 6th lumbar vertebra; L5-L6, last interlumbar space; Sac, Sacrum; L6-S, lumbosacral space P, spinous processes; Co1, 1st coccygeal vertebra; 2nd cooygeal vertebral; Co1-Co2, 1st intercoccygeal space; SP, spinal cord; R, Rectum, UB, urinary bladder. 

Figure 2

Photograph of the lumbosacropelvic part of goat showing the last inter lumbar space; L5, 5th lumbar vertebra; L6, 6th lumbar vertebra; L5-L6, last interlumbar space; Sac, Sacrum. 

Figure 3

Parasagittal ultrasonogram of epidural space of goat at L5- L6 showing hypoechoic muscles and the echoic lumbar fascia (M), vertebral canal as a hypoechoic round area (VC) and hyper-echoic vertebral body of L5 and L6. Hyper-echoic line of ligamentum flavum. (P). Nervous structures appeared as multiple, small hyperechoic rods. Skin (S). 

Figure 4

Sagittal CT scan section of the lumbosacropelvic part of goat cadaver showing; L4, 4th lumbar vertebra, L5, 5th lumbar vertebra, L6, 6th lumbar vertebra, L5-L6, last interlumbar space; Sac, Sacrum; L6-S, lumbosacral space P, spinous processes; Co1, 1st coccygeal vertebra; SP, spinal cord; R, Rectum, UB, urinary bladder. 

Figure 5

Photograph of cross sectional anatomy at the levels of; A) last inter lumbar space; B) lumbo-sacral space of goat cadavers showing, (arrow) the lumen of the spinal canal. 

Figure 7

Volume 3D dimension CT scan of a lateral view of the lumbosacropelvic part of goat cadaver showing; L4,4th lumbar vertebra; L5, 5th lumbar vertebra; L6, 6th lumbar vertebra; L5-L6, last interlumbar space; Sac, Sacrum; L6-S, lumbosacral space P, spinous processes; N, needle; Co1, 1st coccygeal vertebra; 2nd cocygeal vertebral; Co1-Co2, 1st intercoccygeal space. 

Figure 8

Sagittal CT scan section of the lumbosacropelvic part of goat cadaver with the needle inserted in the L5-L6 showing; L4,4th lumbar vertebra; L5, 5th lumbar vertebra; L6, 6th lumbar vertebra; L5-L6, last interlumbar space; Sac, Sacrum; L6-S, lumbosacral space P, spinous processes; Co1, 1st coccygeal vertebra; N, needle; VC, vertebral canal; SP, spinal cord; R, Rectum, UB, urinary bladder. 

Figure 9

Parasagittal ultrasonogram of the epidural space in the goat at L5- L6 showing hypoechoic muscles and the echoic lumbar fascia (M), vertebral canal as a hypoechoic round area (VC) and hyper-echoic vertebral body of L5 and L6. Hyper-echoic line of ligamentum flavum. (P). nervous structures appeared as multiple, small hyperechoic rods. Skin (S). 

Figure 10

Parasagittal ultrasonogram in epidural space in goat at L5- L6 showing hypoechoic muscles and the echoic lumbar fascia (M), hyper-echoic vertebral body of L5 and L6 posteriorly by an-echoic body of sacrum (Sac). Hyper-echoic line ligamentum flavum. (P). nervous structures appeared as multiple, small hyperechoic rods (NS). Skin (S) 

Figure 11

Parasagittal ultrasonogram of the epidural space in the goat at L5- L6 showing hypoechoic muscles and the echoic lumbar fascia (M), vertebral canal as a hypoechoic area (VC) and hyper-echoic needle (white arrow). 

Figure 12

Cross ultrasonogram of the epidural space in the goat at L5- L6 showing hyper-echoic vertebral body and vertebral canal appear as a hypoechoic round area (VC). 

Figure 13

Cross ultrasonogram of epidural space in goat at L5- L6 showing vertebral canal as round a hypoechoic area (VC) and hyper-echoic needle (white arrow) and hyper-echoic vertebral body (B). 

Figure 6

Coronal CT scan sections at the levels of; A) last inter lumbar space; B) lumbosacral of goat cadaver showing, the lumen of the spinal canal. 

Veterinary Sciences: Research and Reviews

June

Vol. 6, Iss. 1, Pages 1-57

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