The assisted reproductive technologies or techniques (ARTs) have advanced greatly during the past couple of decades. The ARTs include several techniques including artificial insemination, in vitro embryo production, oestrous synchronization, superovulation, embryo transfer, germ cells or embryos’ micromanipulation, sperm sexing, cryopreservation of ovarian tissues and germ cells and embryos, and genome resource banking for mammalian species. Such biotechnologies allow more offspring to be obtained from selected parents to increase milk and meat productivity, reduce the interval between generations, therapy of diseases and conservation of endangered mammalian species. Practically, current reproductive biotechnologies are species-specific because of differences in estrous cycle, seasonality, structural anatomy, gamete physiology and site for semen deposition or method of embryo transfer. Therefore, this review was conducted to collect and consolidate the current knowledge of assisted reproductive techniques of males and females in addition to their importance for oocyte maturation, artificial oocyte reprogramming, embryo development and their resulting newborns.
Keywords | In vitro, Oocyte, Embryo production, Embryo transfer, Micromanipulation