The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of estrogen receptor gene (ESR1) polymorphism on the carcass traits of laying quail. The polymorphism of ESR1 gene exon 4 in three laying quail populations was detected by PCR product sequencing, and the correlation between ESR1 gene and carcass traits of laying quail was analyzed. The results show that, Exon 4 of ESR1 gene among Beijing white quail, the pectora weight and pectoral muscle rate of CC genotype was significantly higher than that of CT and TT genotype(P<0.05). Among Korean quail, the body weight and carcass weight of CC genotype were significantly higher than that of CT and TT genotype(P<0.05). It was found that exon 4 of ESR1 gene was significantly associated with body weight, carcass weight, pectora weight, pectoral muscle rate of egg quail(P<0.05).