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Study of Ethnobotanical Flora and Medicinal Plants of District Mandi Bahauddin


Research Article

Study of Ethnobotanical Flora and Medicinal Plants of District

Mandi Bahauddin

Iqra Munir*, Farrah Iftikhar, Hira Fatima, Sunbal Khalil Chaudhari and Roha Ramash

Department of Botany, Institute of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology, The University of lahore Sargodha Campus, Pakistan.

Abstract | Medicinal plants serve as a natural source of herbal medicine employed in treating numerous diseases within local communities across various countries. They also constitute the raw ingredient for the pharmaceutical industry. This study was conducted during year 2020-2021 to gather the native indigenous knowledge about therapeutic uses of medicinal plants in Mandi Bahauddin, District Gujrat, Punjab, Pakistan. Ethnomedicinal information was collected using surveys and personal interviews with local inhabitants, involving 30 males and 20 females across a wide range of age groups ranging from 25 to 80 years. The participants also included traditional practitioners of herbal medicines, known as ‘tabibs’ and ‘hakims. Household and market surveys were conducted in the rural areas of Mandi Bahauddin, Phalia and Malikwal for collection of socioeconomic and ethnic information of different plant species. Plant specimens underwent pressing, drying, and mounting onto herbarium sheets. The identification process was conducted for all gathered samples. In this research study, documentation was carried out for 50 plant species distributed across 27 families. These species arranged with scientific names, common names, family names, plant part used and ethnopharmacological applications. There were 20- herbs, 13- shrubs and 18 tree species documented on the basis of their importance and medicinal uses. Frequently utilized plant components included were fruits, leaves, roots, barks, seeds, and sometimes whole plant. There was a total of 50 plants out of which 20 plants were used through the preparation of decoction, 17 plants in the powder form and 10 plants used through infusion. 80% plants used to cure cough, asthma, fever, influenza, diabetes and liver diseases. 60% plants used to cure digestive diseases, diarrhea, cancer, inflammation, stomachache and dysentery. About 30% plants used to cure cardiovascular diseases and ulcers. The purpose of this study is to recognize wild plants gathered for medicinal purposes by the local residents of Mandi Bahauddin and to document the common names and therapeutic uses associated with these plants.

Received | August 18, 2023; Accepted | January 15, 2024; Published | April 12, 2024

*Correspondence | Iqra Munir, Institute of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology, Department of Botany, The University of Lahore, Sargodha Campus, Pakistan; Email:

Citation | Munir, I., F. Iftikhar, H. Fatima, S.K. Chaudhari and R. Ramash. 2024. Study of ethnobotanical flora and medicinal plants of district Mandi Bahauddin. Sarhad Journal of Agriculture, 40(2): 372-385.


Keywords | Ethnobotany, Survey, Medicinal plants, Mandi Bahauddin

Copyright: 2024 by the authors. Licensee ResearchersLinks Ltd, England, UK.

This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (


Herbal plants are the significant source of life-saving medicines for a large portion of the global population (Ginko et al., 2023). Developing countries where modern health care is limited, medicinal plants provide a home remedy. Medicinal plants are more effective, safer and affordable, gaining popularity in rural and urban areas (Pandey and Tripathi, 2017). Ethno botany is coined with two terms “Ethno” the study of people and “botany” the study of plant. The concept of ethnobotany was initially introduced in the early 20th century by the botanist John William Hershberger. Ethnobotany is a discipline that deals with the interaction between people and plants (Hamilton et al., 2003). Ethnologists aim to understand how individuals interact with the environment and obtain plant resources to meet their cultural and physical needs (Albuquerque et al., 2011; Gaoue et al., 2017). As a result, ethnographers have needed to formulate a theoretical framework which describes human behavior concerning the utilization of herbal resources (Gaoue et al., 2017). Knowledge of indigenous traditional has played an important part in finding innovative products from plants groups. The World Health Organization (WHO) emphasizes the status of indigenous traditional herbal medicines because of the large quantity of rural individuals of underdeveloped nations still practice these drugs as a key line defense aimed at their well-being and health care (Organization, 2013).

Botanical surveys hold significant importance in our understanding and conservation of plant biodiversity. These surveys provide crucial data on the distribution, abundance, and ecological roles of plant species within specific regions. By documenting the diversity of plant life, botanical surveys contribute to the identification of rare and endangered species, aiding conservation efforts. Additionally, these surveys serve as valuable resources for scientific research, helping researchers explore the ecological relationships, medicinal properties, and economic potential of various plant species. Wild-harvested plant resources play a vital role in meeting the livelihood requirements, particularly for economically low communities living in remote regions. These individuals depend on such plants for sustenance, including food, fuelwood, medicinal purposes, and construction materials (Guo et al., 2022).

District Mandi Bahauddin located in province Punjab (Pakistan). It is located at coordinates 32° 34’ 60” N, 73° 30’ 0” E. It is sketched by the southeast by the River Chenab and Jhelum River in the northwest which distinguishes it from districts Gujranwala and Gujarat and through Southwest district Sargodha. The region has a area of 2673 km² (Jamil et al., 2022). Rasul Barrage is located on the Jhelum River and is used to regulate the water flow in the Jhelum River for the purpose of flood control and Irrigation. Sloping areas along Rasul Barrage contain a great deal of significant restorative plants that are utilized against various illnesses (Khan et al., 2015). The region has a mild climate, hot summers and cold winters. Temperature can rise to 48 °C (118 °F) during the day in summers and the minimum temperature might fall below 37°F (3°C) in the winter. Average precipitation or rainfall of the region is 388 millimeters (15.3 in) (

Different kinds of medicines obtained from herbal plants proved to be effectively utilized for the management of many sicknesses (Ozturk et al., 2018). Globally, research has been conducted to validate the effectiveness of medicinal plants and discoveries from various studies have contributed to the development of herbal medicines. The annual market value of medicinal plant products worldwide surpasses $100 billion Sofowora et al. (2013). Plants have long been used as a therapeutic aid in reducing various human diseases. Such plants, commonly known as herbs, are one of the most valuable tools in traditional medicine production and are used by industry to make new medicines (Shinwari, 2010). Pakistan is a huge country rich in diverse Ecological regions and climates. The flora is also very diverse and captivating. Approximately 6,000 angiosperm species have been documented from Pakistan to Kashmir (Ali, 2008). The ancient history of discovering and utilizing various medicinal plants is as old as the discovery and use of plants for sustenance. Medicinal plants play a crucial role in traditional healthcare systems, benefiting both animals and humans. Allopathic medicine incorporates extracts from medicinal plants into its treatments (Amjad et al., 2020).

The land of Mandi Bahauddin is fertile and abundant with vegetation. Numerous medicinal plants grow naturally in this region throughout various seasons of the year (Farzaneh and Carvalho, 2015). Owing to the lack of modern communication, along with factors like poverty, illiteracy, and limited access to contemporary healthcare facilities, a significant portion of the population still relies on traditional herbal medicines for addressing common ailments in their daily lives (Nisar et al., 2011). Extensive understanding regarding the utilization of plants against various diseases is observed in areas where plant use is more common (Khan et al., 2016).

Plant-based medicines are gaining particularly respectable status today. Knowledge of ethnic groups or traditional indigenous drug has played an important part in finding new products from plant mediators. The World Health Organization (WHO) also emphasizes this point (Newsom, 2008). About 85% of all primary health care medications derived from medicinal plants worldwide. Pakistan has exceptional biodiversity, which includes nine main ecological zones. Because of the alkaline climate, Pakistan is rich in medicinal herbs, which are dispersed over a vast area and cure patients with different diseases like diabetes type II (Liu et al., 2004). Around 6,000 wild plants species are present in the country, of which 400-600 are considered medicinally important (Azaizeh et al., 2003).

Whole plants and their various parts are employed medicinally to treat conditions such as bronchial issues, asthma, rheumatism, diabetes, paralysis, toothache, anthelmintic, antiallergic and snake bite etc. The solution used mainly for specific detail conditions, such as TB, melanoma, rheumatism or diabetes issues under intensive research (Gilani, 2005).

These traditional healthcare drugs have less side effects and can gained from nature easily. Unfortunately, due to the transformation in the traditional culture, the old knowledge of the medicinal plants of the societies is rapidly vanishing from the face of the world. (Hussain et al., 2018).

People use about 90% of the medicinal species that are native to the area. It is an indication of the vast store of plant medicinal knowledge that is present for worldwide use if it is not lost before it is documented or taped (Baquar, 1989). Traditional medical knowledge of plants, both oral and in written form, are need to be acknowledged (Ali, 2008).

Considering the significance of medicinal plants, this study was documented and compiled with the help of indigenous ethnobotanical knowledge and information gathered from Ethnomedicinal Tabibs (traditional practitioners of herbal medicines) about the native species of District Mandi Bahaudin, Pakistan.


  • To explore local flora and vegetation of district Mandi Bahauddin
  • To find out the medicinal importance of various plants
  • To conserve the ethnobotanical data for future researches.
  • Proper documentation of indigenous knowledge about medicinal plants

Materials and Methods

This study was conducted in the year 2021-2022 at a critical stage, because of the pandemic. It was an order from the government to follow all the rules and Standard Operating Procedures. Ethno Botanical Survey was conducted in the form of questionnaires filled by interviewing local personals and medication plant experts (Hakims). Plant samples were also collected during the survey.

Study area

Recent study of medicinal plants was limited to valuable vegetation of Mandi Bahauddin. It is divided into three tehsils (In Pakistan, a “tehsil” refers to an administrative subdivision within a district) i.e., Mandi Bahauddin, Phalia and Malikwal as shown in Table 1. The data about medicinal plants were collected with the help of personally managed questionnaires in arbitrarily selected 8 villages of tehsil Phalia of district Mandi Bahauddin. Those 8 villages were carefully chosen on the basis of its characteristics features like agriculture, and ethnobotanical importance.


Table 1: Tehisls of District Mandi Bahauddin.

S. No





Mandi Bahauddin


1.5 million









*Tehsil refers to administrative subdivision within a district.


Field work

Seven field visits were made to the study area between 2021 and 2022 and collected data from survey participants using carefully arranged questionnaires.

Ages of respondents

The ethnomedicinal data collected with the help of surveys and detailed personal interviews of local people including 30 men and 20 women. As shown in Figure 1.


Ages of female respondents

Out of total 20 female respondents 6 women were of age group between 25 to 30, 4 were of age ranging between 35 to 38, 4 were of age ranging between 50 to 55 and females with age of 60 to 70 years were 6. As shown in Figure 2.


Ages of male respondents

Including 30 men of different age group between 30, 38, 55, 65 to 80 years. As shown in Figure 3.

Collection of ethnobotanical information and socioeconomic survey

The ethnomedicinal data were collected through extensive personal interviews and filling questionnaires from local people Including 30 men and 20 women of diverse age groups between 50 to 80 years. Generally elderly people were questioned because they have vast info about the therapeutic implementations of diverse homegrown plant species. Hakim and h were also accessed because they have additional data about herbal plants characteristics and suitable usage of plants. The people of Mandi Bahauddin used traditional herbal medicine to cure several diseases. Majority of the population of Mandi Bahauddin live in rural areas. The Information collected from the local tribal comprise of local plant names, traditional uses, method of preparation, plant parts used, traits involved in the marketing, collection and other associated data.


Household survey

Household survey was directed in the countryside areas of Mandi Bahauddin, Phalia and Malikwal for collection of socioeconomic and ethnic information from 50 households.

Market survey

Rural roadside bazaars (where herbal products available) are vital sources of information. Conducted interviews and surveys of pharmaceutical plant dealers and gathered information regarding customers basic data, socio economic status of the people, uses and the cultural features of the native plants for formulating questionnaires.

Key informant interviews

Data collected on various parts by enquiring questions like: Do you possess knowledge regarding the medicinal plants found in your region? If so, kindly provide their names and elucidate their significant medicinal applications. What are the methods of utilization and their corresponding medicinal applications? Additionally, which specific plant parts are employed for medicinal use? The questioners were asked queries in local language Punjabi and national language Urdu so that local people of the area can communicate easily because most of them are uneducated and incapable to understand and speak English language Table 2.


Table 2: Selected key informants.

Types of respondents


Medicinal plants experts






Herbal medicinal manufacturers


Common people





Plant sampling

Gathering, documentation and conservation of samples occurred from study area and alphabetically arranged through their exact nomenclature, family, botanical and common name; habitat, used plant parts, and therapeutic uses.

Herbarium identification

Plant samples were dried, pressed and mounted on the botanical specimen sheets. All gathered specimens were recognized. After proper documentation, samples were submitted to the herbarium of the Department of Botany, University of Lahore (UOL), Punjab, Pakistan for future references.

Results and Discussion

A collective of 50 plant species from 27 plant families were gathered, these plants were arranged with scientific, family and common names; part used and ethnomedicinal uses. A total of 50 plants studied, 20 plants are used as decoction (Eucalyptus camaldulensis, Zizyphus jujuba, Portulaca oleracea, Cannabis sativa, Bombax ceiba, Capsicum frutescens, Solanum nigrum and Trachyspermum ammi), 18 plants are used as powdered form (Capsicum annum, Albizia lebbeck, Psidium guajava, Ficus religiosa and Dalbergia sissoo) and 12 plants are used for infusion (Melia azedarach, Ricinus communis, Pongamia pinnata, Coriandrum sativum, Acacia nilotica and Ocimum basillium) (Figure 5). There were 20- herbs, 13- shrubs and 18 tree species documented on the basis of their importance and medicinal uses as shown in Figure 6. The study area is mainly characterized by angiosperms. All the plant species examined in this study area belong to the angiosperm category. No other major plant groups were identified in the area under consideration for ethnobotanical purposes. Therefore, the focus of the study is specifically on angiosperms, providing comprehensive details on their ethnobotanical significance within the given region (Khadim et al., 2023). This study specifies that people living in the area of Mandi Bahauddin have immense information about uses of plant present in their areas. This study is significant for preserving the data of therapeutic plants utilized by local people of Mandi Bahauddin for the management of different diseases.

Number of plants according to disease cured

Out of a total of 50 plants documented, 12 plants were used for digestive problems like Lactuca sativa (lettuce), Allium cepa (onion), Syzygium cumini (jamun), Citrus limonum (lemon), Citrus sinesis (orange), Ocimum basilicum (basil), and Carica papaya (papaya). Plants used for cough, asthma, liver, and fever like Ocimum basilicum (basil), Solanum nigrum (black nightshade), Trachyspermum ammi (ajwain), Syzygium cumini (jamun), Eucalyptus camaldulensis (eucalyptus), Convolvulus arvensis, Raphanus sativus (radish), Achyranthes aspera (apamarga), Arundo donax (giant reed), Allium sativum (garlic), and Catharanthus roseus (periwinkle). Seven plants were used for diarrhea and dysentery like Syzygium cumini (jamun), Abutilon indicum (Indian mallow), Coriandrum sativum (coriander), Murraya koenigii (curry leaf), Mangifera indica (mango), Psidium guajava (guava), and Nerium oleander (oleander). Seven plants were used in cancer, inflammation, and ulcer like Dalbergia sissoo (Sheesham), Vernonia scinerescens (ironweed), Abutilon indicum, Capsicum frutescens (chili pepper), Bombax ceiba (cotton tree), Jasminum sambac (jasmine), Linum usitatissimum (flaxseed), and Murraya koenigii (curry leaf).13 plants used for influenza, diabetes and heart diseases like Dalbergia sissoo, Eucalyptus camaldulensis, Syzygium cumini, Aloe vera, Verbena officinalis, Bombax ceiba, Carthamus roseus, Cinnamomum zeylanicum, Allium sativum, Carthamus tinctorius, Trigonella foenum graecum, Ocimum tenuiflorum and Cannabis sativa as shown in Figure 4. In present study Ocimum basilicum (L.) is traditionally used as treatment of dysentery, bleeding piles, their sauce helps indigestion, diabetes, liver, nervous, cardiovascular disorders and pimples on face. This result was in accordance with the findings of (Opalchenova and Obreshkova, 2003; Tsai et al., 2011).

According to my search Melia azedarach (L.) is traditionally used for rheumatic pain, Skin diseases, piles, anemia, emphysema, inflammation of gums, pyrexia and hepatic disorder. This result was in accordance with the findings of (Ahmed et al., 2008; Husain et al., 2008; Sharma and Paul, 2013).




In current examination Eucalyptus camaldulensis is traditionally used as decoction, its leaves (Joshanda) used for influenza. Gum is used medicinally to treat diarrhea and heal wounds. This finding is in consonance with (del Moral and Muller, 1970; Sofowora, 1993; Al-Zubairi et al. 2017; Sabo and Knezevic, 2019).

In the present investigation, traditional use involves the utilization of Syzygium cumini (L.) leaves for treating dysentery used for curing stomach, liver, heart and brain diseases. These outcomes are in accordance with previous research of (Chaudhuri, 1990; Ayyanar and Subash-Babu, 2012; Hidayah et al., 2021). Cumini also used as an antidiabetic plant, lowering blood glucose levels (Helmstädter, 2008).

The findings about Phoenix dactylifera (L.) showed that their leaves have traditionally been used as mouth wash, fruit used for treatment of constipation, boost nervous system, shake of fruit is highly energetic used for sore throat, colds and bronchial asthma; ass states by (Chao and Krueger, 2007; Baliga et al., 2011). The date palm has many remedial benefits such as cold, temperature, sore throat, alimentary stoppage, emphysema, abdominal troubles and diabetes.

In that study Zizyphus jujuba (L.) is traditionally used for the treatment of blood deficiency disease, hepatic problems, intestinal, pyrexia, diarrhea, urinary tract disorders, skin issues, low blood glucose level and obesity. As pointed by (Erenmemisoglu et al., 2011; Arab et al., 2021).

According to my documented data Phylanthus emblica (L.), Citrus limon (L.), Ficus benghalensis (L.) used for various diseases like, diabetes, cough, asthma, chest pain, leucorrhoea, inflammations, piles, digestive disorders, vomiting, ulcer, influenza, anemia, urinary infections, leprosy and heartburns. Similar aggregates have been reported by (Scartezzini and Speroni, 2000; Arias and Ramón-Laca, 2005; Mirunalini and Krishnaveni, 2010; Klimek-Szczykutowicz et al., 2020; Murugesu et al., 2021).

Portulaca oleracea (L.) and Cucumis melo var. has same valuable medicinal uses. Traditionally used for liver, kidney, jaundice, typhoid, skin infections, stomach problems, heart disease, ulcer and low blood pressure. These plants are also useful for the skin as they are used as natural moisturizer and cleanser. They are effective in cardiac and kidney dysfunctions, reducing blood pressure, treating ulcer and rheumatic fever (Kerje and Grum, 2000; Rao et al., 2012; Zhou et al., 2015; Barros et al., 2017).

Current survey showed Convolvulus arvensis (L.) is traditionally used in constipation, control dandruff, piles, skin wounds, spider bites, cough, flu, painful joints and inflammation. Comparative results have been reported by (Austin, 2007; Ansari et al., 2022; Saleem et al., 2022).

Local community reported that Achyranthes aspera (L.) is traditionally utilized for the management of asthma, cough, stomachache, dropsy, piles and skin eruption. It is also used for kidney problems, wound healing and curing ulcer. Similar concerns have been obtained by (Srivastav et al., 2011; Ganesh et al., 2021).

Some plants like Solanum nigrum (L.), Brassica campestris (L.), Psidium guajava (L.), Lycopersicom esculentum are used by different tribes in different diseases in different ways. Used to cure different ailments like, hepatitis, sore throat, stomach, fever, ulcer, asthma, lower cholesterol level, dysentery, diabetes, cardiac dysfunction, rheumatism, liver, pneumonia, analgesic, nervous weakness and stomach. This result was in accordance with the findings of (Kalloo, 1993; Wu and Lou, 2007; Díaz-de-Cerio et al., 2017; Hameed et al., 2017).

In present day analysis Verbena officinalis (L.) used against snake bites, anti-inflammatory, respiratory tract diseases, whooping cough, chest pain and wound healing. This result is in accordance with previous analysis in the literature (Calvo, 2006; Casanova et al., 2008; Kou et al., 2013).

In recent academic studies, Capsicum frutescens (L.) is traditionally used against various conditions, including cancer, rheumatism, stiff joints, bronchitis, chest colds, cough, headache, heartache, stomachache, and even dog bites. Chili pepper is recognized for its therapeutic properties in addressing different ailments, such as, arthritis, cough, cold, cardiac dysfunction, gastric, microbes, and angina. Some authors have reported the obtained results (Omolo et al., 2014; Gurnani et al., 2016; Maji and Banerji, 2016).

According to the findings of my studies Rosa indica Lindl., Coriandrum sativum (L.), Jasminum sambac (L.), are used for the treatment of different diseases. Constipation, Liver, leucorrhoea, eye diseases, diarrhea, stomachic, nausea, jaundice, inflammation, skin diseases, breast tumor and ulcers. Comparable outcomes have been gotten by certain authors (Laribi et al., 2015; Mourya et al., 2017; Ahmad et al., 2018; Singh et al., 2023).

In the course of current study, we gathered ethnomedicinal data for 50 plant species. The details include their scientific name, botanical family, the utilized plant part and their respective ethnomedicinal applications. These details are presented below beginning with the family name and scientific name (as shown in Table 3).


Table 3: Ethnobotanical uses of different plants of District Mandi Bahauddin.



Scientific name

Family name



Part used



Disease treated



Allium cepa L.



Root, Leaves

June to July

Stop vomiting, Used for stomach and nervous weakness

Silam-barasan and Ayyanar, 2015


Chenopodiu m album L.



Seeds, Shoots

August to October

Seeds used for paralysis, rheumatic pain, facial paraplegia

Kaur and Arora, 2015


Spinacia oleracea L.




June to September

Contains iron, used for treatment of anemia, overcome Iron deficiency

Desai, and Pandey, 2014


Albizzia lebbeck

Fabaceae (Leguminosae)


Leaves, Seed

April to June

Seeds used for piles, leaves used for improvement of sight

Verma et al., 2013


Cassia fistula L.

Fabaceae (Leguminosae)



November to July

Treatment of constipation, Decoction of it‘s fruit is given to infants to keep digestive tract in order.

Siddhuraju, 2002


Dalbergia sissoo Roxb.

Fabaceae (Leguminosae)


Leaves, Flowrs

April to May

Leaves ate used as anti diabetic, antioxidant anticancer, analgesic, Flowers were used for skin problems, immunity Booster

Asif and Kumar, 2009; Khare, 2008; Sehra and Sharma, 2018


Ocimum basilicum L.

Lamiaceae (Labiatae)



June to September

used as carminative, dysentery, bleeding piles, it‘s sauce helps indigestion

Opalch-enova and Obresh-kova, 2003; Tsai et al., 2011

Table continues on next page..............



Scientific name

Family name



Part used



Disease treated



Melia azedarach L.




July to October

Leaves decoction used for hairs, and its paste applied on skin for many skin ailments

Husain et al., 2008; Sharma and Paul, 2013


Eucalyptus camaldulensis



Whole plant

September to October

Decoction of it‘s leaves (joshanda) used for influenza

Sabo and Knezevic, 2019


Syzygium cumini (L.)




March to April

Leaves used for handling of dysentery in goats, fruit has antidiabetic properties and effective for live, brain, heart and stomach diseases.

Hidayah, Ridwanuloh, and Amal, 2021


Phoenix dactylifera L.

Arecaceae (Palmae)


Fruit, leaves

February to March

Decoction (leaves) used as mouth wash, for treatment of constipation fruits are used, for energy their shake is best

Baliga et al., 2011; Chao and Krueger, 2007


Zizyphus jujuba L.


Shaoo ber

Fruit, leaves

July to October

Edible part is fruit but over use of it‘s fruit is harmful for stomach and liver while its leaves are eaten by animals as fodder

Arab et al., 2021; Erenme-misoglu et al., 2011


Phylanthus emblica L.




March to April

Its fruits are rich source of Vitamin C. Their extract used as hair tonic, also used for curing pile and other digestive conditions

Murugesu et al., 2021


Citrus limon (L.)Burm.


Nimboo, Lemon


July to December

Toothpowder for teeth diseases and in infections

Klimek et al., 2020


Ficus benghalensis L.


Boher, Banyan

Adventi-tious roots and latex

November to January

Diseases like chronic flue, influenza and Gonorrhea can be cured. Latex from aerial plant parts are mixed with honey to Control condition of hyperglycemia

Murugesu et al., 2021


Portulaca oleracea L.


Kulfa, Purslan e

Whole plant

December to April

Refrigerants, used in cure liver, kidney, Jaundice, typhoid, iron deficiency and skin allergy. Seeds are demulcent, diuretic and


Barros et al., 2017, Zhou et al., 2015, Kavithaet al., 2012


Cucumis melo var. agrestis


Chibbar, wild waterm elon

Fruit and seed

March to September

Dried powdered plant used to treat skin infections, Wild Water Melon stomach problem

Kerje and Grum, 2000


Convolvulus arvensis L.


Vahri, Bind Weed

Whole Plant, Leaves

July to August

Constipation, control dandruff, piles, skin wounds, Roots are purgative

Ansari et al., 2022; Austin, 2007; Saleem et al., 2022


Achyranthes aspera L.


Puth Kanda

Whole Plant

July to December

Decoction is used to cure asthma, cough, stomachache, piles, skin eruption and dropsy. It is also used for kidney problems and cough

Ganesh et al., 2021; Srivastav et al., 2011


Nerium indicum Mill.



Root, Seed

All the year round

Root is ground into powder and used for abortion, A decoction of the seed is used to treat syphilis.

Dey and Chaudhuri, 2014


Aloe vera (L.) Burm.

Asphodelaceae (Xanthorr-hoeaceae)

Kwarga ndal


March to July

Rheumatism, body weakness and in the treatment of diabetics, sunburns, cosmetics

Benzidia et al., 2019


Vernonia scinerescens

Asteraceae (Compositae)


Leaves, Rhizomes

July to September

Gastritis, Male sterility, constipation, internal ulcers, Urinary infections, and navel aches.

Calvo, 2006; Casanova et al., 2008; Kou et al., 2013

Table continuedson next page..............



Scientific name

Family name



Part used



Disease treated



Abutilon indicum L.


Peeli Buti, Kanski

Leaves and flowers

September to April

As a resolvent, analgesic, inflammations, diarrhea, bleeding piles and toothache

Patel and Rajput, 2013


Arundo donax L.

Poaceae (Gramineae)


Leaf and stem

July to October

To treat dysfunctional cattle organs and to cure fever

Kumar et al., 2021


Solanum nigrum L.


Kainch Mainch, Nightsh ade

Whole Plant

July to


Used for the treatment of sore throat, hepatitis, abnormal and painful secretions from ears

Hameed et al., 2017


Brassica campestris L.

Brassicaceae (Cruciferae)



May to August

Brassica is used as cooking oil. Oil is also used for body massages and hair. Their leaves are rich source of vitamin C,

Wu and Lou, 2007


Psidium guajava L.



Fruit and Leaves

March to April

It is carminative and helps in digestion, cough, A decoction of the plant is antispasmodic, astringent, febrifuge and vulnerary

Díaz-de-Cerio et al., 2017


Citrus limonumRisso in Ann.



Fruit and Leaves

July to December

Obesity, low blood pressure, liver and stomach, Rich in vitamin C, so it has potassium and calcium.

Al-Qudah et al., 2018


Lycopersicon esculentum Miller.




June to September

Used for stomach, liver and nervous weakness, Tomato antioxidants include carotenoids such as β-carotene, a precursor of vitamin A

Kalloo, 1993; Mohamadi et al., 2018


Verbena officinalis L.




July to


Used against snake bites, antiinflammatory, respiratory tract diseases, whooping cough, chest pain (angina)

Calvo, 2006; Casanova, et al., 2008; Kou et al., 2013


Capsicum frutescens L.


Lal mirch


August to September

Used against dog bites, used for different types of cancer, rheumatoid arthritis, bronchitis, chest colds, stiff joints, Headache and heart arrhythmias

Gurnani et al., 2016; Maji and Banerji, 2016; Omolo et al., 2014


Citrus sinensis L.



Leaves and Fruit

February to March

Fruit peel is dried, then crushed and mixed into milk and Used as facial scrub, tonic for liver, heart and brain, Anti-Obesity

Viuda-Martos et al., 2008


Rosa indica Lindl.



Flower and Seed

May to June

Gulkand used for constipation, liver issues, leucorrhoea and stomach problems Juice of its flowers (arq-egulab) is also for eye problems.

Singh et al., 2023


Trigonella foecumgraceum L.

Fabaceae (Leguminosae)



June to August

Useful for liver, for weakness and edema of the legs

Das and Sharangi, 2021


Coriandrum sativum L.

Apiaceae (Umbelliferae)



June to July

Laxative and effective for relief of anxiety, insomnia, convulsion, diarrea gastritis and dyspepsia of many origins. It also has digestive stimulation antibilious properties and stomachic

Laribi et al., 2015


Bombax ceiba L.



Bark, Flower, Root

February to May

Effective against Snake bites, inflammation, dysentery, blood purification, treatment of genital organs, stimulant, gonorrhea and bladder ulcer

Chaudhary and Khadabadi, 2012

Table continues on next page..............



Scientific name

Family name



Part used



Disease treated



Carthamus roseus L.

Asteraceae (Compositae)

Sada bahar

Root, shoot and leaves

May to October

Pain, headache, immunity, anti cancer, anti diabetic, skin infection and cardiovascular disease

Khademian et al., 2019


Cynodon dactylon L.

Poaceae (Gramineae)


Whole plant a

March to September

Laxative, wounds problem, bronchial problem, kidney disorders, antidiabetic, syphilis

Ashokkumar et al, 2013


Jasminum sambac L.




June to August

Removing intestinal worms, jaundice and venereal diseases, soaked flowers to wash the face, treatment of inflammation, fever and pain

Kalaiselvi et al., 2011


Linum usitatissimum Linaceae




June to July

Inflammation, swellings, pneumonia, bronchitis, pleurisy, peritonitis and arthritis. Decoction of Alsi is very beneficial in throat irritation produced by severe cough.

Palla et al., 2015


Foeniculum vulgare Mill.

Apiaceae (Umbelliferae)



August to October

It is used for chronic dyspepsia, intestinal colic, vomiting and heart burn, flavour liquor, It has been used as a galactagogue improving the milk supply of a breast feeding mother

Badgujar et al., 2014


Raphanus sativus L.

Brassicaceae (Cruciferae)


Under-ground parts

June to August

Used in the treatment of intestinal parasites, asthma, chest pain, treatment of gall stones

Sreelekshmi, 2015; Badar, 2012


Murraya koenugii L.


Curry pata

Flower, leaves, root

April to May

Dysentery, leprosy, asthma,itching, blood diseases, snake bites

Iyer and Devi, 2008


Tamarindus indica L.

Fabaceae (Leguminosae)


Bark, stem, leaves

April to June

General body pain, jaundice, ulcer, sore, asthma, rashes, throat infection, stomach disorders, yellow fever

De Caluwé et al., 2010


Punica granatum L.



Exocarp of fruit

June to September

Dysentery and menstrual irregularities, cancer, osteoarthritis, and diabetes, buds are used for bronchitis

Shaygannia et al., 2016


Pongamia glabra Vent.

Fabaceae (Leguminosae)

Sukvhai n


February to June

Their Branches used for ailments like teeth infection, tumors, skin diseases, ulcers and piles

Rout et al., 2009, Pavithra et al., 2010


Carica papaya L.



Fruit and latex

Germination depending on the temperature July to August While the other from February to March

It is used for digestive problems, abortion, rashes and burns, used for treatment of malaria,

Desser et al., 2001; Milind parle, 2011


Taraxacum officinale (L.)

Asteraceae (Compositae)


Roots and leaves

April to May

Effective for Headaches, skin issues, constipation, eye complications, liver, fatigue and gaut.

Lis and Olas, 2019


Carthamus Oxycantha (M.)

Asteraceae (Compositae)


Seeds and Flowers

March to June

Effective for itching, Ulcers, measles, strengthening liver, pain reliving, diaphoretic and laxative

Mani et al., 2023


Ricinus communis (L.)



Leaves, Bark and Seeds

July to September

Laxative, help to induce Labour pain, relieve period pain and menstrual cramps.

Kumar, 2017; Rana et al., 2012


Conclusions and Recommendations

Herbal medicines are well documented in traditional medicine. In the past few years, there has been an increasing inclination among researchers and practitioners to embrace a systematic approach when utilizing medicinal plants for therapeutic purposes. Rural communities in Mandi Bahauddin have great information about medicinal plants as presented in this study. This study is important to preserve the knowledge of the medicinal plants used by the people of Mandi Bahauddin. But the potency of these plants should be scientifically assessed. It was concluded that there are many useful plants in this area. These plants are of great significance among the local community and are used to cure many diseases.


We author of paper hereby stated that research article entitled Study of Ethnobotanical Flora and Medicinal Plants of District Mandi Bahauddin” is my own work and has not been submitted previously in any journal.

Novelty Statement

Mandi Bahauddin region has rich flora and very little literature is available about medicinal uses of plants. So, this study will provide valuable information of plant uses and their therapeutical properties.

Author’s Contribution

Iqra Munir and Farrah Iftikhar: Performed the ethnobotanical survey to collect data.

Farrah Iftikhar and Roha Ramash wrote the first draft of the manuscripts,

Iqra Munir and Hira Fatima designed the experimentation.

Sunbal Khalil Chaudhary: Analyzed the data.

All authors read and approved the final manuscript.

Conflict of interest

The authors have declared no conflict of interest.


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