Yawar Iqbal Erum*, Hussain Sagir, Kazi Nasira and Fayyaz Shahina
National Nematological Research Centre, University of Karachi, Karachi-75270, Pakistan.
Abstract | The compendium of the genus Psilenchus de Man, 1921 comprised of 19 species based on the characteristics of the total body length, ratio of a, b, c, c’, V%, stylet, MB, head shape, tail length, DGO, oesophagus, excretory pore, spicules and gubernaculum. The allometric and morphometric characteristics were derived from the original descriptions. An updated list of valid species of Psilenchus de Man, 1921 along with illustrations of the anterior and posterior regions taken either from the original descriptions or subsequent re-descriptions is also incorporated herein. A total of seven species have so far been reported from Pakistan.
Received | September 03, 2020; Accepted | November 10, 2020; Published | November 22, 2020
*Correspondence | Yawar Iqbal Erum, National Nematological Research Centre, University of Karachi, Karachi-75270, Pakistan; Email: firstname.lastname@example.org
Citation | Erum, Y.I., Sagir, H., Nasira, K. and Shahina, F., 2020. Compendium of the Genus Psilenchus de Man, 1921 (Tylenchida: Psilenchidae). Pakistan Journal of Nematology, 38(2): 124-129.
Keywords | Compendium, Psilenchus, Re-description, Tylenchida, Morphometric and allometric characters
The genus Psilenchus was established by with P. hilarulus as the type species, a species of nematodes with didelphic ovary, stylet without knobs, head with distinct amphidial aperture, post labial, median bulb posterior to middle of oesophagus, adanal bursa, tail clavate or cylindroid to small rounded terminus in both sexes. Later on, described the genus Psilenchus in more detail and added four new species viz., P. striatus, P. magnidens, P. gracilis and P aberrans and placed Tylenchus clavicaudatus under the genus Psilenchus. Later on, two species were transferred to Basiria by as B. aberrans (; ) and B. gracilis (; ). Afterwards transferred P. magnidens to Neopsilenchus. and regarded Psilenchus Atetylenchus and Antarctenchus representing as the most primitive taxa of Tylenchida. clearly differentiated the family Psilenchidae () from Tylenchidae in having didelphic ovary and the presence of phasmids on the tail, and placed it in the superfamily Dolichodoroidea in () of the suborder Hoplolaimina . He divided the family Psilenchidae into two subfamilies, (i) Psilenchinae (stylet not knobbed, vulva without lateral membrane and epiptygma) with two genera Atetylenchus and Psilenchus; and (ii) Antarctenchinae (stylet knobbed, vulva with lateral membrane and epiptygma) with one genus Antarctenchus. In Psilenchus cephalic region appearing smooth, amphidial aperture distinct, post labial, median bulb posterior to middle of oesophagus whereas Atetylenchus was characterized by cephalic region distinctly annulated, amphidial aperture indistinct, labial, median bulb anterior to middle of oesophagus. Seven species of the genus Psilenchus have so far been reported from Pakistan ().
Materials and Methods
In the compendium fifteen characters (allometric and morphometric) are used to separate Psilenchus species (). Drawing of anterior and posterior ends of 19 species were taken from original publications or subsequent re-descriptions (-).
Diagnosis: Medium sized to large nematodes (0.7-1.70 mm), straight to curve when heat relaxed. Cuticle distinctly annulated, lateral field with four incisures, inner lines often indistinct. Amphidial aperture generally distinct as transverse slits at base of lateral lip areas. Cephalic region continuous or slightly narrower than body. Cephalic framework weekly developed. Stylet cylindrical, cone about one third oftylet length, basal knobs absent but minute swellings may occur. Median bulb prominent with distinct thickenings of lumen wall, usually behind middle of oesophagus. Basal bulb small, pyriform. Cardia discoidal or rounded. Female reproductive system paired, outstretched in opposite directions. Vulva without lateral vulval membranes, spermatheca axial and elongated. Tail elongated or shorter and thicker, with clavate or nonclavate rounded tip. Distinct phasmids on tail, anterior to its middle. Bursa adanal, prominent. Spicules tylenchoid 25-33µm long. Gubernaculum simple, fixed trough shaped. An updated list of valid 19 species of the genus Psilenchus is given below:
Other species: P. aestuaris ; P. bahiablancae ; P. bilineatus ; P. clavicaudatus (), ; P. curcumerus ; P. dunensis ; P. elegans ; P. gigas ; P. hilarus ; P. iranicus ; P. khuzdarensis ; P. magnificus ; P. minor ; P. mixus ; P. pratensis ; P. pini ; P. striatus ; P. vinciguerrae .
Discussing the systematics of the genus, in the modified classification of Phylum Nematoda on molecular studies placed the genus under the family Tylenchidae; while included the genus Psilenchus in the family Psilenchidae. The adanal bursa and long tail distinguished the familyPsilenchidae from the other families of
Hoplolaimina, Dolichodoroidea. This family resembles in the short stylet, structure of oesophagus and long tail with the family Tylenchidae but the paired ovaries and the presence of phasmids clearly distinguished it from Tylenchidae. In the present paper authors agreed with the opinion of , that the paired gonad and the presence of caudal phasmids appear to be the essential distinguishing characters of Psilenchidae. At present, 19 species are considered valid of the genus according to and . From Pakistan seven species of the genus Psilenchus have so far been reported among them one new species P. khuzdarensis was described by from pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) from district Khuzdar, Balochistan Province. Two species P. aestuarius and P. iranicus are reported for the first time from Pakistan by from banana field of Sindh. reported P. pratensis as a new record species from wheat field of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province. and reported P. minor from walnut (Juglans spp.) and paddy crops (Oryza sativa L.), respectively from Bajore Agency, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province for the first time from Pakistan.
reported P. hilarus from Achras zapota in Malir Karachi. Association of this species with the roots of Achras zapota is a new record. P. hilarulus was reported by in a survey of stylet bearing nematodes collected from soil around the roots of sapodilla. This species occurring in 42% of the samples. and reported P. hilarulus and P. hilarus from Carica papaya from KP, Punjab and Sindh. reported P. hilarulus and P. hilarus from banana filed in Sindh. , during the survey of nematodes reported P. hilarus from wheat field in KP, while ; also reported this species from wheat. reported P. hilarulus from barley (Hordeum vulgare) and wheat (Triticum aestivum). reported P. hilarulus associated with apple trees in Swat, KP, Pakistan. reported P. hilarulus from various host viz., Lycopericon esculentum, Nicotiana tabacum, oryza sativa, Prunus armeniaca and Punigranatum. reported P. hilarulus from sugarcane in Sindh. reported P. hilarulus from potato Solanum tuburosum) in the northern areas of Pakistan. The genus Psilenchus was also reported by many early researchers but up to generic level only from different hosts and localities (; ).
The aim of this study is to congregate the comprehensive information and consolidate the valuable contributions on plant-parasitic nematode, Psilenchus. It provides the complete review of the Psilenchus species described and reported from Pakistan by various researchers from time to time and also discussed the systematic position of this genus. A complete list of valid Psilenchus species is also incorporated in this compendium along with their morphometrics and illustrations for the convenience of the researchers.
The aim of this study is to congregate the comprehensive information and consolidate the valuable contributions on plant-parasitic nematode, Psilenchus. It provides the complete review of the Psilenchus species described and reported from Pakistan.
Yawar Iqbal Erum, prepared the manuscript. Hussain Sagir, conducted the field survey, collected and processed the soil samples. Kazi Nasira, provided technical assistance in preparing the compendium. Fayyaz Shahina, reviewed the manuscript.
Conflict of interest
The authors have declared no conflict of interest.
Chitwood, B.G., 1950. General structure of nematodes. In: Chitwood, B. G. and Chitwood, M.B. (Eds.) An: Introduction to nematology. section 1, anatomy. Monumental Printing Co., Baltimore, USA, pp. 7-27.
De-Ley, P., Decraemer, W. and Abebe, E., 2006. Introduction: Summary of present knowledge and research addressing the ecology and taxonomy of freshwater nematodes. In: Abebe, E., Andrássy, I. and Traunspurger, W. (Eds.). Freshwater nematodes, ecology and taxonomy. CABI Publishing, Wallingford, UK. pp. 3-30.
de Man, J.G., 1880. Dieeinheimischen, frei in der reinen Erde und imsüssen Wasserlebenden Nematoden. Vorläufiger Bericht und descriptive systematicher Theil. Tijdschrift der Nederlandsche Dierkundige Vereeniging, 5: 1-104.
Doucet, M.E., 1996. New data on Psilenchushilarus Siddiqi, 1963 and of description two new species of Psilenchus de Man, 1921, (Nematoda: Tylenchida) from Argentina. Fundam. Appl. Nematol., pp. 449-461.
Erum, Y.I. and Shahina, F., 2010. Taxonomic studies on parasitic and soil nematodes found associated with wheat in Pakistan. Pak. J. Nematol., 28: 1-58.
Khan, A. and Bilqees, F.M., 1993. Nematodes associated with walnut in Bajore Agency, Pakistan. Proc. Pak. Cong. Zool., 13: 67-70.
Lal, A. and Khan, E., 1990. Species of Pratylenchus Filipjev, 1936 and Helicotylenchus Steiner, 1945 (Nematoda: Tylenchida) found associated with forest trees in northern India. Indian J. Nematol., 19: 44-50.
Luc, M., Maggenti, A.R., Fortuner, R., Raski, D.J. and Geraert, E., 1987. A reappraisal of Tylenchina (Nemata). I. For a new approach to the taxonomy of Tylenchina. Rev. Nématol., 10: 127-134.
Maqbool, M.A., 1988. An overview of nematode problem and research in Pakistan. In: Maqbool et al., (Eds.) Advances in plant nematology, Proc. US-Pak. Int. Workshop on Plant Nematology, National Nematological Research Centre, University of Karachi. pp. 23-46.
Maqbool, M.A., Zain, A. and Shama, 1975. Studies on parasitic nematodes associated with sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.) in Sindh region. Research Bulletin No. 1, Nematological Research Centre, University of Karachi. pp. 16.
Micoletzky, H., 1922. Die freilebenden Erd-Nematoden mitbsonderer Berücksichtigungder Steiermark und der Bukowina, zugleichmiteiner Revision sämtlicher nichtmariner, frilebender Nematoden in from von Genus-Beschreibungen und Bestimmungs schlüssln. Archivfür Naturgeshichte, Abeilung A., 87: 1-650.
Paramonov, A.A., 1967. A critical survey of the suborder Tylenchina (Filipjev, 1934) (Nematoda: Secernentea). In: Problems on evolution, morphology, taxonomy and bio-chemistry of nematodes of plants. Acad. Sciences, USSR. pp. 78-101.
Qasim, M. and Ahmad, I., 1989. Plant parasitic nematodes and potato seed production in the northern areas of Pakistan. Int. Nematol. Network Newsl., 6: 43-44.
Ryss, A.Y., 1993. Phylogeny of the order Tylenchida (Nematoda). Russ. J. Nematol., 1: 74-95.
Shahina, F. and Maqbool, M.A., 1992. Nematodes from banana fields in Sindh with morphometric data on nine species with six representative new records of occurrence in Pakistan. Pak. J. Nematol., 10: 1-6.
Thorne, G., 1949. On the classification of Tylenchida, new order (Nematoda: Phasmidia). Proc. Helminthol. Soc. Washington, 16: 37-73.
To share on other social networks, click on any share button. What are these?