Metin Duru1*, Asuman Arslan Duru1, Köksal Karadaş2, Ecevit Eyduran3, Harun Cinli4 and Mohammad Masood Tariq5 for egg cartons and shipment in poultry industry. As a result, it was determined in the study that CHAID analysis may be used to better prove relationship mechanism between egg quality characteristics which are of great importance for higher price and more income of fertile and table eggs.


Muhammad Zahid1, Muhammad Hamid Bashir1*, Bilal Saeed Khan1 and Muhammad Shahid2

Muhammad Zafarullah Khan

...iculture machines and equipments and use of hand tools and implements. Most of the respondents have high competency level having practical farming experience. Study suggests pre-service along with in-service trainings along with higher degree in agriculture i.e. PhD for improving their technical competencies in agricultural mechanization


S. K. Mukhopadhyay and M. V. Santha Kumar

Studies on the biosafety of botanical insecticides to native natural enemies of mulberry ecosystem

M. S. A. Mamun and M. Ahmed

Integrated pest management in tea: prospects and future strategies in Bangladesh

T. P. Ghosh, D. Mandal, S. Laha and M. K. Dasgupta 

Dynamics and severity model in managing fungal diseases
Sumaira Maqsood1,*, Muhammad Afzal1, Muhammad Anjum Aqueel1, Abu Bakar Muhammad Raza1,Waqas Wakil2 andMuhammad Hussnain Babar3


Sumit K. Satpathi1, Suprakash Pal2*, Rupsanatan Mandal2, Nonigopal Shit2 and Ashutosh Sarkar3
Tahira Kamal1*, Saeed-Ul-Hassan Khan2, Amir Bin Zahoor3, Khalid Naeem3, Muhammad Naeem Riaz1, Siddra Tayyab Akhtar4, Ghulam Muhammad Ali1*
...specific high quality equipments in lab. Whereas Lamp PCR is simple and accurate test for the rapid diagnosis of FMD. This study has been done initially with FMD known serotypes (O, A, Asia1) already in use at animal health.Viral RNAs were extracted using R Neasy Minikit (Qiagen) according to instruction manual. After extraction RNAs were eluted in 60 ul elution buffer and stored at -70C. Each strain of FMD virus was serially diluted to -5dilution in order to ...

Wang Jian1, Abdur Rehman2*, Noor Khan3, Wang Zhengjia4, Ji Peng-fei5, Xie Cong6, Muhammad Niamatullah Khan Babar7 and Raheel Saqib8 

...umption third, family equipment consumption fourth have highest close relation with the per capita income of rural households. Lastly the healthcare, transport communication, education and other consumptions have a relatively lower correlation with the rural households’ per capita income. The prediction accuracy grade is good for all per capita income and rural households’ consumption except the educational consumption grade that is just qualified....

Anish Shrestha 

...vailability of modern equipment with the index score of 0.81. And, according to the farmers, main role institution that should play is providing training to the farmers. With proper and efficient use of input, beekeeping could be potential and viable commercial enterprise 


 Akhtar A. Siddiqui and Allah W. Rind*


Ayesha Tahir* and Sonila Hassan**

...res less space, care, equipment and cost compared to many other crops and livestock. The present study was conducted in 2010 to estimate the profitability of small scale button mushroom production at National Agricultural Research Centre (NARC) Islamabad, Pakistan. The cost of production methodology was used for this study. The yield and gross return of mushroom was estimated at 155.6 kg ha and Rs.77,800 ha , respectively. The results indicated the fact that m...

 Muhammad Tayyab Mudassar*, Ehsan-ul-Haq*, Muhammad Naeemullah**, Muhammad Shakeel*, Muhammad Ashfaque*, Asmat un Nisa* and Javed Khan*

...lable and inexpensive equipment to produce the healthy surplus of this predator for experiment and small holding field releases, S. cereallela is recommended as more efficient and economic host as compared to P. solenopsis.


 Ishaq Ahmad*, Abdul Rehman**, Ehsan –Ul- Haq*** and Arif Mahmood****

Muhammad Khalid Mukhtar1,*, Hummaira Iqbal1, Hafiz Muhammad Tahir2, Haseena Ghulam Muhammad1 and Muhammad Irfan1

Jam Ghulam Mustafa Sahito1*, Tajwer Sultana Syed1, Ghulam Hussain Abro1 and Inayatullah Rajper2  

Zafar Iqbal*, Farah Ansar, Zil-e-Huma, using sterilized equipment, keeping work place clean and disinfecting it regularly. The possibility of isolation of fewer pathogenic agents in this study cannot be ruled out. There has not been any report of zoonotic infection in ornamental fish handlers in Lahore. There is one message that it should be assumed that zoonotic organisms are always present and safety measures should be used to limit the spread of these infections. Potential risk of zoon...

Faheem Ali1*, Muhammad Naeem Arbab1, Abdul Basit2, Muhammad Kashif Khan1, Gulzar Ahmad1 and Muhammad Amir

...ucts. Also, sensitive equipment would not be encountering voltage fluctuations anymore 


Rehmat Ullah* and Khalid Nawab 

...d Personal Protection Equipment on self-reported acute poising cases. Binary logistic regression analysis depicted highly significant negative association between adverse effects of pesticides like headache, dizziness, feeling weak, difficulty in seeing, chest pain, burning sensation, and fever with precautionary measures/Personal Protection Equipment’s recommending that these precautionary measures and PPEs must be ad...
Ahmad-Ur-Rahman Saljoqi1, Imtiaz Khan1*, Bashir Ahmad1, Fazal Maula2 and Sardar Hussain1

Gulfam Hassan1*, Ijaz Ashraf2, Muhammad Qavi Irshad3, Shafiq-ur-Rehman Zia2 and Muhammad Idrees

...condition of training equipment the top most weaknesses of trainings. On basis of results it is recommended that Extension Field Staff (EFS) should organize more trainings equipped with appropriate literature and skilled trainers for the enhanced awareness. 

Guoan Yin1,2, Lei Wang1, Xiaoyu Zhao1, LangchaoYu1, Liwei Guan1 and 
Dapeng Huang1,2*
...ecorded by monitoring equipment on the 1st to 3rd day of 1-4 week after farrowing, the duration of postures was analyzed, including lateral lying, ventral lying, sitting, and standing. Gestation crates can encourage sow’s sitting behaviour during the first week of postpartum (P=0.032), farrowing crates could increase sow’s lateral lying during 1-4 weeks of postpartum (P=0.001), while the sows reared in farrowing pens performed more ventral lying an...
Muneer Abbas1*, Muhammad Ramzan1, Khalid Hussain1, Abdul Ghaffar1, Niaz Hussain1, Muhammad Irshad1, Mudassar Khaliq1 and Sohail Abbas2

Muhammad Asif Farooq1*, Muhammad Jalal Arif1, Muhammad Dildar Gogi1, Bilal Atta2 and Ahmad Nawaz

Afzal Nimra1, Zulfiqar Ali1*, Safdar Sidra 2, Rida Ahmad1
... (wall paints, indoor equipment, environmental tobacco smoke) and outdoor (dust, soil and fuel combustion) sources. The hospitals were located on busy roads, where high vehicular emissions probably emit trace metal pollutants. 

Riaz Muhammad1*, Naseer Ahmeda, Abdul Basit2, Rizwan Alim Mufti2 

... and different sports equipment. Ti-64 accounting for more than 50 percent of titanium usage in today
modern world high-tech industries subjected to various nature of cyclic loading. This study includes the experimental
assessment of fracture toughness of Ti-64 using indentation technique which is easy and fast experimental techniques.
For this purpose Vickers-indentation technique is employed to report the hardness followed by fracture to...

Anwar Ullah*, Sabir Islam*, Sikandar Bilal Khattak*, Safi Ur Rahman**, Shahid Maqsood*, Misbah Ullah*, Rehman Akhtar*, Rashid Nawaz* 


Heavy earth moving equipment’s are critical for completion of any developmental projects. Dams, schools, bridges
or any mining related initiations are part of these infrastructure development projects. Usually the delays are due to
the inefficient and ineffective maintenance procedures of the heavy earth moving equipment’s. Poor record keeping
and un-systemized maintenance procedures leads...

Sajid Ullah Butt, Aamer Ahmed Baqai, Syeda Naela Fatima, Hasan Aftab Saeed

...ude material handling equipment such as transport and positioning equipment in the process plans and hence, to include their usage cost in the overall mathematical model. This will lead to a more accurate design of process plan particularly in terms of MHE related to each machine required to produce a part. The inclusion of MHE cost gives an idea about the impact of these equipment on over...

 Gulzar Ahmad1, M. Inayatullah Babar2

...ace in the electronic equipment. An efficient substrate material was employed in the antenna that is known as Preperm L-450. Dielectric constant of this mentioned material is 4.4 and its height or thickness is 1.64mm. Different methods were engaged to expand its bandwidth from 9.07GHz to 13.13GHz. The reflection coefficient of -45dB at the central frequency, a gain of 7dBi and total efficiency of 0.99 have been demonstrated by this proposed desi...
Saima Yaqub1, Tahir Yaqub1*, Muhammad Zubair Shabbir2, Asif Nadeem3Aziz-Ul-Rahman1, Muhammad Furqan Shahid1, Zarfishan Tahir4 and Nadia Mukhtar4
...s of shared injection equipment (21.17%; 95% CI: 25.07-40.21; p<0.0001), injected previously used syringes (30.2%; 95% CI: 23.4-37.99; p=0.0016), sex with IDUs (37.78%; 95% CI: 25.11-52.37; p=0.002) and those with an age between 30-39 years (27.17%; 95% CI: 19.13-37.04; p=0.039). The pol gene-based phylogeny and subtyping classification categorized the under-study sequences representing subtype A (n = 12; 46.15%), CRF02_AG...
Luka Anthony*, Olugbenga Omotayo Alabi, Elizabeth Samuel Ebukiba and Vandi Gamba
...on of rice processing equipment should be made available, contract farming and marketing should be encouraged for increased rice production and market out choice for profit maximization among rice farmers to eradicate poverty and improve their welfare.
Muneer Abbas1*, Dilbar Hussain2, Muhammad Saleem2, Abdul Ghaffar2Sohail Abbas3, Niaz Hussain1 and Abdul Ghaffar1

Muhammad Ibrahim Kubar1, Fahad Nazir Khoso1*, Imran Khatri1, Niaz Hussain Khuhro2 and Arfan Ahmed Gilal1

Elharony, S.B.1,3, SaharA.Youssef2 and Richard F. Lee3

...azardous reagents and equipment. It can be
performed even in low technology laboratories. The amount of tissue
required by this method is ∼50–100 mg. The quantity and the quality
of the nucleic acid extracted by this method is high enough to
perform hundreds of PCR-based reactions and also to be used in
other DNA manipulation techniques such as restriction digestion,
Southern blo...
Muhammad Bilal Tayyab1, Muhammad Zeeshan Majeed1*, Muhammad Asam Riaz1, Muhammad Anjum Aqueel2, Sylvain Nafiba Ouedraogo3, Muhammad Luqman4, Kanwer Shahzad Ahmed1 and Mujahid Tanvir1

Theophilus Miebi Gbigbi* and Rodney Akpoviri Isiorhovoja

..., labour, shelter and equipment significantly influenced exotic chicken production. The resource use efficiency result infers that DOCs and drugs and vaccine were under-utilized while feeds, labour and housing and equipment were over-utilized by the farmers. The elasticity of production was 1.08. This is increasing returns to scale. This paper concludes that poultry farmers were inefficient in the application of productive r...

Arshad Farooq1, Abdul Hassan1, Muhammad Ishaq2, Asif Nawaz3*, Iltaf Ullah4 and Hidayatullah5

Ahmad-Ur-Rahman Saljoqi1, Sumayya Amin1, Muhammad Salim1*, Taufiq Nawaz2 and Farida Anjum3

Panjono1*, Endy Triyannanto2, Widagdo Sri Nugroho3, Muhammad Danang Eko Yulianto1, Bayu Andri Atmoko1,4
...ring process by using equipment in the form of a restraining box. This study aimed to examine and identify the effect of using the portable restraining boxes (PRB) on the slaughtering efficiency and the level of animal welfare in the slaughtering process of sacrificial cattle during the Eid al-Adha. The study was conducted at Al-Ishlaah Mosque, Yogyakarta, by using ten sacrificial cattle slaughtered conventionally and six slaughtered by using PRB. The paramete...
Sara Mohamed Hemeda1, R.H. Sayed2, Hani Hassan1, Sheima A.E.2, Hassan Aboul-Ella3, R. Soliman3*
...he need for any other equipment. The recorded lower detection limit of β-lactams by the developed kits was 10ppb in skimmed milk and 5ppb in phosphate buffer saline. 75 cattle milk samples were examined by the developed kits and by the commercially available new existing and commercially available SNAP β-Lactam test kit. The results were compared, and the determined specificity, sensitivity, and accuracy of the locally prepared kits were 93.7%, 95.3%...

Misbah ud Din1, Shah Alam Khan1, Said Hussain Shah1,2* and Najeeb Ullah3

Misbah ud Din1, Shah Alam Khan1, Said Hussain Shah1,2* and Najeeb Ullah3

Ayesha Khan*, Zubair Ahmad Khan and Urooba Pervaiz

...e arranged and needed equipment and facilities should be provided to minimize the obstacles faced.


Abdul Latif1, Shahid Sattar1, Fazal Maula2, Imtiaz Khan4*, Asim Iqbal3 and Said Hussain Shah1*

Khalid Hussain1, Muneer Abbas1*, Niaz Hussain1, Muhammad Irshad1, Mudassar Khaliq1, Zubeda Parveen1, Sohail Abbas2, Ali Raza3 and Abdul Ghaffar1

Khalid Hussain1, Muneer Abbas1*, Niaz Hussain1, Muhammad Irshad1, Mudassar Khaliq1, Zubeda Parveen1, Sohail Abbas2, Ali Raza3 and Abdul Ghaffar1

F. Shahina†, K.A. Tabassum and M.A. Habib*

Muhammad Ismail1, Abu Bakar Muhammad Raza1,2, Zarina Qasim3, Muhammad Zeeshan Majeed1*

Muhammad Rizwan1*, Bilal Atta1,  Muhammad Arshad2, Sohail Akhter3
Muhammad Tahir3, Misbah Rizwan1, Muddassir Ali1 and Arshad Makhdoon Sabir1

Muhammad Usman Shafi1, Hafiz Azhar Ali Khan1*, Tiyyabah Khan2, Waheed Anwar2, Adnan Akhter2 and Muhammad Zubair3

...d Personal Protection Equipment (PPE) during operation leads to health problems of human, increase resistance against pests with negative effects on the environment. The purpose of this survey was to check the knowledge about pesticide uses, risks and storage among farmers in Lahore division of Punjab, Pakistan. And, to get knowledge from farmers regarding local knowledge system (LKS) and Integrated Pest Management (

Imtiaz Khan1*, Bashir Ahmad1, Ahmad ur Rahman Saljoqi1, Shah Alam Khan1, Javed Khan3 and Muhammad Azim Khan2

Nwafili Sylvanus Anene, Ibinabo Jessica that specialized equipment were not used in transportation and palm oil and some chemicals were added to transportation medium as anti-stress. There is the need to train catfish farmers’ on biosecurity measures and record keeping to further drive the growth of aquaculture production in Nigeria.


Muneer Abbas1*, Sohail Abbas2, Imran Faraz3, Niaz Hussain1, Muhammad Aslam1, Muhammad Irshad1, Mudassar Khaliq1, Abdul Ghaffar1, Zubeda Parveen1, Muhammad Nadeem1, Sana Ullah4* and Malik Akhtar Iqbal5

Muhammad Nadeem1, Jamshaid Iqbal2, Tariq Mustafa3, Gul Rehman2, Muhammad Faisal Shahzad2, Muhammad Younas4,5*, Aftab Ahmad Khan6, Ameer Hamza2, Abdul Ghaffar1 and Muneer Abbas1

Abnet Mekonnen1*, Kadir Abderehman1 and Feti Seyaka2

...uiring less expensive equipment. Isoflurane (inhalant) provides a very rapid and smooth induction and recovery. Pre-anesthetic medications are used to decrease fear and apprehension, aid in restraint, decrease the amount of other anesthetic agents required and decrease side effects of induction drugs. These drugs are metabolized by the liver and excreted by the kidneys. Monitoring vital signs continuously during anesthesia will provide early warning of potenti...

Azam Khurshid1*, Jawad Sarwar1, Kamran Sohail1, Hafiz Muhammad Faisal Ayub2, Farooq Muhammad1, Fida Muhammad Khan3 and Adnan Ihsan1

Tarek Refaay, E.A. Elshafiee, Hayam A. Mansour and Maha A. Sabry*, food handlers and equipment swabs were collected from 54 food outlets in some touristic cities in Egypt. E. coli O157 was 1.1% (7/648) and 1.2% (5/432) in all examined samples and food samples respectively. Cooked chicken samples were the most contaminated with E. coli O157:H7 with an overall prevalence of 1.9% (2/108). The highest prevalence of E. coli O157:H7 (8.3%) isolates was recovered from raw chicken and cooked beef meat in Hurghada Governorate foll...

Sarhad Journal of Agriculture


Vol.39, Iss. 4, Pages 781-1002


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