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Performance of Early and Late Planting Cotton Genotypes under Agro-Ecological Conditions of Multan, Punjab, Pakistan

PJAR_34_3_569-579

Research Article

Performance of Early and Late Planting Cotton Genotypes under Agro-Ecological Conditions of Multan, Punjab, Pakistan

Muhammad Iqbal1, Muhammad Mahmood Iqbal1*, Saghir Ahmad1, Athar Mahmood2, Muhammad Akram1, Hammad Husnain1, Muhammad Shahid1, Saeed Ahmad1, Ali Raza1, Ansar Hussain3, Allah Ditta Abid4, Qaisar Abbas5, Mussarrat Hussain5, Muhammad Akram6 and Muhammad Umair Hassan2

1Cotton Research Institute, Multan, Pakistan; 2Department of Agronomy, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan; 3Ghazi University Dera Ghazi Khan, Pakistan; 4Department of Plant Protection, Malair Halt Karachi, Pakistan; 5Entomological Research Station, Multan, Pakistan; 6Agronomic Research Institute, Faisalabad, Pakistan.

Abstract | Cotton is an imperious cash crop of Pakistan and change in climatic conditions are continuously limiting its production across the globe. Sowing time is an important agronomic consideration which should be optimized to ensure better cotton yield and quality. Therefore, this study was performed to determine the potential of cotton genotypes under varied planting times at cotton research institute, Multan during 2018 and 2019. The experiment was comprised of four cotton genotypes IUB-13, MNH-1016, MNH-1020 and MNH-1026 and eight different sowing times viz 1st March, 16th March, 1st April, 16th April, 1st May, 16th May, 1st June and 16th June. The experiment was performed in RCBD with split plot arrangement and was repeated thrice. Sowing times were placed in main plot and cultivars were placed in sub plots. Results revealed that seed cotton yield and fiber strength was more when cotton was planted early between 1st March to 16th April compared to late planted cotton (1st May to 16th June). Highest seed cotton yield was obtained when cotton was sown on 1st April during first year (3946 kg ha-1) and 16th March during second year (3307 kg ha-1). Minimum seed cotton yield (852, 299 kg ha-1) during both years was obtained when cotton was sown on 16th June. Among cotton genotypes highest seed cotton yield was recorded in MNH-1020 during first year (3021 kg ha-1) and MNH-1016 during second year (2150 kg ha-1). However, minimum seed cotton yield, ginning out turn (38.9, 36.6%) and fiber length (27.6, 26.8 cm) were recorded in IUB-13 during both years. MNH-1020 had highest ginning out turn (41.1, 39.3%), fiber strength (35.88, 40.44 g/tex) and fiber length (28.7, 29.2 cm) during both years. MNH-1020 was also least effected with cotton leaf curl virus when planted on 1st March during first year (25.0%) and 16th march sowing during second year (3.0%). In conclusion, cotton cultivar MNH-1020 can sown from 1st March to 16th April in order to get better cotton yield and quality.


Received | March 16, 2021; Accepted | June 15, 2021; Published | June 27, 2021

*Correspondence | Muhammad Mahmood Iqbal, Cotton Research Institute, Multan, Pakistan; Email: mahmkhokhar@gmail.com

Citation | Iqbal, M., M.M. Iqbal, S. Ahmad, A. Mahmood, M. Akram, H. Husnain, M. Shahid, S. Ahmad, A. Raza, A. Hussain, A.D. Abid, Q. Abbas, M. Hussain, M. Akram and M.U. Hassan. 2021. Performance of early and late planting cotton genotypes under agro-ecological conditions of Multan, Punjab, Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Agricultural Research, 34(3): 569-579.

DOI | https://dx.doi.org/10.17582/journal.pjar/2021/34.3.569.579

Keywords | Adaptation, Cotton leaf curl virus, Fiber strength, Germplasm, Ginning out turn



Introduction

Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) being the king of fibers occupies central position in the modern commerce. It plays an imperative role in Pakistan’s economy nonetheless, per hectare yield of Pakistan is lower than the other cotton producing countries. Cotton crop has a share of 0.8% in national GDP while it has a contribution of 4.1% in total value added in agriculture (GoP, 2020). In the countries like Pakistan which is vulnerable to climate change, selection of climate resilient crop management practices plays an appreciable role to achieve the desired yield (Deho et al., 2012). The wrong selection of management consideration can cause a significant reduction in final yield. Abiotic factors such as rainfall, temperature, and irradiance are the main ecological factors influencing cotton growth and development (Bradow and Davidonis, 2000; Chen et al., 2012). Sowing time is an imperative management option to reduce the impact of abiotic factors like drought and heat stress (Hassan et al., 2020a). Deciding the growing season length through sowing date is of remarkable importance (Huang, 2016; Muhsin et al., 2021) owing to fact it has significant impact on crop vegetative and reproductive growth (Hallikeri et al., 2009). The cotton sown in early season faces the hottest period during their reproduction phase which cause a significant reduction in yield (Rahman et al., 2007). Moreover, in late planted cotton flowering and maturity are exposed to high rainfall, low temperature and shorter growth period which in turn reduce the cotton yield and quality (Elayan et al., 2015).

An ever-increasing global population calls for agricultural production systems and cultivars that are productive in unreliable weather patterns and are more efficient in utilization of resources in scenarios of climate change, heat and drought stress (Hassan et al., 2020b). The cultivation of suitable cultivar plant a crucial role in growth and final productivity (Chattha et al., 2017, 2020; Hassan et al., 2018, 2019a, b, 2020c; Ilyas et al., 2021). Varieties with varied yield potentials are available but their production potential could not be attained under field conditions (Reynolds and Tuberosa, 2008). Yield reduction is mainly due to the cultivation of varieties without considering their behavior under particular sowing environments (Nasim et al., 2010). Cotton cultivars are highly responsive to specific environmental conditions including the day length, specific humidity, temperature and rainfall (Shah et al., 2010). They behave differently to their surrounding environments regarding yield, fiber properties and disease incidence (Moser et al., 2000). Therefore, selection of suitable, aggressive and resistant crop species are the agronomic approaches employed to take yield advantages under varied environmental conditions (Devita et al., 2017). In the changing climatic conditions; selection of superior cotton genotypes according to the varied sowing environment is the dire need of the time. Therefore, two years study was conducted to match suitable time of sowing for Bt cotton genotypes in order to get the higher yield and quality.

Materials and Methods

Experimental site and soil

Two years field study was carried out at cotton research institute, Multan. The soil samples from different parts of soil were collected and analyzed to determine different soil properties by following the methods of Homer and Pratt (1961). The soil was silt loam (sand 29%; silt 53%; clay 18%) with EC 1.8 dSm−1, pH 8.1, soil organic matter (0.64%), available nitrogen total phosphorus and exchangeable potassium were 0.04%, 7.8 mg kg-1 169 mg kg-1 respectively. The prevailed weather conditions during the study period are presented in Table 1.

Planting material and experimental details

Four cotton genotypes IUB-13, MNH-1016, MNH-1020 and MNH-1026 were sown at eight different sowing times viz 1st March, 16th March, 1st April, 16th April, 1st May, 16th May, 1st June and 16th June. MNH-1016, MNH-1020 and MNH-1026 were Bt cultivars of cotton research institute, Multan whereas seeds of Bt cultivar IUB-13 were collected from Islamia University, Bahawalpur. The experiment was performed in randomized complete block design with split plot arrangement and was repeated thrice. For both years net plot dimensions were 3 ×10 m.

Crop husbandry

Two cultivations followed by one rotavation were made for soil preparation. After that one laser land leveling followed by two cultivations were done for seed bed preparation. Beds and furrows each of 2.5 feet width were made by tractor mounted bed planter. Delinted cotton seeds were manually sown with row and plant space of 75 and 30 cm respectively. For successful stand establishment re-irrigation after 3 days was done in the furrows and then subsequent irrigations were applied at 7-21 days interval depending upon weather conditions and crop requirement un-till crop maturity. Phosphorus and potassium were applied as basal dose while nitrogen was applied in three splits i.e. at sowing, flowering and boll formation. Thinning at four leaf stage was done to get the desired and healthy plant population. Insect population was maintained under economic threshold level through recommended insecticides.

Observations

Growth and yield parameters

In each plot, ten plants were marked branches and nodes were counted and averaged. At maturity plant height was determined from tagged plants with meter rod and balls/plant were counted and averaged. Randomly selected 25 opened bolls were picked, weighed and obtained weight was divided with 25 to get the boll weight in grams. Each plot was manually picked three times, weighed and added together along with the weight of 25 opened bolls to determine the seed cotton yield and later on converted into t ha-1.

Crop development

Crop phenological parameter such as time to squaring, flowering and boll opening were determined by daily visual observation of tagged plants in each plot. Each phenological stage was considered when 50% of the tagged plants attained that stage.

Cotton leaf curl virus infestation

Fortnight data of cotton leaf curl virus was taken from infested plants showing disease symptoms. Leaves with small and main vein thickness, curling and small ‘enation’ were considered as an infected and percentage of infected plants was calculated by following methods of Akhtar et al. (2010).

Quality parameters

Seed cotton samples were sun dried, weighed and ginning was done with the ginning machine. The lint of each collected sample was weighed and ginning out turn (a ratio of lint to seed cotton yield) was determined in percentage. A sub sample of lint (50 g) was taken for determining the micronaire, staple length and fiber strength. High volume instrument spectrum-1 (HVI) was used for determining these physical fiber properties.

Statistical analysis

The data on different collected traits were analyzed by ANNOVA and differences amid the treatments were compared with least significant difference test at 5% probability level (Steel et al., 1997).

Results and Discussion

Growth

Plant growth parameters were significantly affected by different sowing dates. During first year, maximum plant height (153.6 cm) and nodes per plant (47.19) were recorded when cotton was sown on 1st April that was statistically same with 16th March sown cotton (Table 2). Minimum plant height (105.4 cm) and nodes per plant were recorded in crop sown on 16th June sowing (Table 2). Among cotton genotypes, MNH-1026 had highest height and nodes per plant whereas plants of IUB-13 had lowest height and nodes per plant during first year (Table 2). During second year, maximum plant height was noted in genotype MNH-1026 when sown on 1st May and highest nodes per plant were recorded in same genotype in 1st and 16th March sowing date that was statistically same with 1st April, 16th April, 1st May and 16th May sowing date with MNH-1026. Moreover, minimum plant height and nodes per plant were recorded in cotton genotype MNH-1016 when sown at 16th June during second year (Table 2).

 

Table 1: Weather data of the experimental site during cotton growing seasons 2018 and 2019.

Months

Rainfall (mm)

Relative humidity (%)

Temperature (°C)

Mean maximum

Mean minimum

Mean

 

2018

2019

2018

2019

2018

2019

2018

2019

2018

2019

March

0

24

75.9

78.1

31.29

26.55

16.87

14.35

24.08

20.45

April

8

17

59.7

69.9

36.80

35.90

22.37

21.80

29.58

28.85

May

4

13

45.1

52.1

40.81

40.55

26.65

25.06

33.73

32.81

June

4

55

48.2

39.5

41.20

43.13

29.03

29.30

35.12

36.22

July

6

21

68.6

59

38.58

39.52

29.48

29.97

34.03

34.74

August

3

46

71.8

71.8

37.16

38.00

28.94

28.45

33.05

33.23

September

0

28

64.8

67.9

36.33

38.33

26.83

28.80

31.58

33.57

October

0

38

68

74.6

33.97

33.45

21.16

20.52

27.56

26.98

Source: Cotton Research Institute, Multan, Pakistan.

 

 

 

Crop development

Plant mapping data during first year reveal that early sown cotton (March and April) had highest number of squares during the month of July and August whereas late sown cotton (May and June) had highest squares during the month of August and September (Figure 1). However, during second year, early sown cotton had highest squares during August and late sown had during September. Among cotton genotypes during first year highest squares were recorded in the month of August for all genotypes but highest were recorded in IUB-13 followed by MNH-1020. MNH-1020 also had highest squares during July when compared with other genotypes for highest squares during July (Figure 1). Phenological data of crop development verified that during first year lowest time for squaring was noted in MNH-1016 sown on 1st April that was statistically same with the same sowing date with varieties IUB-13 and MNH-1020. During second year, lowest squaring time and boll opening time was recorded in MNH-1020 and highest was noticed in MNH-1026 sown 1st May (Table 3).

 

Yield and yield attributes

Cotton genotypes and sowing dates had significant differences for bolls/plant and boll weight in both studied years (Table 2). For sowing dates, highest bolls per plant and boll weight were recorded in 1st April sown cotton that was statistically similar to 16th April sowing during first year. Among cotton genotypes highest bolls/plant (36.63) and boll weight (3.90 g) were recorded in cotton genotype MNH-1020 during both years and lowest bolls were noticed in IUB-13 and boll weight was recorded in MNH-1026 during both years (Table 2). In first year of study, highest seed cotton yield was obtained when cotton was planted on 1st April that was statistically similar to seed cotton yield obtained from 16th March sowing. During second year, 16th March sown cotton had highest seed cotton yield that was similar to seed cotton yield obtained from 1st March and 1st April sowing date. Among cotton cultivars, MNH-1020 produced highest seed cotton yield during first year and MNH-1016 during second year, however, it was statistically similar to seed cotton yield obtained from MNH-1020 during second year. Lowest seed cotton yield was recorded in IUB-13 during first year and but statistically similar to IUB-13 during second year (Table 2).

 

Cotton leaf curl virus infestation (%)

Genotype and sowing environment interaction had significant impact on the infestation of cotton leaf curl virus during both years. Graphical representation of cotton leaf curl virus showed that during first year early sown cotton (March-April) had lowest virus infection during the month of July whereas late sown cotton faced early virus attack during the month of July limiting plant growth and development. During second year early sown cotton was least infected by virus during July, August and September compared to late sowing (Figure 4). During first year, lowest virus infestation was recorded in cotton cultivar MNH-1020 planted on 1st March that was statistically similar to the 1st April with same variety. Highest virus infestation was recorded in cotton cultivar IUB-13 sown on 16th June 2019. During second year, cotton cultivar MNH-1020 planted on 16th April was least effected with virus whereas same variety sown on 1st May exhibited greatest virus infestation (Figure 4).

 

 

Cotton fiber quality

MNH-1020 had highest ginning out turn (41.1, 39.3) and staple length (28.7, 29.23 cm) whereas IUB-13 had lowest GOT (38.90, 36.63%) and staple length (27.6, 26.80 cm) during both years. During second year, cotton cultivar MNH-1026 had highest staple length (30.90 cm) when planted on 16th June. Lowest staple length was attained in cotton cultivar IUB-13 with 16th April sowing statistically similar with 1st April sowing (Table 4). Lowest Mike maximum value was recorded in cotton genotype MNH-1016 that was statistically same with MNH-1020 during both years. For sowing dates 1st March sowing had least mike similar with 16th March and 16th April. Cotton sown on 1st June had greatest Mike (Table 2). Fiber of MNH-1020 had greatest strength during both years. 16th March sown cotton had greatest fiber strength whereas 16th May sown cotton has lowest fiber strength (Table 2).

Results of two years field trials confirmed that along with genetic makeup varied sowing environments also had significant impact on the growth and quality traits and cotton yield. Genotypes with diverse background vary in terms of growth and development (Bange and Milroy, 2004). Plant height and nodes per plant were highest in MNH-1026 because of genetic difference (Boquet and Clawson, 2009) but sowing window from 1st March to 30th April (Early sown cotton) also had highest expression of these growth parameters (Table 2) owing to environmental conditions prevailed during growth of crop. Advance sowing had early climatic support of higher sunshine hours, effective rainfall and total water used by crop (Table 1) that caused better crop growth (Patil et al., 2009).

Data regarding cotton leaf curl virus infestation revealed that during August and September 2018 cotton leaf curl virus infestation was highest compared to 2019 (Figure 4). High rainfall during second year may be the reason of low attack CLCV during second year. However, growing of resistant genotype with advanced sowing date is vital to reduce the attack of cotton leaf curl (Karavina et al., 2012). Low infestation of CLCV on cotton genotype MNH-1020 when planted early increased seed cotton yield (Table 2) whereas high infestation of cotton leaf curl virus on late planted IUB-13 decreased its yield (Table 2). Due to enhanced growth, early sown cotton (March-April) withstands the attack of leaf curl virus (Pedigo 2004). Moreover, early plantation escaped from virus stress (Figure 4) during peak flowering time (Figure 2) while late planted crop hitted very earlier by CLCV and infestation becomes severe during peak flowering period resulting in reduction in yield (Gormus and Yucel, 2002).

 

Table 3: Interactive effect of sowing date and cultivar on time to squaring, flowering and boll opening in cotton.

Treatments

Time to squaring (Days)

Time to flowering (Days)

Time to boll opening (Days)

2018

2019

2018

2019

2018

2019

1st March

IUB-13

39.00ghi

44.00defg

54.00jk

64.67bcd

88.33hijk

99.00efgh

MNH-1016

41.00ef

48.00a

57.00f

68.33a

88.00hijk

101.67cdef

MNH-1020

39.33gh

46.67ab

57.00f

67.67a

87.33ijk

102.00cde

MNH-1026

38.00hijk

46.22abc

54.33jk

67.11ab

86.33k

101.83cde

16th March

IUB-13

39.33gh

42.67fghi

55.00hijk

62.67def

88.33de

94.67ijk

MNH-1016

37.00kl

41.67hi

55.33ghij

61.00fg

88.00hijk

97.33ghij

MNH-1020

41.67de

42.00ghi

56.33fgh

64.67bcd

88.33hijk

94.67ijk

MNH-1026

38.67ghij

42.11fghi

54.67ijk

62.67def

88.67ghijk

95.44hijk

1st April

IUB-13

34.67mn

40.67ij

47.67o

57.00hi

87.67ijk

93.67jk

MNH-1016

33.33n

42.00ghi

53.67kl

59.00gh

87.00ijk

98.00fghi

MNH-1020

34.67mn

41.00ij

50.33n

58.67gh

87.00ijk

95.00ijk

MNH-1026

35.00m

41.22hi

50.33n

58.22h

87.00ijk

95.56hijk

16th April

IUB-13

34.67mn

38.33k

52.00m

57.00hi

86.67jk

95.00ijk

MNH-1016

37.67ijk

37.33kl

55.33ghij

57.00hi

86.33k

95.00ijk

MNH-1020

40.00fg

37.67k

52.33lm

54.33j

86.33k

91.67kl

MNH-1026

35.33m

35.67lm

52.00m

55.33ij

86.33k

103.33cd

1st May

IUB-13

46.00bc

37.00kl

62.67c

51.00k

87.67ijk

83.00m

MNH-1016

45.67c

40.67ij

64.33b

55.00ij

91.00defg

89.67l

MNH-1020

47.00abc

35.00m

67.00a

51.67k

89.00fghij

81.00m

MNH-1026

46.33bc

38.33k

66.33a

55.67ij

90.33efgh

114.33a

16th May

IUB-13

47.00abc

46.67ab

57.33ef

66.67ab

86.33k

98.00fghi

MNH-1016

47.33ab

43.33efgh

62.00c

62.67def

88.33hijk

100.67defg

MNH-1020

47.00abc

42.33fghi

60.33d

61.67ef

89.33fghi

101.33def

MNH-1026

48.33a

39.00jk

62.67c

66.33ab

93.00cd

107.33b

1st June

IUB-13

41.67de

43.33efgh

58.67e

56.67hij

92.00de

96.00hij

MNH-1016

43.00d

42.67fghi

60.33d

62.00ef

91.33def

97.33ghij

MNH-1020

43.00d

44.33cdef

61.33cd

56.67hij

89.33fghi

95.67hij

MNH-1026

43.00d

45.67bcd

60.33d

63.67cde

88.67ghijk

102.67cde

16th June

IUB-13

35.67lm

46.67ab

55.33ghij

65.00bcd

93.33cd

102.67cde

MNH-1016

35.33m

47.00ab

56.67fg

68.00a

95.00bc

103.00cd

MNH-1020

37.33jk

45.33bcde

56.00fghi

66.00abc

97.67a

102.67cdee

MNH-1026

40.00fg

46.33abcd

56.33fgh

58.33h

96.67ab

105.33bc

LSD≤0.05P

1.56

1.97

1.42

2.55

2.45

3.78

Figures sharing the same letter for a parameter in a year do not differed significantly at p≤0.05, NS= Non significant.

 

Yield determining parameters such as bolls/plant and boll weight were greater during first year because of decrease in monthly mean temperature during July, August and September (peak flowering period) and low rainfall compared to second years (Table 1). An increase in temperature had profound effect on flower shedding and boll retention (Fisher, 1975). However, cotton plants sown early have the ability to compensate better by producing new floral parts and convert them into yield traits compared to late planted plants (Table 2). Because of extended growth period due to early planting, plants received additional soil moisture and nutrients which favored the more balls to mature (Huang and Ji, 2016). Early planted cotton had improved boll size (Table 2) owing to accretion of more assimilates and prolonged period for ball development as well as maturity (Pettigrew, 2002; Nuti et al., 2006). Whereas late-planted cotton had more flowers and bolls later in the growing season (Figure 2) with low temperature (Table 1) lengthened the period from sowing to boll opening (Table 3) which delayed maturity and reduced yield (Elayan et al., 2015; Wanga et al., 2016).

 

Table 4: Interactive effect of sowing date and cultivars on plant height, number of nodes, bolls per plant, cotton leaf curl virus infestation and staple length in cotton.

Treatments

Plant height (cm)

Nodes per plant

Bolls per plant

Cotton leaf curl virus infestation (%)

Staple length (mm)

2018

2019

2018

2019

2018

2019

2018

2019

2018

2019

1st March

IUB-13

147.3

141.1 h-j

42.37

52.23b-d

37.27

31.50b-d

44.67e-h

28.33f-h

27.2

26.52j

MNH-1016

150.7

128.9 jk

42.63

49.97c-f

38.27

32.90a-d

41.33 f-j

11.33k-m

27.8

28.25d-i

MNH-1020

151.9

158.6 d-g

44.47

52.87b-d

40.57

35.47ab

25.00l

14.67kl

28.3

29.48a-d

MNH-1026

154

179.9 bc

46.6

58.63a

38.83

31.57b-d

40.67f-j

26.67g-i

27.6

27.63e-j

16th March

IUB-13

147.5

132.4 i-k

45.83

46.33e-g

37.53

32.47a-d

43.33 f-i

24.33g-i

27.4

27.38g-j

MNH-1016

150.5

142.4 g-j

46.8

48.87d-f

38.7

35.27a-d

40.00 f-j

9.67k-m

28

28.42d-h

MNH-1020

151.8

155.2 e-h

47.03

44.97f-h

41.07

36.53a

35.67i-k

7.33mn

28.4

29.82abc

MNH-1026

154.7

174.3 cd

48.57

58.63a

38.87

32.93a-d

40.00f-j

22.00h-j

27.8

27.30g-j

1st April

IUB-13

148.1

141.7 g-j

44.07

44.48f-h

40.17

33.00a-d

43.00 f-j

21.33ij

27.3

26.37j

MNH-1016

154.1

125.0 j-l

47.27

39.85h-j

41.83

34.00a-c

35.67 jk

8.33l-n

28.6

28.67c-g

MNH-1020

155.5

167.2 c-e

47.6

52.13b-d

43.47

35.77ab

25.67l

34.00d-f

28.8

28.62c-g

MNH-1026

156.5

173.9cd

49.83

53.90a-d

41.67

33.10a-d

51.33cde

38.33cd

27.6

27.57f-j

16th April

IUB-13

144.4

126.9j-l

42.87

41.55gh

40.07

29.80c-e

37.73 h-k

37.33cd

27.6

26.13j

MNH-1016

151.1

134.9i-k

45.27

42.14gh

42.07

32.20a-d

37.67 h-k

6.67mn

28.2

28.23d-i

MNH-1020

154.5

165.9c-f

45.93

51.23b-e

43.13

36.13ab

35.43jk

3.00n

29

28.58c-g

MNH-1026

158

175.6cd

47.8

52.06b-d

41.2

29.87cde

40.00f-j

40.33b-d

27.8

29.50a-d

1st May

IUB-13

143.6

104.7m-o

39.1

35.15j-l

34.2

28.90de

45.67 d-g

40.33b-d

27.8

26.90h-j

MNH-1016

146

118.8k-m

41.7

40.67hi

37.2

29.27cde

39.67f-j

29.33fg

28.6

28.70 c-g

MNH-1020

147.3

148.6f-i

41.63

45.30f-h

38.97

30.17cde

31.33kl

48.33a

28.7

28.60c-g

MNH-1026

147.8

200.1a

43

56.56ab

36

32.60a-d

38.67g-k

11.67k-m

28.2

29.27b-d

16th May

IUB-13

123.1

90.2op

38.5

31.75k-m

28.53

16.23g

57.67bc

45.33ab

28.2

27.00h-j

MNH-1016

137

110.0l-n

39.77

35.96i-k

31.33

21.80f

44.67e-h

23.33g-i

28.7

29.27b-d

MNH-1020

139.3

135.5i-k

42.23

41.55gh

35.1

26.00ef

41.67f-j

34.67c-f

29.1

29.13c-e

MNH-1026

141.1

197.0ab

42.73

54.93a-c

34.07

29.57c-e

46.67d-f

15.67jk

28

29.07b-f

1st June

IUB-13

119.5

87.3op

35.1

30.42lm

17.97

14.57gh

59.93b

34.67c-f

27.6

27.40g-j

MNH-1016

122.5

82.9pq

36.57

29.56m

24.2

16.03g

47.07d-f

34.67c-f

28.1

30.40ab

MNH-1020

120.5

109.5l-n

34.83

35.05j-l

26.37

16.50g

43.83e-h

46.00ab

29

30.30ab

MNH-1026

125.8

157.4d-h

38.17

45.15f-h

19.9

26.10ef

55.73bc

29.67e-g

27.9

30.00a-c

16th June

IUB-13

99.9

64.5qr

30.43

22.23no

17.67

8.77i

76.00a

40.67bc

27.9

26.73ij

MNH-1016

107.6

61.8r

31.57

20.91o

22.8

10.33hi

53.00bcd

41.00bc

28.3

29.97a-c

MNH-1020

106.4

82.4pq

32.37

27.11mn

24.33

10.90hi

46.67def

37.33cd

28.5

29.33b-d

MNH-1026

108

95.7n-p

32.5

28.22m

20.33

9.40i

59.00b

36.00c-e

28.1

30.90a

LSD≤0.05P

NS

18.473

NS

5.49

NS

4.7432

NS

6.58

NS

1.52

Figures sharing the same letter for a parameter in a year do not differed significantly at p≤0.05, NS= Non-significant.

 

Highest ginning out turn, fiber strength as well as staple length in cotton genotype MNH-1020 (Table 2) authenticated that genetic makeup of cultivars plays a major role in the fiber strength and length (Jordan, 2001) and lint index (O’Berry et al., 2009). The quantity of deposited cellulose determines the fiber strength, fineness and maturity (Ramey, 1999). The cultivars having the long molecules of cellulose has the higher fiber strength owing to presence of few breaking points in lint and superior cross linking amid the fibers (Jordan, 2001). Fiber quality mainly influenced by cultivars, whilst management considerations are the secondary one (Bednarz et al., 2005). Ginning out turn was not effected with late or early planting during both years (Table 2). Similar results were noticed by Braunack et al. (2012). However, micronaire value declined in early sowing compared to later sowing (Table 2). Early planting avoid decline in macronaire value (Deho et al., 2012). Late planted cotton had more yellow and grey fiber owing to late harvesting which exposes the fiber to different environment conditions not favorable for development of fiber (Duckett et al., 1999). Early sown cotton had highest fiber strength compared to late sown (Table 2). Late planted cotton reached at maturity later in the season and farmers harvest the immature cotton have low fiber strength and poor dye uptake capacity (Bradow and Bauer, 1997).

Conclusions and Recommendations

For varied sowing dates, increased expression of yield and yield related parameters due to decreased incidence of cotton leaf curl virus disease argued that cotton sowing window should be from 1st March to 16th April for maximum and quality harvest. Among cotton genotypes MNH-1020 has the potential to perform better under arid conditions where low rainfall and high temperatures are the main characteristics.

Novelty Statement

The rapid climate changes direly need the optimization of agronomic practices to ensure the better crop yield and quality. The sowing time is an important management consideration which plays a significant role in the final cotton yield and quality. However, limited studies are conducted to determine the optimum sowing time for cotton cultivars grown in Agro-Ecological Conditions of Multan. Therefore this study determine the suitable planting time for sowing of different cotton cultivars under Agro-Ecological Conditions of Multan.

Author’s Contribution

Muhammad Iqbal and Muhammad Mahmood Iqbal: Conducted the experiment and wrote the original draft.

Saghir Ahmad, Athar Mahmood, Muhammad Akram, Saeed Ahmad, Ali Raza, Ansar Hussain, Allah Ditta Abid, Qaisar Abbas, Mussarrat Hussain, Muhammad Akram and Muhammad Umair Hassan: Reviewed and edited the article.

Hammad Husnain and Muhammad Shahid: Helped in Data collection.

Conflict of interest

The authors have declared no conflict of interest.

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Pakistan Journal of Agricultural Research

September

Vol. 34, Iss. 3, Pages 394-671

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