Join Us  |   Site Map
Submit or Track your Manuscript LOG-IN

Glomus mosseae (Gerd and Trappe) and Neemex Reduce Invasion and Development of Meloidogyne incognita

PJZ_49_3_841-847

 

 

Glomus mosseae (Gerd and Trappe) and Neemex Reduce Invasion and Development of Meloidogyne incognita

Atta ur Rehman Khan1,2*, Nazir Javed2, Shahbaz Talib Sahi2, Tariq Mukhtar1, Sajid Aleem Khan2 and Waqas Ashraf3

1Department of Plant Pathology, Pir Mehr Ali Shah Arid Agriculture University, Rawalpindi, Pakistan

2Department of Plant Pathology, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan

3Department of Plant Pathology, University College of Agriculture, University of Sargodha, Sargodha, Pakistan

ABSTRACT

Among plant parasitic nematodes, root knot nematodes are the major problem for vegetables including eggplant. Chemical control of nematodes is hazardous to health and causes environmental pollution by contaminating underground water. The bio-protectant potential of mycorrhizal fungus (Glomus mosseae) and neemex® (Azadirachtin) against invasion and development of Meloidogyne incognita was tested in eggplant roots in greenhouse pot trials. Neemex (5 g, 10 g and 15 g) and G. mosseae (100 g, 150 g and 200 g) were applied as protective treatment. The roots of eggplant were inoculated with 1000 second stage juveniles of M. incognita. Eggplants inoculated with nematodes only served as control. Each treatment was replicated tenfold. Data were recorded after one week interval up to five weeks to record different developmental stages of M. incognita. After each harvest, neemex in combination with G. mosseae proved the most effective as the development of nematode was adversely affected. Developing juveniles and adults were less in number in the combined treatment.


Article Information

Received 09 September 2015

Revised 20 June 2016

Accepted 22 January 2017

Available online 27 April 2017

Authors’ Contribution

ARK, SAK and WA designed the study, executed experimental work and analyzed the data. NJ and STS supervised the work. TM helped in preparation of the manuscript.

Key words

Bio-control, Glomus mosseae, Neemex, Root knot nematode.

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.17582/journal.pjz/2017.49.3.841.847

* Corresponding author: atta1036uaf@gmail.com

0030-9923/2017/0003-0841 $ 9.00/0

Copyright 2017 Zoological Society of Pakistan



INTRODUCTION

 

Root knot nematode infestation is causing severe losses to crop production worldwide with decrease in tolerance to other abiotic factors (Oka et al., 2000). The heavy infestation of nematodes may cause the complete failure of the crop. Infected roots are unable to utilize water, minerals and fertilizers. Meloidogyne species represent the foremost nematode dilemma in developing countries. In Pakistan, root knot nematode, M. incognita, causes damage to eggplant and other vegetables (Kayani et al., 2013, 2017; Mukhtar et al., 2013a; Hussain et al., 2016) and was found economically most important (Mukhtar et al., 2013b; Tariq-Khan et al., 2016). Associations of root knot nematodes with other soil borne pathogens aggravate crop losses (Iqbal and Mukhtar, 2014; Iqbal et al., 2014; Shahbaz et al., 2015). Many chemical nematicides are being gradually prohibited for protecting vegetable crops. Hence, the improvement of other management practices and durable methods are immediately required to minimize the use of nematicides (Martin, 2003; Mukhtar et al., 2013c, 2014, 2017a, b; Hussain et al., 2014).

Biological control of nematodes using rhizosphere micro-organisms was considered in several reviews to be a potential management tactic and an effective alternative to nematicides (Kerry, 2000; Mukhtar et al., 2013d; Hussain et al., 2017a, b; Rahoo et al., 2017). Mycorrhizal fungi perform a significant role as bio-protectant against pathogens (Naher et al., 2013). Mycorrhizal fungi and root-knot nematodes share a striking feature, which is their ability to form associations with the roots of the majority of plant species, whereas other biotrophs generally show a restricted host range (Trudgill and Block, 2001). Mycorrhizal fungus and neem product have the ability to suppress root knot nematodes in different crops including vegetables (Hasan and Khan, 2004); however, no information is available on the combined application of neemex and mycorrhizal fungus for root knot nematode management and their impact on invasion and development in eggplant. Therefore, the present study was designed to exploit the potential of neemex and mycorrhizal fungus (G. mosseae) in reducing the invasion and development of M. incognita in eggplant.

 

MATERIALS AND METHODS

 

Seeds of eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) were grown under greenhouse conditions (temperature ranges from 22–28°C and 80% relative humidity) and were transferred to earthen pots at 3 to 4 leaf stage. The mycorrhizal fungus, originally isolated from the field area of University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, and identified on the basis of morphological characters, was kept as a greenhouse stock culture on maize, and was applied as mycorrhizal inoculum at sowing of the test plants (Elsen et al., 2008). The inoculum consisted of rhizosphere soil from 4 months old maize pot cultures containing spores, hyphae and heavily colonized root pieces. Mycorrhizal colonization was determined by staining the roots with an ink-vinegar solution (Vierheilig et al., 1998). Each treatment was replicated ten times. M. incognita was originally isolated from susceptible tomato cultivar and afterwards maintained as a greenhouse stock culture on eggplant. When used for inoculation, egg masses were extracted from the eggplant roots and freshly hatched second-stage juveniles were collected by using modified Baermann dishes (Hooper et al., 2005).

Eggplants were planted under greenhouse. The pots contained soil, sand and manure in a 2:1:1 ratio, a substrate shown previously to be compatible with a high nematode infection potential (Vos et al., 2012). For the mycorrhizal treatment, different dosages like 100, 150 and 200 g of rhizosphere soil colonized by mycorrhizal fungus were added. Three doses of neemex, 5, 10 and 15 g were added alone and in combination. Plants from the non-mycorrhizal control treatment received 200 g of rhizosphere soil from non-colonized maize plants. After 6 weeks, eight mycorrhizal plants were uprooted to determine mycorrhizal colonization by staining the roots with ink-vinegar (Vierheilig et al., 1998). After clearing, staining and de-staining, 20 root pieces of 1 cm were mounted on permanent slides and observed with a light microscope. The mycorrhizal colonization percentage was observed according to Chaurasia and Khare (2005). After confirmation of mycorrhizal colonization, plants were inoculated with 1000 freshly hatched M. incognita second-stage juveniles. Invasion and life stages of the nematodes that invaded the control or treated roots were visualized by acid fuchsin staining of the whole root system of all the plants (Byrd et al., 1983) followed by observation with a light microscope. The number of second-stage, third-stage, fourth-stage juveniles and females were counted in acid fuchsin stained roots at 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 weeks after inoculation.

Statistical analysis

The data were analyzed statistically by using the Fischer analysis of variance technique using MINITAB/ STAT statistical analysis software (Minitab, 2010), and treatment means were compared using least significant difference test at 5% probability level (Steel et al., 1997).

 

RESULTS

 

The results showed that distinct dose levels of mycorrhizal fungus and neemex differ significantly from control treatments. At the first harvest after 1 week, minimum number of J2 invaded in combined application of MF and neemex at level 3 in which 200 g soil colonized by mycorrhizal fungus was used along with 5 g neemex (Table I). Vermiform and swollen roots, developmental stages of M. incognita were recorded in all treatments but significantly lower as compared to control. When mycorrhizal fungus was applied alone with 200 g dose level, vermiform and swollen roots were recorded 27 and 14 respectively as compared to control (240 and 80, respectively). Neemex alone also showed significant difference over control as vermiform and swollen roots were 33 and 20, respectively.

 

Table I. Effect of mycorrhizal fungus and neemex on invasion and development of M. incognita after one week.

Treatment Levels (g)

Developmental stages

Vermiform

Swollen

M. incognita 0

240.0 a

79.1 a

0

240.4 a

80.0 a

0

240.1 a

80.0 a

MF +
M. incognita

100

37.0 bc

23.0 bc

150

31.0 e

19.0 d

200

27.0 f

14.0 e

Neemex +
M. incognita

5

40.0 b

25.0 b

10

36.0 cd

22.0 bcd

15

33.0 de

20.0 cd

MF +
Neemex +
M. incognita

100 + 15

31.0 e

19.0 d

150 + 10

24.2 fg

15.0 e

200 + 5

23.0 g

12.0 e

LSD at P<0.05

3.6037

3.8308

Means sharing similar letters are statistically non-significant at P<0.05; MF, Mycorrhizal fungus (Glomus mosseae).

 

After 2 weeks, a minimum number of vermiform, swollen and sausage shaped was observed as 3, 30.4 and 41.7 units, respectively, at level 3 in which mycorrhizal fungus and neemex was applied together as compared to control (Table II). Mycorrhizal fungus and neemex alone also showed significant difference over control. Subsequent to 3 weeks; sausage shaped, immature females, adult females and egg masses were observed significantly higher in control (Table III). Combination of mycorrhizal fungus and neemex at level 3 showed minimum number of sausage (6), immature females (4.4), adult females (19.9) and egg masses (2.8) followed by level 2 and 1 (Table III). Later than 4 weeks; vermiform (168.8), swollen (114), immature females (28.9), adult females (283.3) and egg masses (158.1) were recorded significantly higher in control (Table IV) while minimum developmental stages were recorded in MF and neemex combined treatment (level 3) as vermiform stage, swollen stage, immature females, adult females and egg masses were 8.1, 8.3, 1.4, 14.7 and 13.4 units again respectively followed by level 2 and 1. Mycorrhizal fungus and neemex alone also showed significant difference as compared to control. After 5 weeks, significantly lower number of developmental stages of M. incognita were observed in combined application of MF and neemex (level 3) as vermiform (16.2), swollen (6.9), sausage (4.7), immature females (3.6), adult females (38.4) and egg masses (27.8) followed by level 2 and 1 as compared to control in which vermiform, swollen, sausage, immature females, adult females and egg masses were 219.4, 182.7, 112.6, 51.8, 347.3 and 184.3, respectively (Table V). Minimum number of developmental stages were recorded in MF (level 1, 2, 3) and neemex alone treatments (level 1, 2, 3) as compared to control.

 

Table II. Effect of mycorrhizal fungus and neemex on invasion and development of M. incognita after two weeks.

Treatment Levels (g)

Developmental stages

Vermiform

Swollen

Sausage

M. incognita 0

35.0 a

214.0 a

117.3 a

0

36.0 a

215.5 a

118.4 a

0

36.0 a

215.0 a

118.3 a

MF +

M. incognita

100

11.3 b

046.1 b

63.2 b

150

8.1 cd

41.0 cd

54.3 cd

200

6.1 de

35.0 ef

48.8 de

Neemex +

M. incognita

5

13.0 b

48.1 b

61.0 b

10

10.9 bc

44.1 bc

58.3 bc

15

9.1 cd

39.0 de

53.5 cd

MF + Neemex +

M. incognita

100 + 15

6.5 de

37.0 def

49.9 de

150 + 10

5.0 ef

34.0 fg

46.9 ef

200 + 5

3.0 f

30.4 g

41.7 f

LSD at P<0.05

3.6037

3.2304

4.3641

Means sharing similar letters are statistically non-significant at P<0.05; MF, Mycorrhizal fungi (Glomus mosseae).

 

Table III. Effect of mycorrhizal fungus and neemex on invasion and development of M. incognita after three weeks.

Treatment

Levels (g)

Developmental stages

Sausage

Immature females

Adult females

Egg masses

M. incognita

0

37.0 a

33.4 a

201.0 a

118.9 a

0

36.6 a

32.2 a

200.5 a

119.8 a

0

37.6 a

33.0 a

201.6 a

119.1 a

MF + M. incognita

100

19.6 bc

16.0 bc

33.9 bcde

14.3 bcde

150

19.1 bc

16.3 bc

47.9 b

22.2 b

200

12.0 e

9.7 de

26.2 cde

7.0 def

Neemex + M. incognita

5

22.2 b

18.8 b

40.0 bc

18.6 bc

10

19.1 bc

15.5 bc

36.3 bcd

15.3 bcd

15

16.2 cd

12.8 cd

33.1 cde

12.9 cde

MF + Neemex + M. incognita

100+15

13.2 de

9.0 de

29.8 cde

9.0 def

150+10

10.2 e

7.0 ef

24.2 de

5.9 ef

200+5

6.0 f

4.4 f

19.9 e

2.8 f

LSD at P<0.05

3.6037

4.1730

4.0840

14.117

Means sharing similar letters are statistically non-significant at P<0.05; MF, Mycorrhizal fungus (Glomus mosseae).

 

Table IV. Effect of mycorrhizal fungus and neemex on invasion and development of M. incognita after four weeks.

Treatment Levels (g)

Developmental stages

Vermiform

Swollen

Immature females

Adult females

Egg masses

M. incognita 0

186.8 a

114.0 a

28.9 a

283.3 a

158.1 a

0

186.4 a

114.2 a

29.1 a

283.6 a

157.9 a

0

186.2 a

114.1 a

29.0 a

283.4 a

158.0 a

MF + M. incognita 100

23.0 cd

19.3 cde

8.7 de

35.2 cd

28.3 bcd

150

37.6 b

28.0 b

10.8 cd

55.8 b

39.5 b

200

16.5 cde

14.2 def

3.3 f

26.2 cd

21.1 de

Neemex + M. incognita

5

27.1 bc

25.2 bc

16.2 b

43.6 bc

37.5 b

10

24.8 bcd

22.0 bcd

13.5 bc

39.3 bcd

34.2 bc

15

23.9 cd

20.2 bcde

10.7 cd

37.5 bcd

30.3 bcd

MF + Neemex +

M. incognita

100 + 15

16.7 cde

16.6 def

7.7 de

23.2 de

24.5 cde

150 + 10

12.4 de

12.6 ef

4.8 ef

19.2 de

19.5 de

200 + 5

8.1 e

8.3 f

1.4 f

14.7 e

13.4 e

LSD at P<0.05

13.444

8.4063

4.3443

20.345

11.506

Means sharing similar letters are statistically non-significant at P<0.05; MF, Mycorrhizal fungus (Glomus mosseae).

 

Table V. Effect of mycorrhizal fungus and neemex on invasion and development of M. incognita after five weeks.

Treatment  

Developmental stages

Levels (g)

Vermiform

Swollen

Sausage

Immature females

Adult females

Egg masses

M. incognita 0

219.4 a

182.7 a

112.6 a

51.8 a

347.3 a

184.3 a

0

219.3 a

182.6 a

112.5 a

52.1 a

347.4 a

184.5 a

0

219.5 a

182.5 a

112.7 a

52.0 a

347.5 a

184.4 a

MF + M. incognita 100

30.7 cde

21.0 cd

18.0 bcd

13.5 bcd

63.0 cd

48.5 bcde

150

47.5 b

35.7 b

23.2 b

15.9 bc

59.1 d

57.5 b

200

21.1 de

18.3 cde

9.0 ef

7.9 efg

53.1 e

41.1 def

Neemex +

M. incognita

5

39.5 bc

29.8 bc

22.7 bc

18.6 b

68.1 b

53.8 bc

10

37.7 bc

23.9 bcd

18.5 bc

15.5 bc

64.6 bc

49.6 bcd

15

32.7 bcd

21.6 cd

18.2 bc

13.0 cde

62.3 cd

44.3 cdef

MF + Neemex + M. incognita 100 + 15

25.3 cde

16.3 de

14.5 cde

9.9 def

50.4 e

37.7 efg

150 + 10

21.2 de

12.3 de

9.5 def

6.5 fg

44.5 f

33.5 fg

200 + 5

16.2 e

6.9 e

4.7 f

3.6 g

38.4 g

27.8 g

LSD at P<0.05   15.625

13.090

8.5393

5.2329

4.1416

11.366

Means sharing similar letters are statistically non-significant at P<0.05; MF, Mycorrhizal fungus (Glomus mosseae).

 

DISCUSSION

 

Data of the developmental stages of M. incognita was recorded up to 5 weeks after inoculation. Depending on environmental conditions, normally M. incognita completes its life cycle in 24 to 35 days (Ploeg and Maris, 1999). As J2 penetrated the roots, developmental life stage of RKN comprised three extra moults prior to adult stage and it takes about 2 weeks, earlier than J2 moult converted into third stage, whereas fourth stage juveniles normally appear quickly and this stage prevail for almost 1 week (Moens et al., 2009). Invasion and development rate of life stages of M. incognita was decreased in the roots of eggplant treated with mycorrhizal fungus. Developmental stages of M. incognita appear progressively lower in the roots treated with mycorrhizal fungus and neemex than control. The present findings revealed that minimum J2s were penetrated in the roots, inoculated with mycorrhizal fungus and neemex alone or in combination, and in addition, development of life stages were reduced compared to the control. Reports about mycorrhizae and neemex in combined form reduced the infection and reproduction of nematodes (Khan et al., 2015; Hol and Cook, 2005; Akhtar and Siddiqui, 2008). Symbiotic association of mycorrhizal fungus effectively reduced the infection of nematodes as reported for other pathogens (Slezack et al., 2000). Current research was focused on the phases of infection that lead the invasion and development of nematodes. It showed that lesser invasion of J2 following development was partly liable for the lengthy generation time and reduced the reproduction of nematodes in plants colonized with mycorrhizal fungus. The decline in the invasion of M. incognita might be due to the allelopathic effect of mycorrhizal fungus that affects nematode motility and food finding ability (probing) in the rhizosphere. For root invasion, M. incognita directs towards appropriate host and site of infection (Curtis et al., 2009). The application of root exudates from mycorrhized tomato plants appreciably reduced the invasion of M. incognita (Vos et al., 2012).

 

CONCLUSION

 

This study demonstrated a continuously suppressing effect of MF and neemex alone or in combined form on penetration and further development of M. incognita. J2 penetration was constantly lower in the roots colonized by mycorrhizal fungus and nematode developmental stages were also reduced. Neemex and mycorrhizal fungus can be successfully used against M. incognita invasion and development in eggplant.

 

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

 

We are grateful to HEC Pakistan, for funding this research conducted at University of Agriculture, Faisalabad-Pakistan.

 

Statement of conflict of interest

Authors have declared no conflict of interest.

 

REFERENCES

 

Akhtar, M.S. and Siddiqui, Z.A., 2008. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi as potential bioprotectant against plant pathogens. In: Mycorrhizae: Sustainable agriculture and forestry (eds. Z.A. Siddiqui, M.S. Akhtar and K. Futai), Springer, Netherlands, Dordrecht. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4020-8770-7_3

Byrd, D.W., Kirkpatrick, J.R.T. and Barker, K.R., 1983. An improved technique for clearing and staining plant tissues for detection of nematodes. J. Nematol., 15: 142–143.

Chaurasia, B. and Khare, P.K., 2005. Hordeum vulgare: A suitable host for mass production of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi from natural soil. Appl. Ecol. Env. Res., 4: 45-53. https://doi.org/10.15666/aeer/0401_045053

Curtis, R.H.C., Robinson, A.F. and Perry, R.N., 2009. Hatch and host location. In: Root-knot nematodes (eds. R.N. Perry, M. Moens and J.L. Starr), CAB International, Wallingford, pp. 139–162. https://doi.org/10.1079/9781845934927.0139

Elsen, A., Gervacio, D., Swennen, R. and deWaele, D., 2008. AMF-induced bio-control against plant parasitic nematodes in Musa sp.: a systemic effect. Mycorrhiza, 18: 251–256. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00572-008-0173-6

Hasan, A. and Khan M.N., 2004. Interaction of root knot nematode, VAM fungus and neem cake in amended soils and gladiolus. Nematol. Medit., 32: 95-99.

Hol, G.W.H. and Cook, R., 2005. An overview of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi–nematode interactions. Basic. Appl. Ecol., 6: 489–503. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.baae.2005.04.001

Hooper, D.J., Hallman, J. and Subbotin, S., 2005. Methods for extraction, processing and detection of plant and soil nematodes. In: Plant parasitic nematodes in subtropical and tropical agriculture (eds. M. Luc, R. Sikora and J. Bridge). 2nd edn. CABI Publishing, Wallingford, pp. 53–86. https://doi.org/10.1079/9780851997278.0053

Hussain, M., Zouhar, M. and Rysanek, P., 2017a. Comparison between biological and chemical management of raoot knot nematode, Meloidogyne hapla. Pakistan J. Zool., 49: 205-210. https://doi.org/10.17582/journal.pjz/2017.49.1.205.210

Hussain, M., Zouhar, M. and Rysanek, P., 2017b. Population dynamics of a nematophagous fungus Lecanicillium muscarium, and root knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita to assess the disease pressure and its management. Pakistan J. Zool., 49: 197-204. https://doi.org/10.17582/journal.pjz/2017.49.1.197.204

Hussain, M., Zouhar, M. and Rysanek, P., 2017c. Potential of some nematophagous fungi against Meloidogyne hapla infection in Czech Republic. Pakistan J. Zool., 49: 35-43. https://doi.org/10.17582/journal.pjz/2017.49.1.35.43

Hussain, M.A., Mukhtar, T. and Kayani, M.Z., 2014. Characterization of susceptibility and resistance responses to root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita) infection in okra germplasm. Pak. J. Agric. Sci., 51: 319-324.

Hussain, M.A., Mukhtar, T. and Kayani, M.Z., 2016. Reproduction of Meloidogyne incognita on resistant and susceptible okra cultivars. Pak. J. Agric. Sci., 53: 371-375. https://doi.org/10.21162/PAKJAS/16.4175

Iqbal, U. and Mukhtar, T., 2014. Morphological and pathogenic variability among Macrophomina phaseolina isolates associated with mungbean (Vigna radiata L.) Wilczek from Pakistan. Sci. World J., 2014, https://doi.org/10.1155/2014/950175

Iqbal, U., Mukhtar, T. and Iqbal, S.M., 2014. In vitro and in vivo evaluation of antifungal activities of some antagonistic plants against charcoal rot causing fungus, Macrophomina phaseolina. Pak. J. Agric. Sci., 51: 689-694.

Kayani, M.Z., Mukhtar, T. and Hussain, M.A., 2017. Effects of southern root knot nematode population densities and plant age on growth and yield parameters of cucumber. Crop Prot., 92: 207-212. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cropro.2016.09.007

Kayani, M.Z., Mukhtar, T., Hussain, M.A. and Haque, M.I., 2013. Infestation assessment of root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.) associated with cucumber in the Pothowar region of Pakistan. Crop Prot., 47: 49-54. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cropro.2013.01.005

Kerry, B.R., 2000. Rhizosphere interaction and the exploitation of microbial agents for the biological control of plant parasitic nematodes. Annu. Rev. Phytopathol., 38: 423-442. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.phyto.38.1.423

Khan, A.U.R., Javed, N., Khan, S.A. and Bashir, M.H., 2015. Effect of Glomus mosseae (Gerd and Trappe) and Neemex® against Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid and White) Chitwood on Eggplant. Pakistan J. Zool., 47: 679-683.

Martin, F.N., 2003. Development of alternative strategies for management of soilborne pathogens currently controlled with methyl bromide. Annu. Rev. Phytopathol., 41: 325-350. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.phyto.41.052002.095514

Minitab 17 Statistical Software, 2010. [Computer software]. State College, Minitab, Inc. PA. (www.minitab.com).

Moens, M., Perry, R.N. and Starr, J.L., 2009. Meloidogyne species a diverse group of novel and important plant parasites. In: Root knot nematodes (eds. R.N. Perry, M. Moens and J.L. Starr). CAB International, Wallingford, pp. 1–17. https://doi.org/10.1079/9781845934927.0001

Mukhtar, T., Arooj, M., Ashfaq, M. and Gulzar, A., 2017a. Resistance evaluation and host status of selected green gram genotypes against Meloidogyne incognita. Crop Prot., 92: 198-202. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cropro.2016.10.004

Mukhtar, T., Arshad, I., Kayani, M.Z., Hussain, M.A., Kayani, S.B., Rahoo, A.M. and Ashfaq, M., 2013a. Estimation of damage to okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) by root-knot disease incited by Meloidogyne incognita. Pak. J. Bot., 45: 1023-1027.

Mukhtar, T., Hussain, M.A. and Kayani, M.Z., 2013d. Biocontrol potential of Pasteuria penetrans, Pochonia chlamydosporia, Paecilomyces lilacinus and Trichoderma harzianum against Meloidogyne incognita in okra. Phytopathol. Mediterr., 52: 66-76.

Mukhtar, T., Hussain, M.A. and Kayani, M.Z., 2017b. Yield responses of twelve okra cultivars to southern root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita). Bragantia, 75: https://doi.org/10.1590/1678-4499.005

Mukhtar, T., Hussain, M.A., Kayani, M.Z. and Aslam, M.N., 2014. Evaluation of resistance to root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita) in okra cultivars. Crop Prot., 56: 25-30. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cropro.2013.10.019

Mukhtar, T., Kayani, M.Z. and Hussain, M.A., 2013b. Response of selected cucumber cultivars to Meloidogyne incognita. Crop Prot., 44: 13-17. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cropro.2012.10.015

Mukhtar, T., Kayani, M.Z. and Hussain, M.A., 2013c. Nematicidal activities of Cannabis sativa L. and Zanthoxylum alatum Roxb. against Meloidogyne incognita. Ind. Crop Prod., 42: 447-453. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.indcrop.2012.06.027

Naher, U.A., Othman, R. and Panhwar, Q.A., 2013. Beneficial effects of mycorrhizal association for crop production in the Tropics - a review. Int. J. Agric. Biol., 15: 1021–1028.

Oka, Y., Nacar, S., Putievsky, E., Ravid, U., Yamiv, Z. and Spiegel, Y., 2000. Nematicidal activity of essential oil and their components against root knot nematodes. Phytopathology, 90: 710-715. https://doi.org/10.1094/PHYTO.2000.90.7.710

Ploeg, A.T. and Maris P.C., 1999. Effect of temperature on the duration of the life cycle of a Meloidogyne incognita population. Nematology, 1: 389–393. https://doi.org/10.1163/156854199508388

Rahoo, A.M., Mukhtar, T., Gowen, S.R., Rahoo, R.K. and Abro, S.I., 2017. Infectivity and searching ability of entomopathogenic nematode, Steinernema feltiae. Pakistan J. Zool., 49: 229-234. https://doi.org/10.17582/journal.pjz/2017.49.1.229.234

Shahbaz, M.U., Mukhtar, T., Haque, M.I. and Begum, N., 2015. Biochemical and serological characterization of Ralstonia solanacearum associated with chilli seeds from Pakistan. Int. J. Agric. Biol., 17: 31-40.

Slezack, S., Dumas-Gaudot, E., Paynot, M. and Gianinazzi, S., 2000. Is a fully established arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis required for bioprotection of Pisum sativum roots against Aphanomyces eusteiches? Mol. Pl. Microb. Interact., 13: 238–241. https://doi.org/10.1094/MPMI.2000.13.2.238

Steel, R.G.D., Torrie, J.H. and Dickey, D.A., 1997. Principles and procedures of statistics. A boimeterical approach. 3rd Ed. McGraw Hill Book Co. Inc., New York.

Tariq-Khan, M., Munir, A., Mukhtar, T., Hallmann, J. and Heuer, H., 2016. Distribution of root-knot nematode species and their virulence on vegetables in northern temperate agro-ecosystems of the Pakistani-administered territories of Azad Jammu and Kashmir. J. Pl. Dis. Prot., https://doi.org/10.1007/s41348-016-0045-9

Trudgill, D.L. and Blok, V.C., 2001. Apomictic, polyphagous root-knot nematodes: exceptionally successful and damaging bio-trophic root pathogens. Annu. Rev. Phytopathol., 39: 53–77. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.phyto.39.1.53

Vierheilig, H., Coughlan, A.P., Wyss, U. and Piche, Y., 1998. Ink and vinegar, a simple staining technique for arbuscular–mycorrhizal fungi. Appl. environ. Microbiol., 64: 5004–5007.

Vos, C., Claerhout, S., Mkandawire, R., Panis, B., deWaele, D. and Elsen, A., 2012. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi reduce root-knot nematode penetration through altered root exudation of their host. Pl. Soil, 354: 335-345. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11104-011-1070-x

To share on other social networks, click on P-share. What are these?

Pakistan Journal of Zoology (Associated Journals)

April

Vol. 49, Iss. 2, Pages 425-759

Featuring

Click here for more

Subscribe Today

Receive free updates on new articles, opportunities and benefits

Commons Attribution License

This license permits unrestricted use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Creative Commons License
Follow ResearchersLinks