Advances in Animal and Veterinary Sciences
Bone Tissue Engineering: Latest Trends and Future Perspectives
Rekha Pathak1*, Amarp al1, Hari Prashad Aithal1, Prakash Kinjavdekar1, Abhijet M Pawde1, Rashmi1, Tamil Mahan1, Netrapal Sharma1, Kuldeep Dhama2
1Division of Surgery, 2Division of Pathology, Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar-243122, Bareilly, India.
*Correspondence | Rekha Pathak, Division of Surgery, Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar, Bareilly, India; Email: email@example.com
Bone heals without any scar formation and provides the structural support to the body. The bone gap defects / loss of bone created during trauma, resections and neoplastic/ diseased bone removal can be treated by implanting the bone grafts in the defect site. These grafts can be synthetic or of biological origin. The synthetic grafts take long time for the resorption. Due to the microstructural similarity of the biological as origin grafts with the host tissue they are thought to be ideal grafts. Autograft is a gold but certain disadvantages like antigenicity, immune rejections and pathogen transmission are the associated with allograft and xenografts. Antigenicity can be reduced by processing the tissues for the removal of the cells and rendering them acellular. It is usually the cellular component which elicits the host immune response and brings about rejection of the grafts. Various processes employed for the decellularization are snap freeze thaw technique, chemical treatment like acetone -ethanol processing and sodium do-decyl sulphate. Rapid freeze and thaw technique can be recommended strongly for the bone decellularization which causes minimum damage to the extracellular matrix (ECM) and also brings about an ideal integration with the host tissue. The acellular bone grafts can be enriched with osteoblast cells to increase the regenerative capacity of the bone. The fetal osteoblasts have been found to be immune privileged and also aid in acceptance of the graft. The grafts can also be rendered more osteoinductive by adding a component of the growth factor in the scaffold composite. The uses and disadvantages of allograft, autograft and xenograft have also been discussed. It is also necessary that these biomaterials/ implants should be ready to use kind of stuff so that there is minimum time paucity after the case is presented with complicated gap defects of bone. There is a tremendous scope of bone tissue engineering for the orthopaedic surgeons. This opens a positive solution for the problems like loss of bone and limb amputation.
Keywords | Tissue Engineering, Bone, Scaffolds, Osteoblast, Bone grafts, Segmental bone defects