Mohsan Ullah Goraya1,2, Liaqat Ali1,2 and Iqra Younis3  

...cluding influenza virus, coronaviruses and herpes viruses are important pathogens that cause significant losses in the poultry industry. However, successful establishment of infection in the respiratory tract switch on the pathogen recognition by innate immune receptors and establish first line of defense against viral infections. When specific cellular receptors recognize a virus they trigger the translation of inflammatory cytokine and chemokines leading to ...

Md. Sahidur Rahman

Origin and Spillover of Coronaviruses: Prospects of One Health Action
...sitive against different coronaviruses. At least seven coronaviruses are known to have been spilled over from animal to human. SARS-CoV-2 is the recent one that showed pneumonia-like syndrome named COVID-19. It was assumed that SARS-CoV-2 was initially a spillover from bats due to its genomic similarity with Bat-CoV-RaTG13, where pangolins may have acted as an intermediate host. Wild trade, ecotourism, destruction of wild ha...
Muhammad Akram Muneer1, Khalid Munir1, Ghulam Abbas1’*, Isra Munir1Mumtaz Ahmad Khan1, Asif Iqbal1, Munsoor ud Din Ahmad1, Muhammad Arshad Javid2, Zareen Fatima1 and Maria Arshad1
Arsalan Rasheed1, Tahir Usman2,*, Sadaf Niaz1, Irfan Khattak2, Saira Gul2, Nawab Ali1,Naimat Ullah Khan2, Hazrat Ali2, and Mian Saeed Sarwar2
...r and spring. Genomes of coronaviruses have large enveloped +RNA. First human corona viruses, causing respiratory diseases, were identified in 1960s, but they were not considered highly pathogenic to humans until severe respiratory syndrome broke out in China during 2003. Middle East Respiratory Syndrome, Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome, and novel Corona Virus Disease (nCOVID-19) or Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome-2 have increased the interest in this vira...

Pakistan Journal of Zoology

August

Vol. 53, Iss. 4, Pages 1201-1601

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