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Strategies to Improve the Irrigation Efficiency of Raised Beds on Small Farms

Strategies to Improve the Irrigation Efficiency of Raised Beds on Small Farms

Ghani Akbar1, Steven Raine2, Allen David McHugh3, Greg Hamilton4 and Qurban Hussain5 

1Climate Change, Alternate Energy and Water Resources Institute (CAEWRI), National Agricultural Research Centre (NARC), Islamabad, Pakistan; 2National Centre for Engineering in Agriculture (NCEA), University of Southern Queensland (USQ), Toowoomba, Australia; 3CIMMYT–China,Ningxia Academy of Agric. and Forestry Sciences, Yinchuan, P.R. China; 4Maximum Soil & Water Productivity Pty Ltd. Perth WA, Australia; 5Natural Resources Division, Pakistan Agriculture Research Council, Islamabad.

ghani_akbar@hotmail.com 

Figure 1

Raised bed dimensions showing (a) NB: with furrow dimensions (TW: top width, MW: middle width, BW: bottom width and D: furrow depth; (b) WB: with bed size at Mardan 

Figure 2

Average required application depth (Dreq) in three soil layers (0-15 cm, 15- 30 cm and 30-60 cm) on three sites, measured prior to two irrigation events on a sandy clay loam at Mardan, northwest Pakistan (Vertical bars show SD) 

Figure 3

Average furrow dimensions (TW = top width, MW = middle width, BW = bottom width and D = depth) measured prior to two irrigation events on three sites for narrow bed (NB) and wide bed (WB) at Mardan, northwest Pakistan (vertical bars show SD) 

Figure 4

Effect of bed size on average water advance rate along furrow length in three sites during two irrigations on a sandy clay loam at Mardan, northwest Pakistan (vertical bars show SD)  

Figure 5

Optimising irrigation efficiencies with changing inflow rate and time to cut-off for NB 

Figure 6

Optimising irrigation efficiencies with changing inflow rate and time to cut-off for WB 

Figure 7

Optimising potential application efficiency (PAE) with changing field length, number of furrows and inflow rate for NB 

Figure 8

Optimising potential application efficiency (PAE) with changing field length, number of furrows and inflow rate for WB 

Sarhad Journal of Agriculture

September

Vol. 37, Iss. 3, Pages 714-1097

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