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Palaeodietary and Palaeoclimatic Reconstruction for Late Miocene Hipparionines from the Siwaliks of Pakistan

Palaeodietary and Palaeoclimatic Reconstruction for Late Miocene Hipparionines from the Siwaliks of Pakistan

Muhammad Tahir Waseem1, Abdul Majid Khan1*, Abdul Ghaffar2, Ayesha Iqbal1 and Rana Manzoor Ahmad1,3

1Department of Zoology, University of the Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan.
2 Department of Zoology, Cholistan University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Bahawalpur, Pakistan
3Department of Zoology, University of Okara, Okara, Pakistan.

*      Corresponding author: majid.zool@pu.edu.pk

Fig. 1.

The studied sites along with the localities.

Fig. 2.

 Extraction of enamel from the Hipparion molar along the vertical axis. Scale bar indicates 10mm.

Fig. 3.

The stable isotope of carbon along the age of the samples.

Fig. 4.

A comparative picture of stable isotopes of carbon for the family Equidae across the late Miocene of the Siwaliks and East African habitats. Reference data taken from Nelson (2005, 2007) and Uno et al. (2011).

Fig. 5.

Carbon and oxygen stable isotopic values for dental specimens of hiparionines.

Pakistan Journal of Zoology

June

Vol. 53, Iss. 3, Pages 801-1200

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