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Effects of Moringa oleifera, Curcumin, and Green Tea Extracts on Histopathological Changes in Mesenteric Lymph Nodes and Spleen of Albino Rats with Benzene-Induced Leukemia

Effects of Moringa oleifera, Curcumin, and Green Tea Extracts on Histopathological Changes in Mesenteric Lymph Nodes and Spleen of Albino Rats with Benzene-Induced Leukemia

Ahmed Alazzouni1, Ashraf Al-Brakati2,*, Sherif Rabie1, Mohamed Gabry1 and Basmaa Hassan1

1Department of Zoology and Entomology, Faculty of Science, Helwan University, Helwan, Cairo Governorate 11111, Egypt
2Department of Human Anatomy, College of Medicine, Taif University, P.O. Box 11099, Taif 21944, Saudi Arabia
 
* Corresponding author: a.albrakati@tu.edu.sa

Fig. 1.

Photomicrographs of the negative control group showing: A, normal mesenteric lymph node structure with cortex (C), paracortex (PC), and medulla (M) (×100); B, cortex with lymphoid follicle (LF), germinal center (GC), capsule (Cap), cortical sinuses (CS), and subcapsular sinus (SCS) (×400); C, medulla with medullary cords (MC) and medullary sinuses (MS) (×400); D, normal spleen structure with white pulp (WP) or lymphoid follicles (LF), vascular red pulp (RP), outer capsule (C), and trabeculae (T) (×100); E, white pulp’s LFs with germinal center (GC), periarteriolar lymphatic sheath (PALS), central arteriole (CA), and marginal zone (MZ) (×400); F, red pulp (RP) with splenic cords (SC) and venous sinuses (VS) (hematoxylin and eosin, ×400); G, normal thin delicate elastic fibers in lymph node cortex (arrow) (×400); H, normal thin delicate elastic fibers in spleen RP (arrow) (Orcein, ×400); I, normal number of flattened mast cells (arrows) in the pericapsular connective tissue of the lymph node (toluidine blue, ×400).

Fig. 2.

Photomicrographs of the benzene-injected group showing: A, whole lymph node structure (×100); B, cortical changes with some necrotic (ghost) cells (arrow), dilated, congested cortical sinus (CS), and non-active lymphoid follicles (LF) (×400); C, medullary changes with dilated and congested high endothelial venules (HEVs) lined with simple squamous epithelium (arrow) (×400); D, spleen with dilated congested pulp artery (PA) (×100); E, white pulp (WP) with thick dilated central arteriole (CA) in non-active LF (×400); F, red pulp (RP) with congested venous sinuses (VS) and dilated PA (hematoxylin and eosin, ×400); G, densely stained irregular thick elastic fibers (arrow) (×400); H, thick elastic fiber aggregation in the spleen (arrow) (Orcein, ×400); I, increased numbers and larger than normal mast cells (arrows) in the pericapsular connective tissue of the lymph node (toluidine blue, ×400).

Fig. 3.

Photomicrographs of the M. oleifera treatment group showing: A, marked improvement in lymph node structure with cortex (C), paracortex (PC), and medulla (M) (×100); B, cortical lymphoid follicle (LF) with germinal center (GC) (×400); C, medulla with medullary cords (MC) and medullary sinuses (MS) (×400); D, marked improvement in spleen white pulp (WP) and red pulp (RP) structure (×100); E, WP with LF, central arteriole (CA), periarteriolar lymphatic sheath (PALS), GC, and marginal zone (MZ) (×400); F, RP with splenic cords (SC) and venous sinuses (VS) (hematoxylin and eosin, ×400); G, almost normal shape of thin, delicate elastic fibers in the lymph node (arrow) (Orcein, ×400); H, nearly normal shape of thin, elastic fibers (arrow) in the spleen (Orcein, ×400); I, almost normal mast cell size and numbers (arrows) in the pericapsular connective tissue of the lymph node (toluidine blue, ×400).

Fig. 4.

Photomicrographs of the curcumin treatment group showing: A, marked improvement in lymph node structure with cortex (C), paracortex (PC), and medulla (M) (×100); B, cortical lymphoid follicle (LF) with germinal center (GC) (×400); C, medulla with medullary cords (MC) and medullary sinuses (MS) (×400); D, marked improvement in spleen white pulp (WP) and red pulp (RP) structure (×100); E, WP with LF, central arteriole (CA), periarteriolar lymphatic sheath (PALS), GC, and marginal zone (MZ) (×400); F, RP with splenic cords (SC) and venous sinuses (VS) (hematoxylin and eosin, ×400); G, almost normal shape of thin, delicate elastic fibers in the lymph node (arrow) (Orcein, ×400); H, nearly normal shape of thin, elastic fibers (arrow) in the spleen (Orcein, ×400); I, almost normal mast cell size and numbers (arrows) in the pericapsular connective tissue of the lymph node (toluidine blue, ×400).

Fig. 5.

Photomicrographs of the green tea treatment group showing: A, marked improvement in lymph node structure with cortex (C), paracortex (PC), and medulla (M) (×100); B, cortical lymphoid follicle (LF) with germinal center (GC) (×400); C, medulla with medullary cords (MC) and medullary sinuses (MS) (×400); D, marked improvement in spleen white pulp (WP) and red pulp (RP) structure (×100); E, WP with LF, central arteriole (CA), periarteriolar lymphatic sheath (PALS), GC, and marginal zone (MZ) (×400); F, RP with splenic cords (SC) and venous sinuses (VS) (hematoxylin and eosin, ×400); G, almost normal shape of thin, delicate elastic fibers in the lymph node (arrow) (Orcein, ×400); H, nearly normal shape of thin, elastic fibers (arrow) in the spleen (Orcein, ×400); I, almost normal mast cell size and numbers (arrows) in the pericapsular connective tissue of the lymph node (toluidine blue, ×400).

Fig. 6.

Photomicrographs of the combined curcumin and green tea extract treatment group showing: A, obvious improvement in lymph node structure with cortex (C), paracortex (PC), and medulla (M) (×100); B, cortical lymphoid follicle (LF) with germinal center (GC) (×400); C, medulla with medullary cords (MC) and medullary sinuses (MS) (×400); D, obvious improvement in spleen white pulp (WP) and red pulp (RP) structure (×100); E, WP with LF, central arteriole (CA), periarteriolar lymphatic sheath (PALS), GC, and marginal zone (MZ) (×400); F, RP with splenic cords (SC) and venous sinuses (VS) (hematoxylin and eosin, ×400); G, almost normal shape of thin, delicate elastic fibers in the lymph node (arrow) (Orcein, ×400); H, nearly normal shape of thin, elastic fibers (arrow) in the spleen (Orcein, ×400); I, almost normal mast cell size and numbers (arrows) in the pericapsular connective tissue of the lymph node (toluidine blue, ×400).

Fig. 7.

Photomicrographs of the cyclophosphamide treatment group showing: A, slight improvement in the whole structure of the lymph node (×100); B, cortical changes with some lymphocytic depletion in germinal centers and some necrotic degenerated cells (ghost cell) (arrows) (×400); C, medulla with medullary cords (MC) and medullary sinuses (MS) (×400); D, slight improvement in spleen white pulp and red pulp structure (×100); E, white pulp with dilated central arteriole (CA) in non-active lymphoid follicle (LF) (×400); F, red pulp with dilated and congested venous sinuses (VS) and splenic cords (SC) (hematoxylin and eosin, ×400); G, almost normal shape of thin, delicate elastic fibers in the lymph node (arrow) (Orcein, ×400); H, nearly normal shape of thin, elastic fibers (arrow) in the spleen (Orcein, ×400); I, almost normal mast cell size and numbers (arrows) in the pericapsular connective tissue of the lymph node (toluidine blue, ×400).

Pakistan Journal of Zoology

August

Vol. 54, Iss. 4, Pages 1501-2001

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