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Diversity of Carabid Beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) under Three Grassland Management Regimes in Northwestern China

Diversity of Carabid Beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) under Three Grassland Management Regimes in Northwestern China

Hui Wang1,2, Yuchen Zhao1 and Xinpu Wang1,*

1School of Agriculture, Ningxia University, Yinchuan, 750021, China
2Institute of Green Manure, Yan’an Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Yan’an, 716000, China

*      Corresponding author:

Fig. 1.

Study areas in southern Ningxia (A) where carabid beetles diversity was assessed (B) under three management regimes: TE, typical enclosure; EM, enclosed with mowing and FP, farmer grazing practice (C)

Fig. 2.

Carabidae species and individuals in the natural grassland of Yunwu Mountain. Vertical axes were log-transformed; CaloChi, Calosoma chinense; ReflRef, Reflexisphodrus reflexipennis; DoliHal, Dolichus halensis; CaloLug, Calosoma lugens; CaloAnt, Calosoma anthrax; PesuMon, Pseudotaphoxenus mongolicus; PesuRug, Pseudotaphoxenus rugipennis; CaraScu, Carabus sculptipennis; PoecGeb, Poecillus gebleri; CaraVla, Carabus vladimirskyi; CaraGly, Carabus glyptoterus; PoecFor, Poecillus fortipes; ZabrPot, Zabrus potanini; AmarDux, Amara dux; CaraAnc, Carabus anchocephalus; Amarsp, Amara sp; AmarHar, Amara harpaloides; BrosKoz, Broscus kozlovi.

Fig. 3.

Temporal dynamics of carabid beetle individual and species richness in different management regimes.

Fig. 4.

Spatial dynamics of carabid beetle activity density and species richness in different management regimes; ANOVA was used to compare differences among different interference levels. Different letters on the same type of bar indicate significant differences at the P < 0.05 level.

Fig. 5.

Boxplot of (A) Dominance index, (B) Shannon-Wiener index, (C) Evenness index, (D) Richness index; The differences of carabid community diversity indices among different types of interference were compared using the one-way ANOVA. Different letters above the boxes indicate significantly different means according to the Tukey test (P < 0.05).

Fig. 6.

PCA ordination of (A) 18 species of beetle and 13 environmental factors, (B) 45 sample sites and 13 environmental factors; PB, Plant biomass; PC, Plant coverage; PD, Plant density; PH, Plant height; PSD, Plant species diversity; Litter, Aboveground litter; SBD, Bulk density; SM, Soil moisture; Temp, Soil temperature; C, Soil organic matter; P, Total phosphorus; N, Total nitrogen; pH, pH value. Environmental factors are represented by red arrows, carabid species are represented by blue arrows, dominant species are enclosed in red rectangular boxes.

Pakistan Journal of Zoology


Pakistan J. Zool., Vol. 56, Iss. 3, pp. 1001-1500


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