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Comparative Assessment of Hydroponic and Geoponic Cultivation Systems for Sustainable Spinach Cultivation

Comparative Assessment of Hydroponic and Geoponic Cultivation Systems for Sustainable Spinach Cultivation

Ain-ul-Abad Syed1*, Zaheer Ahmed Khan1, Shakeel Hussain Chattha1, Irfan Ahmed Shaikh2, Mian Noor Hussain Asghar Ali1, Zohaib ur Rehman Bughio3, Shahzad Hussain Dahri2 and Ghous Bakhsh Buriro4

1Department of Farm Structures, Faculty of Agricultural Engineering, Sindh Agriculture University Tandojam 70060, Pakistan; 2Department of Irrigation and Drainage, Faculty of Agricultural Engineering, Sindh Agriculture University Tandojam 70060, Pakistan; 3Department of Soil Sciences, Faculty of Crop Production, Sindh Agriculture University Tandojam 70060, Pakistan; 4Department of Hydrology and Water Resource Engineering, School of Water Resources and Hydropower Engineering, Wuhan University China 430072.

 
*Correspondence | Ain-ul-Abad Syed, Department of Farm Structures, Faculty of Agricultural Engineering, Sindh Agriculture University Tandojam 70060, Pakistan; Email: ainulibadsyed@gmail.com 

Figure 1:

Deep water culture reservoir system (used hydroponic model).

Figure 2:

Net pots used in the study.

Figure 3:

Air pump used in deep water culture model.

Figure 4:

Full-spectrum light-emitting diode and PVC pipes light stand.

Figure 5:

Schematic (a) top view and (b) side view of the hydroponic model (Dimensional view).

Figure 6:

Graphical (a) top view and (b) side view of the hydroponic model (Functional view).

Figure 7:

Water used hydroponic vs traditional.

Figure 8:

Average (a) Height (b) stem size and (c) Leaf area.

Figure 9:

Plant (a) Height (b) stem size and (c) Leaf area.

Equation 1

Pakistan Journal of Zoology

October

Vol. 53, Iss. 5, Pages 1603-2000

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