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Vigilance of the Demoiselle Crane Antropoides virgo: The Effects of Group Size, Human Disturbance, and Predation Vulnerability

Vigilance of the Demoiselle Crane Antropoides virgo: The Effects of Group Size, Human Disturbance, and Predation Vulnerability

Feng Xu1,2,3*, Weikang Yang1,2,3*, Ming Ma1,2,3 and David A. Blank4

1CAS Key Laboratory of Biogeography and Bioresource in Arid Land, Xinjiang Institute of Ecology and Geography, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Urumqi, 830011, China                                                                                            
2Mori Wildlife Monitoring and Experimentation Station, Xinjiang Institute of Ecology and Geography, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Mori, 831900, China        
3University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100049, China
4CAS Research Center for Ecology and Environment of Central Asia, Bishkek, 720001, Kyrgyzstan

*      Corresponding authors: xufeng@ms.xjb.ac.cn;
yangwk@ms.xjb.ac.cn

ABSTRACT

Vigilance was defined as the behavior for increasing probability of detecting and recognizing a predator before being detected themselves. Group size, human disturbance, environment factors, body size of a prey and a predator, season, traits of species and numbers of others factors were thought to have significant impacts on vigilance. Here, in this study we considered only three of them: group size, disturbance, and predation vulnerability and their impact on the vigilance of the Demoiselle crane (Antropoides virgo). Our results showed that group size, human disturbance, and predation vulnerability significantly affect Demoiselle crane’s vigilance. With increasing of group size, the percentage of scanning time by one individual at least in the group increased, while the proportion of vigilant individuals in the group decreased. The group size effect was supported by our study of vigilance in Demoiselle crane and the cranes gained vigilance benefits from increasing their group size. And when the cranes in strong human disturbance area closer to the road, they devoted significantly more time to their vigilance. The significant relationship between crane vigilance and group size might be explained by the high population density and big intraspecific competitions for resources.
 

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Pakistan Journal of Zoology

February

Vol. 53, Iss. 1, Pages 1-400

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