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The Efficacy of Selected Synthetic Insecticide Formulations against Fall Armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) Under Laboratory, Semi-Field and Field Conditions

PJZ_56_1_147-155

The Efficacy of Selected Synthetic Insecticide Formulations against Fall Armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) Under Laboratory, Semi-Field and Field Conditions

Hina Mumtaz, Muhammad Zeeshan Majeed*, Muhammad Afzal,

Muhammad Arshad, Arif Mehmood and Muhammad Qasim

Department of Entomology, College of Agriculture, University of Sargodha, Sargodha 40100, Pakistan

ABSTRACT

The invasive fall armyworm species, Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), was first time reported in Pakistan during March 2019 causing severe damage to maize crop. As a new pest, there is little information available on its susceptibility to insecticides in Pakistan. We evaluated selective synthetic insecticides with different modes of action to control S. frugiperda larvae in the laboratory as well as under semi-field and field conditions. All insecticides performed well in controlling S. frugiperda larvae under laboratory conditions. Though, chlorantraniliprole @ 50 mL/100L (58.0–100%), abamectin @ 400 mL/100L (56.0–100%), lambda-cyhalothrin @ 250 mL/100L (52.0–100%) and chlorpyrifos @ 1000 mL/100L (52.0–98.0%) showed significantly (P < 0.05) higher mortality than other chemicals. Higher concentrations of abamectin (6000 ppm), chlorpyrifos (12000 ppm) and chlorantraniliprole (700 ppm) showed 100% larval mortality at 24 h post-exposure. Lambda-cyhalothrin (3500 ppm) showed 95% larval mortality at 24 h and 100% mortality at 48 h of application. The medium dose rate of abamectin (4000 ppm) and chlorantraniliprole (600 ppm) also showed 100% larval mortality at 48 h of application. In semi-field and field conditions, chlorantraniliprole showed 100% larval mortality at 48 h, while abamectin and chlorpyrifos showed 87–89% and 94–81% larval mortality respectively in semi-field to field conditions after 72 h of application. Overall study results demonstrate the effectiveness of chlorantraniliprole, abamectin and chlorpyrifos and these synthetic insecticides should be considered as components of integrated management of S. frugiperda in Pakistan.


Article Information

Received 22 August 2022

Revised 03 September 2022

Accepted 27 September 2022

Available online 28 October 2022

(early access)

Published 11 December 2023

Authors’ Contribution

MZM and MA conceived and designed the experimental protocols. HM and MQ performed the experiments. MA and AM performed statistical analyses. HM and MZM prepared the manuscript. MA and MZM provided technical assistance in experiments. MZM and AM proofread the manuscript.

Key words

Fall armyworm, Synthetic insecticides, Laboratory evaluation, Field efficacy, Chlorantraniliprole, Abamectin

DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.17582/journal.pjz/20220822120846

* Corresponding author: zeeshan.majeed@uos.edu.pk

0030-9923/2024/0001-0147 $ 9.00/0

Copyright 2024 by the authors. Licensee Zoological Society of Pakistan.

This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).



INTRODUCTION

The fall armyworm species, Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) is an invasive pest and causes huge crop losses. This pest is endemic to the tropical regions of the Western Hemisphere (Prowell et al., 2004; Murúa et al., 2009), and was reported first time in sub-Saharan Africa in December 2015 (Goergen et al., 2016). Its year-round distribution is usually limited to warm and moist areas, due to the inability to diapause under harsh conditions (Nagoshi et al., 2012). This pest is a serious threat to global food security as the populations of S. frugiperda have become established in Africa, India and China (Goergen et al., 2016; Wu et al., 2019), where maize and rice are staple food crops. In Pakistan, it was first reported in Sindh province on maize and vegetable crops during 2019 (Ullah et al., 2019) and now it has been well-established in almost all maize-producing areas of the country. S. frugiperda endures a threat to food security due to its wide range of host plants (Montezano et al., 2018), having high reproductive potential, short life cycle (Sparks, 1979), great dispersal abilities (Johnson, 1987), and adaptability to diverse agro-ecological conditions (Cokola et al., 2021).

S. frugiperda feeds on a wide range of host plants and over 353 host plants belonging to 76 different families including Poaceae (106 species), Asteraceae (31 species), and Fabaceae (31 species) have been reported (Montezano et al., 2018). It can attack almost all stages of maize crop and neonate larvae feed on the underside of the leaves and make transparent patches, called windows. Mature larvae normally penetrate the leaf whorls (Capinera, 2017; FAO, 2018). About 33% loss of maize has been reported previously due to feeding of S. frugiperda, causing a loss of around 1 million tons in maize production annually in Kenya (De Groote et al., 2020).

Control of S. frugiperda is difficult due to its feeding behavior under the protection of leaves and whorls; however, the application of synthetic insecticides remains the main option. Thus, there is a need to determine the effectiveness of insecticides against S. frugiperda to add to IPM practices. In India, use of chlorantraniliprole, spinetoram and thiamethoxam plus lambda cyhalothrin has been recommended by the Central Insecticide Board and Registration Committee (CIBRC) for the effective management of S. frugiperda population in the field (DPPQS, 2019). With the introduction of this pest in Pakistan, farmers are using different synthetic insecticides without knowing their efficacy. As the larva of this pest remains in the whorl of maize plants during its whole life, its contact with insecticides is minimal (FAO, 2018). Further, multiple applications of insecticides may enhance the resistance level of pests against insecticides, as has been reported previously (Gutierrez-Moreno et al., 2019). To provide baseline data and to find out the most effective insecticides, a study of dose-mortality response to various insecticides is needed (Cook et al., 2004).

Although, various differential-chemistry (other than conventional ones) synthetic insecticides having different modes of action have been in practice to control lepidopteran pests, the effective synthetic insecticides against S. frugiperda have yet to be explored. Many insecticides are reported to be effective against S. frugiperda, but no insecticide is registered in Pakistan. As a new pest in our country, it is necessary to determine the most effective insecticides and share information about the dose rate, application method, and time with maize growers. Extensive use of insecticides may impact the sustainability of farmers and thus those insecticides should be used that are economically justifiable. Keeping in view the economic losses of this new pest and no recommended insecticide against this pest in our country, the study was conducted to assess the toxicity of different synthetic insecticides in the laboratory, semi-field and field conditions.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

S. frugiperda culture

Larvae of S. frugiperda were collected from the maize field of research area of the College of Agriculture (32°08’07.9”N: 72°41’14.4”E) and brought to the laboratory of Entomology and were kept in clean Petri-plates. The culture was maintained under controlled conditions of 25±2ºC, 60±5% RH and 16:8 (L: D) photoperiod. Insects were fed on a chickpea flour based artificial diet described by Sorour et al. (2011). Pupae were kept in Petri-plates over moist filter paper and after emergence; adults were shifted into the rearing box for mating and ovipositioning. The adults were fed on 10% honey solution. Eggs of S. frugiperda were collected from cages on daily basis and were kept in Petri-plates containing a layer of artificial diet (Silva and Parra, 2013). The F3 generation of S. frugiperda was used in the bioassay.

Screening of nine insecticides in the laboratory

Nine synthetic insecticides were used for laboratory bioassay. Detail of selected insecticides having different groups with a different mode of action is given in Table I. The recommended doses of selected insecticides were tested against S. frugiperda larvae to screen out the effective insecticide in laboratory conditions. Total 10 treatments were used including nine insecticides with control (water). The leaf dip bioassay method was used to check the toxicity of these insecticides against S. frugiperda. Fresh leaves of cauliflower were collected from the field and brought into the laboratory. Leaves were washed with tap water and kept for drying at room temperature for 1h. After drying, leaf disks were prepared according to the size of the Petri-plate. Agar (1.5%) solution was prepared and was poured as 1mm layer into each glass Petri-plates (9 cm wide and 2.5 cm deep) and was allowed to dry at room temperature for 20–30 min. Leaf disks were dipped into treatment solutions for 5–10 sec. Then these discs were dried at ambient temperature for 10–15 min before placing them into glass Petri-plates. Five 2nd instar larvae were released on each treated leaf disc in glass Petri-plates and all plates were placed in controlled conditions (same as rearing condition). Complete randomized design (CRD) layout was used with ten replications of each treatment. Mortality data was recorded after 3, 6, 12, 24, 48 and 72 h of post-exposure.

Dose-mortality response of S. frugiperda to insecticides in laboratory

After the screening of various insecticides, four most effective insecticides were used further to evaluate lethal effects on S. frugiperda larvae. The same bioassay was performed as in study 1. A stock solution of each insecticide was prepared and further serial dilution was made. Five concentrations of each insecticide were prepared (in parts per million). The experiment was conducted with completely randomized design with six replications per concentration. Data of larval mortality were recorded after 3, 6, 12, 24, 48 and 72 h of post-exposure.

 

Table I. List of selected synthetic insecticides evaluated against 2nd instar larvae of Spodoptera frugiperda in this study.

Trade name

Active ingredient

IRAC group

Formulation

Mode of action

Label dose (ml)

Chacha®

Abamectin

28 Diamides

1.8% EC

Glutamate-gated chloride channel allosteric modulator

400

Coragen®

Chlorantraniliprole

1B Organophosphate

20% SC

Ryanodine receptor modulator

50

Chopat®

Chlorpyrifos

6 Avermectins

40% EC

Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors

1000

Decis Super®

Deltamethrin

3A Pyrethroid

2.8% EC

Sodium channel modulators

80

Proclaim®

Emamectin benzoate

6 Avermectins

19% EC

Glutamate-gated chloride channel allosteric modulator

200

Fipronil®

Fipronil

2B Phenylpyrazoles

5% SC

GABA-gated chloride channel blockers

480

Lambda®

Lambda-cyhalothrin

3A Pyrethroid

2.5% EC

Sodium channel modulators

250

Match®

Lufenuron

15 Benzoylureas

50% EC

Chitin synthesis inhibitor (IGR)

200

Curacron®

Profenophos

1B Organophosphate

50% EC

Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors

750

 

Efficacy of insecticides against S. frugiperda under greenhouse/semi-field conditions

Cauliflower planting was performed in plastic pots containing peat moss and soil with 1:1 ratio. The pots were watered as required. After 2 months of germination when plant height reached 6 to 7 inches, the plants were used in the experiment. The solutions of the four most effective insecticides were prepared according to their label recommended doses and were sprayed on the plants. Four plants were selected for each insecticide considering each plant as a replication. In the control treatment, water was applied. Five 2nd instar larvae from the laboratory-reared F3 generation were released on each potted plant. Data of larval mortality were recorded at 12, 24, 48 and 72 h of post-exposure time.

Field-efficacy of selected insecticides against S. frugiperda

Cauliflower (Brassica oleracea L. Botrytis) was planted in the research area of University. Ten seedlings in one ridge and total 100 plants were maintained in 10 ridges were sown in the field. All the crop-raising practices were followed to retain healthy plants. No insecticides except those included in our study were applied on the plants. When the height of cauliflower leaves was reached 7 to 8 inches in the field, the four most effective insecticides were applied on label recommended dose. Insecticide was applied with a hand sprayer. Five 2nd instar larvae of S. frugiperda were released on each plant and data of larval mortality were recorded after 12, 24, 48 and 72 h of insecticide application. The control plots were sprayed with water. Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) was used for the experiment with four replications.

Data analysis

Data for percent larval mortality recorded from all laboratory and field trials were subjected to a one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) by keeping insecticide as the main factor. Median lethal time (LT50) values for selected differential-chemistry synthetic insecticides were calculated by probit analysis. Means were separated by using Tukey’s honest significant difference test (α = 0.05). All statistical analyses were performed using the Minitab 17.0 statistical software.

RESULTS

Efficacy of insecticides against 2nd instar larvae of S. frugiperda under laboratory conditions

The results showed that there was a significant difference in larval mortality after application of insecticides at 12 h (F = 17.6, P < 0.001), 24 h (F = 20.2, P < 0.001), 48 h (F = 36.2, P < 0.001) and 72 h (F = 82.2, P < 0.001). All the insecticides showed good results in controlling S. frugiperda larvae. At 72 h of exposure time, chlorantraniliprole, abamectin, and lambda-cyhalothrin showed 100% larval mortality. Furthermore, considerable larval mortality (86–98%) was recorded for chlorpyrifos, fipronil, deltamethrin and lufenuron after 72 h of application (Table II). Moreover, median lethal time (LT50) values indicated the same trend in the effectiveness of insecticides against 2nd instar larvae of S. frugiperda. Probit analysis showed chlorantraniliprole, abamectin and chlorpyrifos as effective insecticides with LT50 values of 8.32 h (0.55–16.09), 9.71 h (2.58–16.88) and 10.39 h (1.919–18.80), respectively (Table III).

 

Table II. Percent larval mortality (means ± SE) of 2nd instar larvae of Spodoptera frugiperda exposed to label-recommended dose rates of different synthetic insecticides.

Insecticides

12 h

24 h

48 h

72 h

Deltamethrin B

48.0±3.26a

63.0±3.0a

69.0±7.06b

89.5±3.53ab

Lufenuron B

48.0±3.26a

61.0±5.67a

69.0±7.06b

85.5±5.29ab

Chlorantraniliprole A

58.0±4.67a

73.0±5.17a

96.0±2.67a

100.0a

Emamectin benzoate B

48.0±3.26a

61.0±5.67a

67.0±5.58b

85.5±4.37ab

Abamectin A

56.0±4.98a

71.0±6.75a

95.5±3.02a

100.0a

Fipronil B

48.0±3.26a

61.5±3.34a

68.0±5.33b

90.0±4.47ab

Lambda-cyhalothrin A

52.0±5.33a

68.0±6.11a

96.0±2.67a

100.0a

Profenophos B

48.0±3.26a

61.0±5.67a

69.0±7.66b

83.5±5.06b

Chlorpyrifos A

52.0±3.26a

67.0±3.67a

92.0±4.42a

98.0±2.0ab

Control C

0.00b

0.00b

0.00c

0.00c

 

Means sharing similar letters within a column are not significantly different at P > 0.05. Capital letters show overall statistical difference among the insecticidal treatments (factorial ANOVA followed by HSD at α = 0.05).

 

Table III. Median lethal time (LT50) values for selected differential-chemistry synthetic insecticides evaluated against 2nd instar larvae of Spodoptera frugiperda at 12, 24, 48 and 72 h post-exposure time under laboratory.

Treatment

LT50 (hr)

Lower–upper 95% fiducial limit (hr)

X2

P value

Deltamethrin

12.43

1.373–26.25

807.7

< 0.001

Lufenuron

12.24

3.373–27.86

193.9

< 0.001

Chlorantraniliprole

8.323

0.554–16.09

427.6

< 0.001

Emamectin benzoate

12.60

3.227–28.42

586.1

< 0.001

Abamectin

9.731

2.582–16.88

448.8

< 0.001

Fipronil

13.87

0.473–27.28

357.8

< 0.001

Lambda-cyhalothrin

12.29

6.151–18.43

464.3

< 0.001

Profenophos

11.49

5.540–28.53

212.3

< 0.001

Chlorpyrifos

10.39

1.919–18.80

320.2

< 0.001

 

*Since the significance level is less than 0.15, a heterogeneity factor is used in the calculation of confidence limits.

 

Toxicity of effective insecticides at different concentrations against S. frugiperda

A significant difference in larval mortality was recorded after application of insecticides at 6 h (F =13.1, P < 0.001), 12 h (F = 26.9, P < 0.001), 24 h (F = 37.5, P < 0.001), 48 h (F = 32.1, P < 0.001) and 72 h (F = 25.9, P < 0.001). Abamectin at 6000 ppm concentration gave 65.0% larval mortality after 6 h, 90.0% after 12 h and 100% after 24 h. When this insecticide was tested at 5000 ppm, it showed 60.0, 90.0 and 100% larval mortality after 12, 24 and 48 h of application. Similarly, abamectin at 4000 ppm showed 70.0% larval mortality after 24 h and 100% after 48 h. The lowest concentrations (3000 and 2000 ppm, respectively) of abamectin showed 90.0% and 80.0% larval mortality after 72 h of application. Lambda-cyhalothrin at 2500 ppm gave 90% mortality of larvae after 72 h and 3000 ppm gave similar control at 48 h. A higher concentration (3500 ppm) of lambda-cyhalothrin controlled 95% larvae at 24 h and 100% at 48 h of application. The lowest concentrations of chlorpyrifos didn’t perform well in controlling larvae of S. frugiperda. However, 11000 ppm concentration of chlorpyrifos showed 90% mortality at 72 h and 12000 ppm showed 100% larval mortality at 24 h of application. Similar findings were observed in the case of chlorantraniliprole which showed 70% larval mortality at 400 ppm. By using a higher concentration (500 ppm) of this insecticide, 100% of larvae were found to be dead at 24 h of exposure (Table IV).

Efficacy of insecticides against 2nd instar larvae of S. frugiperda under semi-field conditions

When insecticides were tested under semi-field conditions, a significant difference in larval mortality was recorded after application of insecticides at 12 h (F = 19.2, P < 0.001), 24 h (F = 49.3, P < 0.001), 48 h (F = 36.5, P < 0.001) and 72 h (F = 42.6, P < 0.001). After 24 h, about 93.8% larval mortality was recorded with the application of chlorantraniliprole which was increased to 100% at 48 h. Chlorpyrifos gave 93.7% control of S. frugiperda larvae after 72 h of application. While 87.5% mortality was recorded with the application of abamectin and 76.3% with lambda-cyhalothrin at 72 h exposure time (Fig. 1).

 

Table IV. Percent larval mortality (means ± SE) of 2nd instar larvae of Spodoptera frugiperda exposed to different concentrations of synthetic insecticides.

Insecticides

Conc. ( ppm)

6 h

12 h

24 h

48 h

72 h

Abamectin A

2000

15.0±5.00cde

25.0±3.04e-h

45.0±5.01cd

65.0±5.00b-e

80.0±2.02abc

3000

15.0±5.00cde

35.0±5.00d-g

50.0±5.77cd

75.0±9.57abc

90.0±5.77ab

4000

30.0±5.77bcd

50.0±5.77b-e

70.0±4.77bc

100.0a

100.0a

5000

35.0±9.57bc

60.0±8.16bcd

90.0±3.37ab

100.0a

100.0a

6000

65.0±9.57a

90.0±5.77a

100.00a

100.0a

100.0a

Lambda-cyhalothrin B

1500

0.00e

20.0±1.00fgh

25.0±2.32d-g

55.0±9.57c-f

65.0±5.00cde

2000

5.0±0.02de

25.0±1.00e-h

35.0±2.43def

60.0±8.16cde

70.0±5.77b-e

2500

10.0±1.77cde

25.0±1.00e-h

45.0±3.04cd

65.0±5.00b-e

90.0±5.77ab

3000

30.0±2.77bcd

45.0±3.00c-f

70.0±5.54bc

90.0±5.77ab

100.0a

3500

45.0±5.00ab

70.0±5.34abc

95.0±5.00ab

100.0a

100.0a

Chlorpyrifos C

8000

0.00e

0.00h

10.0±1.23fg

30.0±2.54fg

50.0±5.77e

9000

0.00e

0.00h

15.0±1.65efg

30.0±2.22fg

55.0±5.00de

10000

0.00e

10.0±1.77gh

25.0±2.00d-g

45.0±5.00def

75.0±9.57bcd

11000

15.0±2.00cde

25.0±2.00e-h

50.0±5.43cd

70.0±5.77bcd

90.0±5.77ab

12000

30.0±2.77bcd

70.0±5.77abc

100.0a

100.0a

100.0a

Chlorantraniliprole B

300

0.00e

0.00h

15.0±1.00efg

40.0±0.00ef

65.0±5.00cde

400

10.0±1.77cde

25.0±3.00e-h

40.0±1.55de

55.0±9.57c-f

70.0±5.77b-e

500

10.0±1.77cde

30.0±5.77efg

50.0±5.77cd

75.0±9.57abc

90.0±5.77ab

600

25.0±2.00b-e

50.0±5.77b-e

85.0±5.00ab

100.00a

100.0a

700

50.±5.77ab

75.0±5.00ab

100.0a

100.00a

100.0a

Control D

0.00e

0.00h

0.00±0.00g

5.00±0.02g

10.0±1.12f

 

Means sharing similar letters within a column are not significantly different at P > 0.05. Capital letters show overall statistical difference among the insecticidal treatments (factorial ANOVA followed by HSD at α = 0.05).

 

 

 

Efficacy of effective insecticides against 2nd instar larvae of S. frugiperda in field conditions

In field conditions, similar results of selected insecticides were found as in semi-field conditions. Chlorantraniliprole showed 100% mortality at 48 h of application that was significantly (F = 37.4, P < 0.001) higher than other chemicals. Abamectin showed 88.7% larval mortality after 72 h of application in the field. Chlorpyrifos showed 26.2–81.2% and lambda-cyhalothrin showed 15.0–71.2% larval mortality in the field (Fig. 2).

DISCUSSION

S. frugiperda has a wide range of host plants and damages various economic crops including rice, maize, cabbage, cauliflower, sugarcane, millet and cotton (Clark et al., 2007; Day et al., 2017; Montezano et al., 2018). As a new pest in our country, farmers are using different synthetic insecticides to suppress the population of this pest, while there is no registered product available in the market yet. We evaluated different insecticides against this pest in laboratory and field conditions. In laboratory study, all tested insecticides showed good results in controlling S. frugiperda larvae. Some insecticides showed greater mortality of 2nd instar larvae in the laboratory trials and high to moderate larval mortality was achieved with chlorantraniliprole, lambda-cyhalothrin, abamectin, chlorpyrifos, fipronil, deltamethrin, lufenuron, emamectin benzoate and profenophos. However, more than 95% larval mortality was achieved by chlorantraniliprole, lambda-cyhalothrin, abamectin and chlorpyrifos at 72 h. The LT50 of chlorantraniliprole, abamectin and chlorpyrifos against S. frugiperda larvae were found to be low; therefore, the high insecticidal toxicity and rapid efficiency of these insecticides make them a good candidate to manage S. frugiperda larval population. Findings of dose-mortality response demonstrated that higher concentrations of abamectin (6000 ppm) and chlorantraniliprole (700 ppm) and chlorpyrifos (12000 ppm) had 100% efficacy against S. frugiperda at 24 h post-exposure. By increasing the concentration of insecticides, mortality of S. frugiperda larvae was also increased.

Our results corroborate the findings of Ahmed et al. (2022) showing significant morality of 3rd instar larvae of S. frugiperda by emamectin benzoate, chlorpyrifos and chlorantraniliprole. Lambda-cyhalothrin is a combination of isomers of cyhalothrin that is a synthetic organic insecticide (Robert, 2002). As a broad-spectrum pyrethroid insecticide, it is used to manage several insect pests in different crops (Leistra et al., 2004). Chlorpyrifos is an organophosphate insecticide used to kill a wide range of insect pests (Rathod and Garg, 2017). Abamectin is classified in the group of avermectins, made by the soil microorganism known as Streptomyces avermitilis (Burg et al., 1979). Abamectin acts as an agonist to GABA receptors in insect’s nervous system (White et al., 1997) and is well documented as an effective insecticide against various insect pests (Ahmad et al., 2003; Gouamene-Lamine et al., 2003; Fitzgerald, 2004; Seal et al., 2006). Chlorantraniliprole is a newer class of insecticides, anthranilic diamides and it is highly selective to ryanodine receptors in insect’s body (Cordova et al., 2006; Lahm et al., 2007). Chlorantraniliprole has been reported earlier as a good candidate to control Spodoptera spp. (Sisay et al., 2019; Kong et al., 2021; Ahmed et al., 2022; Altaf et al., 2022).

In greenhouse and field trials, the most effective insecticides from laboratory bioassay were tested against S. frugiperda larvae. The findings demonstrated that chlorantraniliprole, abamectin and chlorpyrifos were effective to control S. frugiperda. About 87–100% larval mortality was achieved at 72 h of application in greenhouse and field conditions. It was also noted that the mortality of 2nd instar larvae was increased over time after the application of synthetic insecticides in the laboratory and field, showing the residual toxicity of these insecticides to S. frugiperda.

The recent attack of S. frugiperda has forced the farmers to massive spraying of synthetic insecticides on maize fields for quick control of this pest. Due to heavy damage to maize crop, farmers are using synthetic chemicals not recommended yet against this pest. This massive use of insecticides may increase the chances of resistance development in this pest against insecticides. As recently, Gutierrez-Moreno et al. (2020) reported that field-collected S. frugiperda might be developing resistance to different insecticides including diamides, chlorantraniliprole and flubendiamide. Thus, resistance monitoring in S. furgiperda is also needed.

Due to having multiple generations, dispersal ability and feeding on various host plants makes S. frugiperda difficult pest to control. As a new threat to global food security, quick action, national, regional and international collaboration are needed to suppress the population of this pest. An effective integrated pest management strategy is required to tackle the adverse effects of this pest. Our findings, therefore, are helpful to the management of this pest in screening effective insecticides. However, these insecticides should be the last option in the IPM program of S. frugiperda. Other control measures including the use of biopesticides, natural enemies and cultural practices should be integrated into the IPM program for this pest.

CONCLUSIONS

This study demonstrates that the application of the synthetic insecticides chlorantraniliprole, abamectin and chlorpyrifos are effective in controlling S. frugiperda. These insecticides had the highest toxicity and fastest knockdown effect on S. frugiperda larvae in the field. These synthetic insecticides are hence recommended combating S. frugiperda infestations in maize. However, there is a need of IPM approach to control this pest, as only chemical control may increase the chance of S. frugiperda resistance to insecticides.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

The authors would like to acknowledge the Department of Plant Pathology and Farm Manager of the College of Agriculture, University of Sargodha, for providing research facilities.

Funding

The study was financially supported by the internal funds of the Department of Entomology, College of Agriculture, University of Sargodha, Sargodha.

Statement of conflict of interest

The authors have declared no conflict of interest.

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Pakistan Journal of Zoology

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Pakistan J. Zool., Vol. 56, Iss. 1, pp. 01-501

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