CXCL8 may involve in a variety of inflammatory and immune response. To investigate the effect of hemodialysis on the expression of CXCL8 in serum and its mRNA in neutrophils of the patients with chronic renal failure (CRF). It was used to dynamically observe of Hemodialysis on the concentration of the CXCL8 in serum and the levels of CXCL8 mRNA in neutrophils were respectively measured by ELISA and PCR. The house keeping gene encoding glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) as the internal reference, the ratio of lgcDNA/lgGAPDH was regarded as the extreme level of CXCL8 mRNA. The serum level of CXCL8 and expression of CXCL8 mRNA in neutrophils of the chronic renal failure were (128.892±17.101) pg/mL and (1.332±0.138) lgcDNA/lgGAPDH. There was no significant difference compared with the normal controls (t=2.8468, P=0.062; t=1.953, P=0.0559). Further observation showed that the levels of CXCL8 and mRNA in neutrophils of the patients with infection were (136.048±15.551) pg/mL and (1.391±0.119) lgcDNA/lgGAPDH, and were significantly higher than those in the cases without infection (t=3.2901, P= 0.023; t=3.3701, P=0.0018). After treatment of Hemodialysis for 12h, CXCL8 and mRNA levels in peripheral blood of the patients were decreased very rapidly, and mainly found in the patients with infection. There was no significant difference between the patients with and without infection (t=0.936, P=0.3468; t=1.7741, P=0.0848). Follow up observation for 48 h after Hemodialysis treatments, the levels of CXCL8 and mRNA in peripheral blood of the patients have a certain degree of up-regulation, but there was still no significant difference between the patients with and without infection (t=1.6975, P=0.0985; t=2.0575, P=0.472). CXCL8 can be as a sensitive indicator of the immunological reaction of micro inflammation in the patients, and tightly correlated with the merger of infection. The high concentration of CXCL8 in serum can be quickly filtered out by Hemodialysis in the short term and the transcription level of CXCL8 mRNA in neutrophils also be induced down regulation, and subsequently promote the recovery of injury via the inhibition pathway of micro inflammatory immune. In order to prevent excessive micro inflammation, the patients with infection should have been repeated Hemodialysis.