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Prospective Roles and Mechanisms of Caffeic Acid in Counter Plant Stress: A Mini Review

Prospective Roles and Mechanisms of Caffeic Acid in Counter Plant Stress: A Mini Review

Umair Riaz1*, Muhammad Ali Kharal2, Ghulam Murtaza3, Qamar uz Zaman4, Sana Javaid4, Hina Ahmed Malik3, Humera Aziz3 and Zafar Abbas1 

1Soil and Water Testing Laboratory for Research, Bahawalpur-63100, Pakistan; 2Punjab Agriculture Department, Agriculture Extension Wing Bahawalpur-63100, Punjab, Pakistan; 3Institute of Soil and Environmental Sciences, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad-48040, Pakistan; 4Department of Environmental Sciences, The University of Lahore, Lahore, Pakistan.

umair.riaz@uaf.edu.pk 

Figure 1

Chemical classification of phenolic compounds. 

Figure 2

Chemical structure of the main cinnamic acids. Cinnamic acid R1 = R2 = R3 = R4 =H, o-coumaric acid: R2 = OH, p -coumaric acid: R3 = OH; caffeic acid: R2 = R3 = OH; ferulic acid: R2 = OCH3 and R3 = OH. 

Pakistan Journal of Zoology

February

Vol. 51, Iss. 1, Pages 1-398

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