Pathological Alterations during Co-Infection of Newcastle Disease Virus with Escherichia coli in Broiler Chicken
Qamar-un-Nisa1, Muhammad Younus2,*, Muti-ur-Rehman1, Azhar Maqbool3 and Sajid Umar4
Experimental setup of the co-infection study. Broiler groups: Non infected group (control negative). Bacteria inoculated group (E. coli alone). Virus inoculated group (vNDV alone). Simultaneous inoculation of virus and bacteria (vNDV+E. coli). Bacteria inoculation followed by virus inoculation (E. coli/vNDV). Virus inoculation followed by bacteria inoculation (vNDV/E. coli). *Necropsy days.
Clinical scores in groups of broilers after inoculation with vNDV or E. coli (O78) or a combination of both. Each respiratory clinical sign was scored by the following scale: 0, no sign; 1, mild or slight; 2, moderate; 3, severe.
Mortality (%) in different groups of broilers after inoculation with vNDV or E. coli (O78) or a combination of both.
Scores of macroscopic lesions in trachea, lungs and airsacs of broilers challenged with E. coli (O78) and vNDV singly or in combination.
Virus and bacteria shedding pattern in oropharnygeal swabs in different co-infected groups (A) and virus shedding in oropharnygeal swabs collected at different time points after vNDV inoculation (B) E. coli (O78) titres (Log10 CFU/mL) in oropharnygeal swabs collected at different time points after E. coli (O78) inoculation.