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Impact of Different Salinity Levels on Growing Performance, Food Conversion and Meat Quality of Red Tilapia (Oreochromis sp.) Reared in Seawater Tanks

PJZ_50_2_409-415

 

 

Impact of Different Salinity Levels on Growing Performance, Food Conversion and Meat Quality of Red Tilapia (Oreochromis sp.) Reared in Seawater Tanks

Abdul Malik1,2, Ghulam Abbas1,*, Abdul Ghaffar3, Sara Ferrando4 and Lorenzo Gallus4

1Centre of Excellence in Marine Biology, University of Karachi, Karachi, Pakistan

2Livestock and Fisheries Department, Directorate of Fisheries, Govt. of Sindh, Pakistan

3Department of Life Sciences, The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Bahawalpur, Pakistan

4Department of Earth, Environment and Life Sciences, University of Genoa, Italy

ABSTRACT

The effect of varying salinity levels (15‰ to 40‰ with 5‰ increment) on growth, feed efficiency and meat quality of red tilapia, Oreochromis sp. (mean body weight 5±0.07g) were investigated. Juveniles of red tilapia were randomly distributed into seawater tanks (60 cm × 30 cm × 45 cm each). Ten fish were stocked in each tank with 2 replications. Fish were fed with commercial floating pellet (35% protein) at 3% body weight per day for 40 days. Results showed that fish growth was significantly (P<0.05) higher in term of weight gain, WG % of initial weight, mean daily WG, SGR, feed conversion and survival rate from 15‰ to 30‰ salinity than those reared in 35‰ and 40‰ salinity. Condition factor was found to be significantly higher on 40‰ salinity than 15‰ to 35‰ salinity. Feed conversion ratio remained non-significant in all salinity levels. Present study proves that red tilapia can be reared up to 30‰ salinity to get optimum growth and maximum survival rate. Biochemical analysis of fish meat showed that moisture, protein, lipid, ash and crude fiber were not significantly (P>0.05) affected by salinity level. The hematological parameters like hematocrit, cholesterol and plasma triglycerides were similar among fish fed on different salinity level (P < 0.05).


Article Information

Received 30 May 2017

Revised 06 July 2017

Accepted 25 July 2017

Available online 24 January 2018

Authors’ Contribution

GA conceived the idea, designed the study and wrote the manuscript. AM did the experimental work. AG prepared the blood slides. SF analysed the data and LG edited the manuscript.

Key words

Red tilapia, Oreochromis, Growth, Feed efficiency, Salinity level, Adaptation.

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.17582/journal.pjz/2018.50.2.409.415

* Corresponding author: ghulamabbas@uok.edu.pk

0030-9923/2018/0002-0409 $ 9.00/0

Copyright 2018 Zoological Society of Pakistan



Introduction

Salt concentration (salinity) is considered as the most important environmental factor which affects the growth performance of numerous fish species cultured in seawater ponds and cages (Cruz et al., 1990; Watanabe et al., 1990; Naylor et al., 2000; Cressey, 2009; Ferreira et al., 2009; Martins et al., 2010; FAO, 2014; Cao et al., 2015). Salt control in these culture systems is a serious task for maintaining life in all higher organisms like bony fish including tilapia or cichlids. Cichlid have shown acceptance for rearing and spawning in brackish or seawater environment (Lim and Webster, 2008). Due to shortage of freshwater in the biosphere, it would be helpful to raise tilapia stocks in brackish or seawater environments to certify a source of low-priced and high-quality protein (animal origin) for future (Ng and Romano, 2013; Saikia and Das, 2015). Therefore, tilapias may be suitable to reduce pressure on wild fish stocks (Dey, 2000; Ponzoni et al., 2011; Nguyen, 2015; Yue et al., 2016; Fitzsimmons, 2016). Cultivated tilapias attained marketable size from 600 g to 1000 g in 180-270 days of culture period, respectively. Due to these characters tilapias have been cultivated in 120 countries (Lim and Webster, 2008).

Red tilapia is gaining more popularity among fish culturist as its growth is excellent in brackish water and even in seawater (Stickney 1986; Daudpota et al., 2016). However, the data regarding salinity effect on its growth is scarce. The current research reports optimum salinity for desired growth, feed efficiency, adaptation and survival of red tilapia in captivity.

 

Materials and methods

 

Fingerlings of Red tilapia, Oreochromis sp. (mean body weight 5±0.07g and mean total length 16.2±0.4 cm) were collected from Sun-bright Red Tilapia and Ornamental Fish Hatchery. Subsequently, they were transported into Aquaculture Research Laboratory of Centre of Excellence in Marine Biology, University of Karachi. They were acclimated for one week and then stocked into seawater tanks (60 cm × 30 cm × 45 cm; 10 fish per tank.) at different salinity levels of 15‰, 20‰, 25‰, 30‰, 35‰ and 40‰ with 2 replications. All tanks were well aerated throughout the experimental period. Artificial floating pelleted feed (35% crude protein, 5.8% crude fat, 6.7% crude fiber, 9.8% moisture and 8.4% ash) was purchased from Oryza Organic Private Limited, Lahore. Fish were fed at 3% of total biomass two time daily (9:00 and 16:00). Body weight and total length of individual fish was noted weekly and the amount of ration to be supplied to fish was then adjusted. Siphoning of each tank was done after 1 h feeding to remove waste material from bottom and new water was added to maintain required water level. Finally, growth performance and food conversion of fish juveniles were calculated by using the following formulae (Abbas and Siddiqui, 2013; Daudpota et al., 2016):

 

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Where, WG is weight gain, FW is final weight, IW is initial weight, MDWG is mean daily weight gain, FCR is feed conversion ratio, CF is condition factor, SGR is specific growth rate and SR is survival rate.

Water quality parameters such as temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen (DO) and ammonia were monitored throughout the study period. Temperature of the water was noted on daily basis by thermometer. DO of the water was noticed with the help of portable test kit (Merck KGaA, 64271, Germany). The pH of tank water was determined by using pH meter (EzDO 6011, Taiwan). Ammonia was determined with portable test kits (Merck KGaA, 64271, Germany) and salinity was observed by hand -held refractometer (ATAGO, S/Mill-E, 0.100%, made in Japan) on daily basis.

At the end of the trial, fish meat was stored at -20oC for biochemical analysis (AOAC, 2000). Blood samples (1.50 ml) were taken from caudal vein of each fish by using anticoagulant (EDTA, 1 mg/ml) and without it as well. The plasma constituents were determined by using the calorimetric methods of the Boehringer Corp as described by Papoutsoglou and Voutsinos (1988).

Data regarding weight and length increment, survival and biochemical constituents were statistically analyzed (Zar, 1996) by using statistical software Minitab 17.

 

Results

 

The growth of red tilapia (Oreochromis sp.) fingerlings in term of WG and SGR was significantly (P<0.05) higher at 15‰ to 30‰ salinity level than of those reared at 35‰ and 40‰ salinity (Table I). Similar trend was found for FCE and SR of the fish. FCR was more or less similar (P<0.05) at all salinity levels (Table I). Condition factor (CF) of the fish was found to be significantly (P<0.05) higher 40‰ than those of 15‰ to 35‰. Relationship of mean fish weight was significantly (P <0.05) higher at 15‰ to 30‰ than 35‰ and 40‰ salinity levels (Fig. 1). Water quality parameters like pH, temperature, ammonia and dissolved oxygen were monitored daily throughout the experimental period. These parameters were within the acceptable range: water temperature was 28.32±0.09°C, DO was 7.35±0.11 mg/L, water pH was 7.8±0.11 and ammonia never exceeded 0.023±0.005 mg/L (Table II). Relationship between body weight and total length of the present study shows that red tilapia fingerlings reared at 15‰, 20‰, 25‰ and 30‰ was significantly (P <0.05) higher than 35% and 40% salinity levels (Fig. 2). Moisture, ash and protein contents of the cultured fish meat was not

 

 

Table I.- Growth parameters of red tilapia (Oreochromis sp.) reared at different salinity level for 40 days.

Parameters

Salinity level (‰)

15

20

25

30

35

40

IW(g)

5.0±0.07a

5.0±0.05a

5.0±0.04a

5.0±0.07a

5.1±0.6a

5±0.05a

FW (g)

16.26±0.4a

16.2±0.2a

16.3±0.2a

16.24±0.3a

10.3±0.02b

7.3±0.03b

IL (cm)

6.44±0.05a

6.48±0.08a

6.48±0.08a

6.48±0.07a

6.4±0.02b

6.4±0.01b

FL (cm)

11.74±0.2a

11.68±0.14a

11.66±0.15a

11.74±0.13a

9.4±0.01b

6.9±0.02b

WG

11.26±0.01a

11.3±0.07a

11.3±0.01a

11.24±0.03a

5.2±0.03b

2.3±0.02b

WG % of IW

225.2±0.14a

224±0.71a

226±0.71a

224.8±0.56a

101.9±2.3b

46±1.4b

MDWG

0.28±0.001a

0.28±0.002a

0.28±0.001a

0.28±0.002a

0.13±0.001b

0.06 ±0.002b

SGR

2.95±0.02a

2.94±0.01a

2.95±0.01a

2.94±0.06a

1.76±0.01b

0.9±0.02b

FCR

0.7±0.06a

0.7±0.04a

0.7±0.06a

0.8±0.06b

0.7±0.03a

0.7±0.04a

FCE

2.5±0.02a

2.5±0.02a

2.5±0.02a

2.5±0.02a

0.83±0.01b

0.8±0.01b

SR (%)

100±0.0a

100±0.0a

100±0.0a

100±0.0a

95±0.1b

90±0.3b

CF

1±0.01a

1.02±0.02a

1.03±0.01a

1±0.02a

1.2±0.01a

2±0.02a

Values of the same row carrying the same superscripts are not statically significant (P> 0.05). IW, initial weight; FW, final weight; IL, initial length; FL, final length; WG, weight gain; MDWG, mean daily weight gain; SGR, specific growth rate; FCR, food conversion ratio; FCE, food conversion efficiency; SR, survival rate; CF, condition factor.

 

 

affected (P > 0.05) by the salinity levels (Table III). No statistically important differences were observed between groups regarding the cholesterol level, plasma triglycerides and hematocrit values (P > 0.05; Table IV, Fig. 3).

 

Discussion

 

In the present study, the salinity level of 30‰ was adequate to optimize WG, SGR, CF and survival rate in fingerling red tilapia growing from 5 g to 16.3 g. SGR of the fish was higher at 15‰, 20‰, 25‰ and 30‰ than reported by other researchers. For instance, Rahim et al. (2017) found SGR=3.21% while using fish oil, soybean oil, olive oil and palm oil in the diet of black fin sea bream (Acanthopagrus berda). These observations are higher than those of the present study (SGR: 2.82%-2.83%). Furthermore, Kapute et al. (2016) achieved maximum results i.e., 1.8 for Tilapia rendalli in pond (200 m2). In addition, Abbas and Siddiqui (2009) reported SGR 0.9 % to 2.2 % at different feeding levels of mangrove red snapper (Lutjanus argentimaculatus). Solomon and Okomoda (2012) found that SGR of Oreochromis niloticus ranged from 0.65 % to 1.4 % as different duckweed percentages were used in artificial feed. Daudpota et al. (2016) documented SGR of 2.1%-2.2% in comparative study of tilapia Oreochromis species. In another study of Daudpota et al. (2014), red tilapia showed SGR values ranging from 1.46%-1.69% on different stocking densities.

 

Table II.- Water quality parameters recorded at different salinity levels with mean values and standard error throughout the study period of 40 days.

Salinity (%)

Temperature (°C)

DO (mg/L)

pH

Ammonia (mg/L)

15

28.3

7.4

7.8

0.02

20

28.2

7.5

7.9

0.02

25

28.4

7.4

7.6

0.02

30

28.4

7.3

7.8

0.02

35

28.2

7.2

7.9

0.03

40

28.4

7.3

7.8

0.03

Mean

28.32

7.35

7.8

0.023

SE±

0.09

0.11

0.11

0.005

 

In the present study, WG of the fish was higher than documented by various researchers. Solomon and Okomoda (2012) reported gain in weight from 1.56 g to 1.92 g of Oreochromis niloticus when duckweed was included in its diet with different concentration. Daudpota et al. (2016) found WG from 2.5 g to 4.8 g of Nile tilapia.

FCR of the fish was 0.7-0.8 at all salinity levels. Similar results have been reported in other fish, such as black fin sea bream Acanthopagrus berda (Rahim et al. (2017a,b,c), red tilapia Oreochromis sp. (Daudpota et al., 2014 and 2016), Nile tilapia O. niloticus (Solomon and Okomoda, 2012).

In artificial fish farming system, water quality parameters are directly affected by fish metabolism and feeding efficiency as well (Ertan et al., 2015; Kapute et al., 2016). In this study, water quality parameters were within the acceptable range for fish farming (Daudpota et al., 2014; Malik et al., 2014; Iqbal et al., 2014; Emmanuel et al., 2014; Shah et al., 2014 and Chugtai et al.,2015).

 

 

 

Table III.- Biochemical composition of Red tilapia hybrid (Oreochromis sp.) reared in glass tanks for the period of 40 days.

 

Salinity level (‰)

Initial

15

20

25

30

35

40

Crude protein (%)

16.21±0.1a

17.16±0.2a

17.23±0.3a

17.18±0.4a

17.3±0.3a

17.2±0.2a

17.2±0.2a

Moisture (%)

70.57±0.1a

71.16±0.2a

71.23±0.3a

71.18±0.4a

71.3±0.3a

71.2±0.2a

71.2±0.2a

Lipid (%)

2.49±0.3a

2.52±0.2a

2.50±0.1 a

2.51±0.2a

2.5±0.2a

2.5±0.1a

2.5±0.1a

Ash (%)

4.13±0.4a

4.18±0.3a

4.18±0.4a

4.17±0.4a

4.2±0.4a

4.2±0.4a

4.2±0.1a

Crude fiber (%)

2.04±0.1a

2.04±0.1a

2.65±0.1a

2.63±0.1a

2.7±0.1a

2.6±0.3a

2.6±0.1a

 

Table IV.- Hematological parameters of juvenile red tilapia fed at different salinity levels for 40 days.

Parameters

Salinity level (‰)

15

20

25

30

35

40

Haematocrit1

42.2±3.1a

42.3±6.2a

43.3±4.3a

43.1±3.1a

43.2±6.2a

43.4±5.2a

Total lipids2

1385.3±67.1a

1369.8±58.2a

1322.4 ±56.6a

1353.6± 60.6ab

1383.5 ±52.2a

1371.2 ±49.9a

Triglycerides2

163.4±55.0a

166.2±56.1a

169.4± 55.6a

167.8± 52.1a

165.5 ±58.2a

169.1 ±56.0a

Cholesterol2

151.0±40.3a

155.1±48.2a

156.9±46.2a

154.8± 50.4a

153.7 ±51.5a

154.1 ±52.0a

1Measured as %; 2Measured as mg 100 ml-1; Values (mean ± SE, n = 3) in the same row with similar superscripts are not significantly different (P > 0.05); Initial fish blood analysis: hematocrit 42.6%, total plasma lipids 1485.2 mg 100 ml−1, triglycerides 166.9 mg 100 ml−1 and cholesterol 149.9 mg 100 ml−1.

 

Generally, blood is considered as a tool for the transportation of nutrients, metabolites and inorganic ions (Abbas and Siddiqui, 2009). In the present study, all fishes were found to be healthy over the duration of the experiment and the values of the haematocrit were in normal range. Evidence to support this is available in another study of Papotsoglou and Voutsinos (1988). Similar individual tendency has been reported in rainbow trout Salmo gairdneri (Papoutsoglou and Papaparaskeva-Papoutsoglou, 1979; Hile 1982; Papoutsoglou and Voutsinos, 1988), mangrove red snapper Lutjanus argentimaculatus (Abbas and Siddiqui, 2013) and red-spotted grouper Epinephelus akaara (Kayano et al., 1993; Kang’ombe and Brown, 2008). In most of the above studies, great differences in plasma lipids and cholesterol levels were observed among groups for chemically different foods. In this study, salinity level did not cause any significant differentiation in the amount of these hematological parameters.

In conclusion, the growth performance, adaptation and survival of red tilapia was higher up to salinity level of 30‰ than 35‰ and 40‰ . On the basis of these results, this specie can be recommended for coastal aquaculture or inland saline water areas to promote the brackish/ saline water aquaculture of Pakistan.

 

CONCLUSION

 

It is concluded that red tilapia fingerlings can be reared up to 30% salinity level it would be more productive for saline areas as well as coastal fish culturist.

 

ACKNOWLEDGMENTs

 

The authors gratefully acknowledge the research grant (No. AS 020/2017-19) entitled “Fish Breeding and Culture Technology Development in Coastal Region of Pakistan” provided by ALP-PARC, Islamabad. The senior author would like to pay gratitude to HEC for providing fellowship to complete this work as a part of his Ph.D. The authors are extremely thankful to Prof.  Dr. Raida Wajih Khalil, Faculty of Science, Department of Biotechnology, University of Philadelphia, who red and corrected this manuscript. Special thanks are due to Science Edit- DW for providing edit services.

 

Statement of conflict of interest

Authors have declared no conflict of interest.

 

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Pakistan Journal of Zoology

June

Vol. 50, Iss. 3, Pages 799-1198

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