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Impact of Corn Steep Liquor and Enzose Mixture on Growth Performance of Chicks

PJZ_54_1_491-494

Impact of Corn Steep Liquor and Enzose Mixture on Growth Performance of Chicks

Nasir Ali Tauqir1, Asim Faraz2*, Annamaria Passantino3, Muhammad Asif Shahzad1, Rana Muhammad Bilal4, Adeel Tahir1, Hafiz Muhammad Ishaq2 and Abdul Waheed2

1Department of Animal Sciences, University of Sargodha, Sargodha

2Department of Livestock and Poultry Production, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan

3Department of Veterinary Sciences, Polo Universitario Annunziata 98168

Messina, University of Messina, Italy

4University College of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, The Islamia University

of Bahawalpur, Bahawalpur

ABSTRACT

Globally, poultry products have been considered as an indispensable source of animal protein and it is speculated that the demand of animal protein will be increased by 60-70% in 2050 for human consumption and much of this share will come from developing nations. This research was executed to find out the nutritional influence of corn steep liquor and enzose mixture as a non-conventional protein ingredient in day old broiler chicks. For this purpose, 42 days study was conducted using hubbard broiler chicks (n=200). The birds were divided into 5 groups containing 4 replicates having 10 chicks each. Birds were offered 5 iso-caloric and isonitrogenous broiler starter (metabolizable energy 2850 kcal/ kg; crude protein 20%) diet from day 1-21 and broiler finisher (metabolizable energy 2880 kcal/ kg; Crude protein 18%) diet from day 22-42 comprising 0, 3, 6, 9 and 12% CSL and Enzose mixture (50:50 ratio). It was that broiler fed diet B gained higher body weight (p<0.05) and exhibited lower feed conversion ratio as compared to other treatments. Birds fed diets B (CE3) also exhibited significantly higher nutrient digestibility and carcass characteristic as compared to other treatments. Growth responses, nutrient digestibility and carcass characteristics of birds were optimized fed 3% of CSL and Enzose mixture as compared to others.


Article Information

Received 03 May 2020

Revised 14 June 2020

Accepted 20 June 2020

Available online 16 April 2021

(early access)

Published 27 December 2021

Authors’ Contribution

NAT designed research, finalized write up and data analysis and got the financial support from the PARB, Lahore. RMB and MAS contributed in laboratory analyses. AF and AW helped in carrying out the research and write-up. AT helped in experimental work. AP and HMI helped in preparing the article.

Key words

Corn steep liquor, Enzose, Broiler, Performance, Digestibility

DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.17582/journal.pjz/20200503080535

* Corresponding author: tauqir041@hotmail.com

0030-9923/2022/0001-0491 $ 9.00/0

Copyright 2022 Zoological Society of Pakistan



In world meat production, the share of poultry meat is approximately 33% (FAO, 2010). Although animal protein production is going on a good pace, however demand for protein and energy source feed ingredients is rising gradually (Mengesha, 2012). In poultry production feed cost shares approximately 70% of the total cost of production (Hussein, 2017). Globally, corn and soybean meal (SBM) are most predominant conventional feed ingredients included in the majority of commercial poultry diets. The price of conventional feed ingredients is rising gradually and their irregular supply is making these item insufficient and uneconomical (Van et al., 2017).

In this scenario of high pricing and irregular provision of conventional feed ingredients, there is dire need to replace these costly feeds ingredients with non-conventional and economical feedstuffs which may serve the purpose successfully. Agro-industrial by-products may improve the quality of feed and reduce its cost (Olarotimi and Adu, 2017). Corn steep liquor (CSL) is one of un-traditional byproduct of corn wet-milling industry which contains almost 20% crude protein (CP) and about 50% solids. So, it can be considered as potential feed ingredient for livestock and poultry birds (Trenkle, 2003). It contains ample quantity of unidentified growth factors which may enhance the feed palatability (Waldroup and Rutherford, 1971).

Enzose is a light amber color liquid derived during corn processing. It encompasses 4% CP, 2200 kcal/kg gross energy, 86% dextrose contents, 18% lactic acid with an acidic pH (4.4) (Product Reference Guide, 2010). The data related to use of CSL and Enzose as non-conventional protein ingredient in broiler chicks is scarce. Due to inadequate scientific knowledge regarding the successful inclusion of CSL and Enzose this research was planned to access the potential of CSL and Enzose as protein and energy source in broiler chick.

Materials and methods

Hubbard broiler chicks (n=200;1 day old) with an average weight of (38-40g) were selected for a 42-day trial. Birds were distributed randomly to 5 treatment groups with 4 replicates containing 10 chicks each according to a completely randomized design.

All the groups (A, B, C, D and E) were fed with iso-caloric and isonitrogenous broiler starter (metabolizable energy 2850 kcal/ kg; CP 20%) feed from day 1-22 and finisher (metabolizable energy 2880 kcal/ kg; crude protein 18%) feed from day 22-42 (Table I). Group A was kept on basal diet without CSL and Enzose (Table II). Group B, C, D and E were fed with basal diet respectively containing 0, 3, 6, 9 and 12% CSL and Enzose mixture (50:50 ratio). The chemical profile of CSL is presented in (Table II). Initially a brooding temperature of 90°F was provided which gradually reduced at 5ºF per week untill it reaches to 75ºF. Feed and water were given ad libitum to all birds with standard managmental conditions.

 

Table I. Ingredient and nutrient composition of diets.

Sr. No.

Ingredients

Starter

Finisher

1

Yellow corn

39

39

2

Rice broken

19

19

3

Rice polishing’s

3.88

3.88

4

Soybean meal 45%

18

18

5

Corn gluten 60%

5

5

6

Canola meal

18

18

7

Corn steep liquor

0

0

8

Enzose

0

0

9

Fish meal 60%

4

0

10

Limestone

1.2

1.3

11

DCP

1.25

1.45

12

Soya oil

0.5

0.5

13

Lysine

0.17

0.25

14

Premix (Vit, Min)

0.5

0.5

Nutrient composition

 

 

1

Protein

21

18.4

2

Metabolizable energy (Kcal Kg-1)

2922

2960

3

Crude fiber

3.95

3.91

4

Lysine

1.11

0.99

5

Methionine

0.67

0.65

6

Methionine + Cystine

0.76

0.65

7

Calcium

1.05

0.91

8

Available phosphorus

0.42

0.38

9

Protein: Energy

0.1381

0.152

 

C, Corn steep liquor; E, Enzose mixture. Group: A control CE0; B, CE3; C, CE6; D, CE9; E, CE12; Diets A, B, C, D, E were prepared by including 0, 3, 6, 9,12% corn steep liquor. Enzose (50:50 ratio), respectively. Vit. A (IU), Vit D3 150000 (IU), Vit. E 15000 (mg), Vit. 2000 K3 (mg), Vit. thiamine (B1) 1000 (mg), Vit. riboflavin (B2) 5000 (mg), Vit. pyridoxine (B6) 1500 mg, Vit. cobalmine (B12) 1500 (mg), Vit. folic acid (B9) 500 mg, pantothenic acid (B5) 8000 (mg), Vit. niacin (b3) 15000 (mg), choline chloride 150000 (mg), manganese 15000 (mg), zinc 45000 (mg), copper 25000 (mg), potassium 2000 (mg), iodine 2000 (mg), iron 45000 (mg).

Data for feed intake, weight gain and feed conversion ratio (FCR) of the birds were recorded every week throughout the experimental period (Table III). Three birds per replicate with in each treatment (12 birds/treatment) were randomly chosen and used for total tract digestibility measurement by including 1% (Celite®) insoluble ash as an external marker during the two broiler production stages i.e. starter (17-19 days of age) and finisher (37-39 days of age). The fecal samples were collected to perform proximate analysis for the estimation of crude protein, crude fat and crude fiber determination (AOAC, 2010).

 

Table II. Chemical composition (%) of CSL and enzose.

Item %

Corn steep liquor

Enzose

Dry matter

50

70

Moisture

50

30

Protein

40

4

Fat

None

None

Fiber

None

None

Ash

10

5

Nitrogen free extract

16

None

pH

4.2

4.4

Amino acids

10.6-18

None

Lactic acid

22

18

Vitamins mg/kg

14.4

None

Specific gravity

1.25

None

Dextrose

None

86

Gross energy

(as such)

2200 Kcal/kg

 

(Product Reference Guide, 2010).

On day 42, two birds from each replicate within each treatment (8 birds per treatment) were randomly selected and weighed for the estimation of body weight and then slaughtered to measure the dressing percentage, thigh and breast meat yield and giblet organs weight. Dressing percentage and organ weights were calculated as:

Dressing percentage = dressed weight/live weight

Giblet organ weight= Weight of organ /100 g body weight

The recorded data for all parameters were statistically analyzed for analysis of variance under completely randomized design and differences in the means were compared by using Least Significant Difference (Steel et al., 1997) test. The statistical model used for all parameters was; Yij = µ + τj + εij. Where, µ was overall mean, τj was the effect of treatment (3 treatments) and εij was difference within treatments (error term).

Results and discussion

The results showed highest feed intake in the birds of group B relative to control group (Table IV). Group C, D and E showed reduced feed intake. Statistical analysis revealed that broilers of group B exhibited a significantly greater weight gain as compared to other treatment groups (Table IV). Whereas, lowest weight gain was recorded in the birds of group E. A significant good feed conversion ratio was observed in the birds of group B as compared to control group A (Table IV). The results indicated that birds fed diet B (CE3) had a significantly higher dry matter, crude protein and ether extract digestibility relative to other treatment groups. However, values of crude fiber digestibility remained statistically non-significant (Table V) among the treatments. A significantly (P<0.05) higher dressing percentage was found for birds fed diet containing CE3 and CE6 followed by control group, whereas, diets CE9 and CE12 attained the lowest values regarding this trait. Data regarding relative weight of giblet organs (liver, heart, and gizzard, kidney, spleen) of broilers of all the groups showed a non-significant difference (Table V).

It is well documented that CSL is a potential source of unidentified growth factors and highly palatable and this may be plausible reason for increased feed intake in birds fed CSL and Enzose (Shen et al., 1970). Moreover, present results are aligned with the findings of Waldroup and Rutherford (1971) who observed improved feed intake in the birds fed with CSL. Furthermore, Ullah et al. (2018) reported highest feed intake in broiler fed a diet containing medium CSL. Birds fed a basal diet fortified with concentrated corn steep showed growth promotional effects as compared to birds fed feed without this component (Creger et al., 1962).

This increased weight gain might be due to fact that birds eat more feed and posed better digestion and absorption, consequently leading to better growth (Simon et al., 1960). Broilers gained more weight when given a diet fortified with 10% corn dried steep Waldroup et al. (1970). The unidentified growth factors in CSL might have helped in improving the body weight of bird (Camp et al., 1957).

Furthermore, Batal and Parsons (2004) reported that diets containing dextrose may be applied as an effective digestible energy source. In present research the best FCR in group B may be attributed to the stimulation of gastrointestinal activity (El-Hussein et al., 2008). A better effect on improved body weight and FCR, confirm that dried CSL and other corn-based product like, corn dried steep liquor concentrate, corn fermentation condensed soluble and fermented corn extractives may beneficially modulate bird’s growth (Waldroup et al., 1970). Similarly, to our finding’s improvement in the FCR was recorded at an inclusion level 25% and 20 %in hen and turkey, respectively (Waldroup and Rutherford, 1971).

In comparison to control group improved nutrient digestibility in CSL based diets could be due to availability

 

Table III. Growth performance of broilers during the starter (day 0-21) grower (day 22-42) and overall production period fed diets containing corn steep liquor (CSL) and enzose (Enz) mixture.

Diets

Feed intake (g)

Weight gain(g)

Feed conversion ratio

Day 0-21

Day 22-42

Day 1-42

Day 0-21

Day 22-42

Day 1-42

Day 0-21

Day 22-42

Day 1-42

A

1112.8b

2913a

4025b

652.68b

1126.6b

1779bc

1.7a

2.59a

2.27b

B

1300a

2893a

4193a

857a

1221.4a

2078a

1.51b

2.37b

2.01c

C

1020.5cd

2901.4a

3922bc

675.5b

1133.4b

1809b

1.51b

2.56a

2.17b

D

1062.9bc

2804a

3867c

632b

1079.3bc

1711c

1.68a

2.6a

2.26b

E

982.8d

2858a

3841c

561.9c

1052c

1614d

1.75a

2.71a

2.38a

SEM

16.665

35.096

37.967

14.018

21.731

27.092

0.035

0.052

0.033

L

*

N.S

*

*

*

*

*

*

Q

*

N.S

N.S

*

*

*

*

*

C

*

N.S

*

*

*

*

*

*

 

L, Linear; Q, Quadratic; C, Cubic; a, b, c, d column means for each effect with different superscripts show significant differences*, Significant at p<0.05; **, Significant at p<0.01

Table IV. Nutrient digestibility’s of broilers during the starter (day 0-21) grower (day 22-42) production period fed diets containing corn steep liquor (CSL) and enzose (Enz).

Diets

Starter

Finisher

Dry matter

Crude protein

Ether extract

Crude fiber

Dry matter

Crude protein

Ether extract

Crude fiber

A

87.30b

69.00b

75.70bc

6.22

87.50c

77.70b

85c

6.38

B

89.70a

71.30a

77.30a

5.98

91.00a

79.50a

87.70a

6.40

C

87.80b

67.40c

76.12b

6.20

89.20b

78.00b

85.80b

6.20

D

86.00c

66.70cd

75.32c

6.32

85.70d

75.90c

83.20d

6.32

E

85.80c

66.20d

74.30d

6.35

85.00d

75.00d

82.80d

6.35

SEM

0.18

0.24

0.17

0.30

0.28

7.81

0.14

0.25

L

*

*

*

N.S

*

*

*

N.S

Q

*

*

*

N.S

*

*

*

N.S

C

*

*

*

N.S

*

*

*

N.S

 


For abbreviations and statistical detail see Table III.

 

Table V. Carcass characteristics (kg) of the broilers fed diets containing corn steep liquor (CSL) and enzose (Enz) at day 42.

Diets

Starter

Finisher

Carcass yield

Breast yield

Thigh yield

Gizzard weight

Carcass yield

Breast yield

Thigh yield

Gizzard weight

A

70.60b

26.87a

11.11b

1.90

0.55

0.68b

2.55

0.08

B

72.30a

26.02ab

11.75a

2.21

0.51

0.85a

2.43

0.07

C

67.51c

23.48b

11.48ab

2.1

0.64

0.85a

2.31

0.07

D

67.28c

25.10ab

11.54ab

2.15

0.60

0.82a

2.53

0.06

E

65.14d

25.97ab

11.67ab

2.10

0.60

0.84a

2.39

0.06

SEM

0.43

0.91

0.18

0.15

0.04

0.03

0.13

0.008

L

N.S

N.S

N.S

N.S

N.S

*

N.S

N.S

Q

N.S

*

N.S

N.S

N.S

*

N.S

N.S

C

70.60b

26.87a

11.11b

1.90

0.55

0.68b

2.55

0.08

 


For abbreviations and statistical detail see Table III.

of soluble protein contents of CSL. In present research, the overall nutrient digestibility was higher in finisher phase relative to starter one. This may be due to fact that during initial period of life pancreas and small intestine produced low digestive enzymes. The documented values regarding dressing percentage may be considered as bench mark findings as no reports were found in literature review which can describe the potential effects of CSL and Enzose mixture on broiler’s carcass characteristics. The weight of giblet organs i.e., gizzard, heart, kidney, liver and spleen of broilers fed diet containing different levels of CLS: Enzose remained statistically insignificant among the treatment groups (Table V).

Conclusion

It is concluded that growth responses, nutrient digestibility and carcass characteristics of birds were optimized fed 3% of CSL and Enzose mixture as compared to others. So, it is recommended and these results could be used for future baseline in further studies of this field. The current study results are of great importance as distinguished and supportive baseline data of nutrition science. It was found optimized feeding level 3% of CSL and Enzose mixture as compared to other feeding sources to poultry and this combination could be used as new opportunity in field of nutrition.

Acknowledgments

Authors are highly thankful to Punjab Agriculture Research Board (PARB), Lahore for funding. However, the PARB management had no involvement in the study.

Statement of conflict of interest

The authors have declared no conflict of interest.

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Ullah, Z., Yousaf, M., Shami, M.M., Sharif, M. and Mahrose, K., 2018. J. Anim. Physiol. Anim. Nutri., 102: 395-402. https://doi.org/10.1111/jpn.12758

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