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 Muhammad Mohsin Raza*, Muhammad Aslam Khan*, Irfan Ahmad**, Ali Ahsan Bajwa***, Hafiz Muhammad Usman Aslam*, Badar Ahsan Ullah****, and Kashif Riaz*

  * Department of Plant Pathology, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan. ** Department of Forestry, Range Management & Wild Life, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan. *** School of Agriculture and Food Sciences, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia. **** Narcotic Control Division, Government of Pakistan, Islamabad, Pakistan Corresponding author:


 Changing climate threatens tree health by affecting the likelihood, frequency of occurrence, types and severity of forest diseases caused by diverse pests, resultantly altering the forest ecosystems. The present review covers the relationship between climate and diverse cases of forest diseases and potential shocks of climate change on pathogens and diseases. Biotic diseases, cankers, decays, declines, foliar diseases, root diseases and stem rust of pine have been reviewed with some illustrations of potential disease effects with predicted changing climate. The impact of changing climate on host, pathogen, and their interaction will have frequent and mostly unsympathetic outcomes to forest ecosystems. By employing the proactive and modern scientific management strategies like monitoring, modeling prediction, risk rating, planning, genetic diversity and facilitated migration, genetic protection and breeding for disease resistance and relating results to forest policy, planning as well as decision making, the suspicions innate to climate change effects can be minimized.


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Pakistan Journal of Agricultural Research


Vol. 33, Iss. 2, Pages 192-421


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