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Compendium of the Genus Quinisulcius (Tylenchida: Telotylenchidae) and Observations on Occurrence of Q. capitatus

PJZ_51_5_1599-1606

 

 

Compendium of the Genus Quinisulcius (Tylenchida: Telotylenchidae) and Observations on Occurrence of Q. capitatus

Sagir Hussain, Erum Iqbal* and Shahina Fayyaz

National Nematological Research Centre, University of Karachi, Karachi

ABSTRACT

The compendium of Quinisulcius comprised of 17 species that based on the characters of the total body length, stylet, ratio of a, b, c, c’, V%, head annules, tail annules, lip region and tail terminus. The allometric and morphometric characters were derived from the original descriptions. An up to date list of valid species of Quinisulcius along with illustrations and diagnostic key is provided. Detailed surveys of cereals, fruits and vegetables were conducted from district Hunza, Nager, Gilgit and Ghizer of Gilgit-Baltistan, Pakistan during 2014-2016 to determine the temperature dependent property of Quinisulcius capitatus. About 280 root and soil samples were taken from 47 locations and 28 agricultural crops. Compilated data from the world has shown that Q. capitatus has the potential to survive and propagate proficiently at low temperature (-2 to -15ºC).


Article Information

Received 15 October 2018

Revised 12 January 2019

Accepted 06 February 2019

Available online 10 June 2019

Authors’ Contribution

SH conducted the surveys, collected the data andwrote the manuscript. EI prepared the compendium and SF supervised the research.

Key words

Compendium, Qunisulcius capitatus, Distribution, Gilgit-Baltistan.

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.17582/journal.pjz/2019.51.5.1599.1606

* Corresponding author: erum_i@yahoo.com

0030-9923/2019/0005-1599 $ 9.00/0

Copyright 2019 Zoological Society of Pakistan



Introduction

In the order Tylenchida, Quinisulcius, Siddiqi, 1971 belongs to the subfamily Telotylenchinae, Siddiqi, 1960 of the family Telotylenchidae, Siddiqi 1960. This stunt nematode is plant parasitic and widely distributed in cold as well as warm climatic regions of the world. At present, 17 species are considered valid for this genus. The presence of lateral field marked by five incisures is the main diagnostic character of the genus among the family Telotylenchidae (Siddiqi, 2000). Among the genus, Quinisulcius capitatus species is mostly found in all over the world.

Q. capitatus was first described as Tylenchorhynchus capitatus by Allen (1955) from soil around the roots of pear orchard near Watsonville, California, USA. Later this species was synonymized with Quinisulcius by Siddiqi (1971). Maqbool (1982) described a new species Quinisulcius solani from root zone of potato at Murree, Rawalpindi, Pakistan. This species was synonymized with Tylenchorhynchus as T. solani by Fortuner and Luc (1987). Siddiqi (2000) placed this species under Q. capitatus. A new species Q. quaidi was described by Zarina and Maqbool (1992) from the roots of cotton, Karachi, Pakistan. In addition, four species of the genus Qunisulcius have so far been reported from Pakistan. Saeed et al. (1986) reported Q. acutoides (Thorne and Malek, 1968; Siddiqi, 1971) from soil around the roots of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) from NWFP (now Khyber Pukhtunkhwa) and Punjab. Maqbool et al. (1983) and Maqbool (1984) reported Q. acutus (Allen, 1955; Siddiqi, 1971) and Q. capitatus from Murree hills around the roots of potato Solanum tuberosum as first records. Q. curvus was first reported by Akhtar (1962) around the roots of Saccharum officinarum from Punjab, Pakistan.

This species is characterized by the presence of cuticle finely annulated, five incisures in lateral field, cephalic region hemispherical, offset expanded, carrying 7-8 fine annules. Stylet 16-18 µm long with rounded knobs; excretory pore at the level of anterior end of terminal bulb. Vulva thick with small cuticular flaps. Spicules length more than anal body diameter. Bursa narrow with prominent rib-like phasmids. Female tail conoid, slightly curved bearing 30-50 annules with smooth terminus. Phasmids usually at the middle of tail.

Quinisulcius are ecto-parasitic in nature and can propagate easily below the temperature -2ºC (Malek, 1980). In the previous reports Q. capitatus was considered of economic importance for the vineyards in the Cyprus (Raski et al., 1973). It has frequency and population density of 50% and 8, respectively in beans, 50% and 2 in pepper, 25% and 3 in tomato and 33% and 4 in cabbage. They were suspected as pathogen for fruits and vegetables in Uganda (Bafokuzara, 1996). Q. capitatus has the host susceptibility for carrot, lettuce and tomato in the vegetables crops of Benin i.e., 42.9% (Baimey et al., 2009). Q. capitatus was identified and population from humid forest and Guinea Sannah from the Agro-ecological zones of Benin were defined. Q. capitatus has the prevalence 8.2%, relative abundance 0.6 and mean intensity 15.3 from the vegetables crops of Benin (Baimey et al., 2009). Q. capitatus is the potential pest of potato growing areas in Himachal Pradesh, India. The range of Q. capitatus was found from 200-9620 nematodes per 200 g of soil in different samples of potato (Khan et al., 1990). Khan et al. (1990) also presented the community analysis of the Q. capitatus with absolute frequency 52, relative frequency 24, absolute density 4820, relative density 38.6 and prominence value 18.9 from the potato growing area of Himachal Pradesh, India.

 

Materials and methods

For compendium preparation data were collected from the original papers whereas line drawings are redrawn from the original ones. Measurements were taken with an ocular micrometer and also by tracing the outline of the structure on a paper with a drawing tube attached to a compound microscope. Measurements were also taken from the drawing with a ruler or curvimeter for curved lines. Illustrations were made with the help of a drawing tube attached to the compound microscope. de Man (1884) formula was used for measurement of nematodes. Surveys were conducted during 2014-2016 for a comprehensive study of Q. capitatus from different districts of Gilgit-Baltistan. 280 samples were collected from 47 villages and 28 agricultural crops like cereal, fruits and vegetables.

 

Results and discussion

A total of 17 species of the genus Quinisulcius have so far been reported by various scientists from different host plants and localities in Pakistan as well as other part of the world (Geraert, 2008). Detailed morphometric data and illustrations are included with following abbreviations: L, a, b, c, c’, V, stylet, head annules, tail annules, lip region and tail terminus (Table I; Figs. 12).

 

Table I.- Compendium of the genus Quinisulcius Siddiqi, 1971.

Nematode species

L (mm)

a

b

c

c’

V%

Stylet

Head annules

Tailannules

Lip region

Tail terminus

Q. acutoides

0.8

35

5.4

20

-

57

18

4-5

-

Offset

-

Q. acutus

0.65-

0.70

27.9-

35.0

4.8-

5.3

15.8-

19.3

2.2-

2.8

55.8-

58.0

16.0-

17.0

5.0-

6.0

15.0-

20.0

Slightly offset

-

Q. brevis-tyletus

-

-

-

-

3.2-3.6

-

12-13

-

63-74

Offset

-

Q. cacti

0.6-

0.70

25.0-

33.0

4-

6

14-

19

-

54.0-

59

15-

19

06

23

Slightly rounded

Without areolation

Q. capitatus

0.68-

0.80

28-

34

4.8-

5.7

15-

19

2.1

54-

58

17-

19

6-

8

35-

46

Rounded setoff

Conical / rounded

Q. curvus

0.47-

0.65

29-

31

4.5-

5.5

16-

17

3.1

51-

57

16-

18

4-

5

15-20

Setoff

Smooth pointed

Q. dulutensis

-

-

-

-

-

-

21-23

-

-

-

-

Q. domes-ticus

0.59-

0.75

27-

29

4.8-

5.9

13-

15

2.5-

3.1

52-

59

15.5-

17.6

5-

6

20-

22

Offset

Blunt& Smooth

Q. gumdar-iensis

0.69-

0.89

29.5-

36.0

4.6

13.8-

17.9

2.25-

3.50

49.3-

57.9

13-

18

6-

7

46-

52

-

Smooth rounded

Q. indicus

0.71-

0.8

32-

37

4.6-

5.8

16.4-

18.3

-

54-

60

15-

18

6

40-

46

Offset

Smooth

Q. lineatus

0.81

41.0

-

18.0

3.1

57

16

-

42

Not off set

Smooth

Q. obregonus

0.47-

0.57

26-

36

4.7-

5.3

14-

19

2.0-

2.9

54-

57

12-

14

4-

6

19-

25

Offset

Smooth

Q. punici

0.65-

0.73

32-

33

4.8-

5.1

15.2-

17.6

2.1-

3.1

50-

56.1

16-

17

6-

7

38-

42

Setoff

Smooth

Q. qaidi

0.46-

0.60

25.8-

31.5

4.6-

5.5

14.3-

18.7

2.1-

2.7

52.7-

56.4

11.2-

12.8

6-

7

13-

21

Slightly offset

Slightly

off set

Q. rotundi-cephalus

0.50-

0.56

29.41-

32.74

4.69-

5.44

13.4-

18.3

2.66-

3.58

52.65-

56.6

14-15

4-

5

22-

23

Setoff rounded

Smooth

Q. seshadri

0.72-

0.83

27.7-

37.7

5.8-

6.7

16.9-

21.1

2.3-

2.9

54.2-

56.4

15-

17

8-

9

37-

43

Slightly setoff

Smooth

Q. tarjani

0.63-

0.78

30-

32

4.8-

6.3

11-

15

2.7-

3.7

54-

55

18-

19

5-

7

44-

60

Rounded setoff

Smooth


 

 

Occurrence and distribution of Q. capitatus from Pakistan

The occurrence and distribution of Q. capitatus was evaluated from 280 samples collected from the four districts of Gilgit-Baltistan viz., Hunza, Nager, Gilgit and Ghizer. A total of 47 villages were surveyed and 28 crop species were examined for the presence of Q. capitatus. Preliminary observations showed the presence of Q. capitatus in 250 out of 280 samples examined. The maximum positive samples were from District Nager (48%) where 21 plant species were surveyed and 18 (85.7%) were found infected with Q. capitatus. From District Gilgit 10 out of 11 plant species were detected positive for the same nematode (90.9%).

Positive samples for Q. capitatus were 62.5% in Hunza, 100% in Ghizer. Quinisulcius capitatus was found with highest percentage in potato and maize fields of all the four districts. In addition to potato and maize, cherry and walnut crops also harbored high population of Q. capitatus from district Nager (Table II).

 

Table II.- Occurrence % of Quinisulcius capitatus from different districts of Gilgit-Baltistan with respect to number of hosts.

Localities

Latitude

Longitude

Elevation

Temp. (°C)

No. of hosts

Q. capitatus (+ samples)

Occur. %

District Hunza

36.3059 N

74.6259 E

2,500 M (8,200ft)

-2 to 26

08

05

62.5

District Ghizer

36.2666 N

74.7333 E

2,688 (8,822ft)

-14 to 35

02

02

100

District Gilgit

35.9201 N

74.3079 E

1,500 (4,900ft)

-10 to 46

11

10

90.9

District Nager

36.3593 N

73.3392 E

-

21

18

85.7

 

Table III.- Occurrence of Quinisulcius capitatus from different areas of Pakistan.

Location

Host

Climate (°C)

Latitude

Longitude

Reference

Bannu

Tomato, citrus

11.7-33.6

32°59' 11.99"N

70° 36' 11.99" E

Maqbool (1986);

Maqbool and Shahina (1995)

Campbellpur

Potato

11-31.0

 33°45' 38.99"N

72° 26' 1.00" E

Maqbool (1982)

Dadu

Fig, barley

8-44

 26.7341°N,

67.7795° E

Maqbool (1986)

Faisalabad

Oat

5-40

31°25' 15.7620''

73° 5' 21.4584'' E

Maqbool (1986)

Gujranwala

Maize, sugarcane

6-38

32.154377

74.184227E

Maqbool (1986, 1988)

Hazara

Maize, plum, pear

7-25

33°43' 59.99"N

72° 34' 59.99" E

Maqbool (1986)

Hyderabad

Maize

17-34

25°23' 32.71"N

68° 22' 25.18" E

Maqbool (1986)

Islamabad

Potato

9.8-31.7

33°44' 16.9620''N

73° 5' 4.1568'' E

Maqbool (1982)

Khairpur

Melon

27°31' 47.8236''N

68° 45' 29.3076''E

Maqbool (1986)

Lahore

Oat, sweet citrus, sugarcane, maize

12.3-33.9

31°34' 55.3620''N

74° 19' 45.7536''E

Maqbool (1986, 1988); Maqbool et al. (1983)

Larkana

Potato, melon, maize

15-36

27°33’50.38”N

68°12'54.47"E

Maqbool (1982, 1986)

Mardan

Potato

5-30

4°12' 7.02"N

72° 03' 9.14" E

Maqbool (1982)

Mianwali

Oat

12-33

32°00' 0.00" N

71° 29' 59.99" E

Maqbool (1986)

Multan

Potato, mango, citrus

6-42

30°11′44″N 

71°28′31″ E 

Maqbool (1982, 1986)

Muzaffargharh

Mango,

13 -35

30°04' 31.33"N

71° 11' 31.67" E

Maqbool (1986)

Nawabshah

Fig, barley

15 -35

26°14' 60.00"N

68° 24' 59.99" E

Maqbool (1986)

Palai, Malakand

Tomato

 19.9-40 

34°29'59.99" N

71°44'59.99" E

Maqbool and Shahina (1995)

Peshawar

Maize, plum, pear

12-32

34°00' 28.80"N

71° 34' 42.56" E

Maqbool (1986)

Quetta

Potato

5-30

30°11' 56.40"N

67° 00' 34.96" E

Maqbool (1982)

Rawalpindi

Potato

11-31

33°37' 33.8052''N

73° 4' 17.1912'' E

Maqbool (1982)

Sahiwal

Potato, mango, citrus

13-35

30°40' 0.01"N

 73° 05' 60.00" E

Maqbool (1982, 1986)

Sargodha

Potato, sweet citrus, citrus

12-33

32°05' 1.00"N

72° 40' 16.00" E

Maqbool (1982, 1986); Maqbool et al. (1983)

Sukkur

Potato, melon, fig , barley

15-36

27°42′18″N 

68°51′26″ E 

Maqbool (1982, 1986)

Swat

Tomato

9-27

34°46' 25.1292''N

72° 21' 35.6436'' E

Maqbool and Shahina (1995)

Thatta

Barley, maize, fig

18.2-32.4

24°44' 27.60"N

67° 55' 16.55" E

Maqbool (1986)

 

In district Ghizer five villages were surveyed, the highest population of Quinisulcius capitatus was found in village Hunder i.e., 40% while the lowest population occurred in village Ghakuch i.e., 13%. From district Gilgit the highest population of Quinisulcius capitatus was found in village Naltarbala i.e., 19% while the lowest population occurred in village Danyore and Rahimabad i.e. 03%. In district Hunza, survey was performed from 15 villages, the highest population of Q. capitatus was found in village Khudabad i.e., 19% while the lowest population occurred in village Ganish, Haiderabad and Ghulmit i.e., 3%. In district Nager, the highest population of Q. capitatus was found from village Hoper i.e., 18% while the lowest population i.e., 2% occurred in nine villages Masoot, Ghulmat, Pissan, Askurdas, Shayar, Nilt, Sikanderabad, Chalt and Raabat.

The selected host species from district Hunza were potato (Solanum tuberosum), maize (Zea mays), apple (Pyrus malus), peach (Prunus persica) and cherries (Prunus avium). From district Nager potato (Solanum tuberosum), chilies (Capsicum annuum), maize (Zea mays), onion (Allium cepa), apricot (Prunus armeniaca), walnuts (Juglans spp.), cherries (Prunus avium), plum (Prunus domestica), faiz (Elaeagnus sp.), pomegranate (Punicae granatum), peach (Prunus persica), peas (Pisum sativum), apple (Pyrus malus), pear (Pyrus communis), grape (Vistis vinifera), almond (Prunus amydalus) were tested. From District Gilgit potato (Solanum tuberosum), carrot (Daucus carota), maize (Zea mays), cucumber (Cucumis sativus), chilies (Capsicum annuum), tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum), peach (Prunus persica), apricot (Prunus armeniaca), cabbaage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata), cherries (Prunus avium) were surveyed while from Disrtict Ghizer potato (Solanum tuberosum) and maize (Zea mays) were selected.

The record of Q. capitatus % occurrence has been compiled along with the hosts from different localities of Pakistan (Table III) as well as other parts of the world (Table IV).

During research different plant parasitic nematodes has been identified up to species level from Gilgit-Baltistan but the population occurrence and distribution of Quinisulcius capitatus has found abundantly in all the surveillance areas. It may be a future threat to Gilgit-Baltistan based on high frequency of occurrence. Q. capitatus may be causing damage to these crops because it is potential pest to other crops in cold climate regions of the world. According to research of different scientists from time to time it was observed that it required low temperature for its reproduction and increases the population at 20ºC. It can be survived below freezing point (Table III).

 

Table IV.- Occurrence of Quinisulcius capitatus from different areas of the world.

Location

Host

Climate (ºC)

Latitude

Longitude

Reference

Blountsville, USA

Okra

17

34.0815Nº

86.5911Wº

Hopper (1959)

Chiavari, Italy

Date palm

10-14

44.3168Nº

93.2224Eº

Loof (1959)

Shimla Hills, India

Apple, citrus, plum

-4-31

31.1048Nº

77.13Eº

Swarup et al. (1964)

Tamil Nadu, India

Cabbage

20-35

8.740818

77.795265

Seshadri et al. (1967)

Moldova, USSR

Solanaceous crops

-4-20

28.55Eº

47.0002 Nº

Dement’ev (1971)

Isla Aguada Campeche

Grass

14-35

18.7843Nº

91.4918Wº

Hermosillo, Singapore

Pasture grass and wild pappy

17-31

20.1060 Nº

11057Wº

Knobloch and Laughlin (1973)

Las Machis, Sin

Barrel cactus

2.5-35

25.4728 Nº

10859Wº

Istanbul, Turkey

Tomato, pepper, bean, potato

6-24

41.0082Nº

28.9784Eº

Saltukoglu and Coomans (1975)

Oaxaca city, Mexico

Bamboo

0-40

17.3339Nº

96.4317Wº

Galicia and Cantabria, Spain

Sugar beet

7-18

42.5751Nº

8.13339Wº

Arias and Romera (1975)

Uzbekistan

Quince and Oleater

-2-40

41.3775Nº

64.5853Eº

Turaev and Khurramov (1981)

Mexican Altiplano

Maize

3-18

24.000Nº

102.000Wº

Vazquez (1976)

Ecuador

Tomato, soybean, sugarcane

10- 25

1.8312Sº

78.1834Wº

Bridge (1976)

Basin of River Mesta, Bulgaria

Tobacco

-5 -30

42.7339Nº

25.4858Eº

Katalen et al. (1978)

Limassol, Nicosia, Larnaca, Cyprus

Vineyard

12- 26

34.7071Nº

33.02261Eº

Antoniou (1981)

 

Statement of conflict of interest

The authors have no conflict of interest to declare.

 

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Pakistan Journal of Zoology

October

Vol. 51, Iss. 5, Pages 1599-1997

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