Submit or Track your Manuscript LOG-IN

Avian Diversity and its Associated Threats in Gharo Creek, District Thatta, Sindh, Pakistan

PJZ_56_2_725-732

Avian Diversity and its Associated Threats in Gharo Creek, District Thatta, Sindh, Pakistan

Rahmat Ullah Khan*1, Karim Gabol1, Abbas Khan1, Asif Sadam2,

Waheed Ali Panhwar3, Hamid Ullah5, Muhsin Ali4, Gul Bacha Khan4 and Habib Ul Hassan1

1Department of Zoology, University of Karachi, Karachi, 75270, Pakistan

2College of Life Sciences, Hainan Normal University, Haikou, 571158, China

3Department of Zoology, Shah Abdul Latif University Khairpur, Sindh, Pakistan

4Department of Zoology, Hazara University, Mansehra, Pakistan, 21300

5Department of Zoology, Bahawalnager Campus, The Islamia University, Bahawalpur, Pakistan

ABSTRACT

The current study was carried out on avian diversity and main ecological factors occurring at Gharo Creek, district Thatta, Sindh, Pakistan, from April 2020 to March 2021. Data were collected both early in the morning (7:00-10:00 am) and in the evening (3:00 to 6:00 pm) by using the point count method in three main selected habitat types. A total of 112 bird species belonging to 15 orders, 40 families, and 71 genera occurring in the study area. Among the three habitat types, the more diverse and abundant habitat of birds was Creek (51%) followed by scrubland (27%) and Bhambore fort (21%) with Shannon diversity index (3.701). The more diverse and abundant bird species were the winter visitors followed by resident species. The common birds with higher numbers were Indian black-winged stilt (375) followed by great egret (180), western reef egret (75), house sparrow (72), little egret (60), house crow (55), common myna (43), white eared bulbul (40) and greater sand plover (40). In the Gharo Creek area significantly (P<0.05) higher diversity was recorded as compared to the Scrubland forest area and Bhambor (Terrestrial) Fort area. However, threats responsible for the decline of biodiversity and density of avifauna include destruction of habitats, soil erosion, human interaction, drought, illegal killing, predation, water pollution, scarcity of food, and unfavorable environmental conditions. The study area is rich in bird diversity however, awareness campaigns and enforcement of legislation are required on a priority basis to conserve the avian diversity, distribution, and address the threats.


Article Information

Received 13 September 2021

Revised 25 October 2021

Accepted 07 December 2021

Available online 28 December 2022

(early access)

Published 27 January 2024

Authors’ Contribution

This manuscript is extracted from the field work of AK, supervised by KG. RUK wrote analysed and designed the whole manuscript. AS, WAP, MA, HU, GBK and HUH helped in formatted the references, grammar, and revised the whole manuscript positively.

Key words

Birds diversity, Gharo creek, Threats to avain

DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.17582/journal.pjz/20210913070932

* Corresponding author: rahmatullahkhanpk@gmail.com

0030-9923/2024/0002-0725 $ 9.00/0

Copyright 2024 by the authors. Licensee Zoological Society of Pakistan.

This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).



INTRODUCTION

Birds are vertebrate animals having feathers on their body, bipedal, endothermic, and oviparous that inhabit water bodies, agricultural fields, urbanized areas, rural areas, and mountainous territories on various altitudes (Govender, 2021; Umar et al., 2018). Birds belong to class aves with various sizes and morphology, that are distributed worldwide but some bird species are endemic to particular regions of the world and habitats (Roberts, 1991). They range in body size from 2 (inches) that is hummingbird (Mellisuga helenae) to the 118 (inches) ostrich (Struthio camelus). Aves is the major group or class of birds which comprises the subdivision Palaeognathae (group of flightless birds), the tiramisu (birds with weak flight), and the Neognathae (flight birds) (Platt et al., 2021). They are pollution-sensitive indicators. Birds devour large numbers of harmful insects, as well as their larvae and eggs, hence serve as biological control agents keeping insect pests populations in check thus being good friends of farmers (Steven et al., 2021). They are social, they communicate using visual signals and through calls and songs and participate in social behaviors including cooperative breeding, hunting, floating, and mobbing of predators. Many species are of economic importance, mostly a source of food acquired through hunting or farming. Some species particularly songbirds and parrots are popular as pets (Roberts, 1991). As bird’s richness and diversity are the most prevalent lives, which lead beauty to the existing life on the earth. Apart from this, their essentially beautiful plumage, melodious songs, always have fascinated mankind (Roberts, 1991). It is not too fanciful a metaphor to consider Pakistan as lying at the crosswords of Asia’s major Palearctic bird migration routes. Apart from resident birds, there are an influx of winter visitors from northern breeding grounds, or summer breeding visitors both from the northern mountainous regions and from the Indus plains to warmer southern latitudes. The explanation for the phenomenon appears to lie more in Pakistan’s strategic geographic location rather than in the natural endowment of transport facilities (Roberts, 1991). Similarly, the north of the country is bounded by a continuous palisade of some of the highest mountain ranges in the world, stretching from the Pamirs and Hindukush in Afghanistan, eastward to the Himalayas which continue across the northern frontier of India (Roberts, 1991). The heterogeneous uniqueness of the natural environment is one of the important factors that have increased avian diversity (D’Amen et al., 2017). The current study was aimed to know the avifauna and associated threats.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

Study areas

The current study was conducted in Gharo Creek, district Thatta, Sindh during the study period April 2020 to March 2021. It is situated about 65 km from Karachi Pakistan (Fig. 1).

 

Based on scientific purpose the study area was divided into three main habitat types.

Habitat I: Gharo Creek (24°44’45.642” N and 67°32’3.018” E).

Habitat II: Terrestrial section of Bhambore Fort area (24°44’58.5” N and 67°31’9.888” E).

Habitat III: Scrubland forest (24°44’51.318” N and 67°31’49.014” E).

Survey design

During the whole study period data were collected in the morning (7:00 am-11:00 am) throughout favorable environmental conditions by using two authentic and recognized methods i.e. (1) Line transect method (2) Point count method. For this purpose four-line transects and four-point counts were placed. For line transect, a straight line of about 1000 (m) in length and with 50 (m) radius on both sides of the line which is data collecting and observation range, while birds spotted outside this range were ignored. Each transect was traveled within 30 minutes covering the distance between two transects (about 1000m). Similarly, for point count, a circle of 50 (m) radius was placed. Inside this range, observations and data were recorded. At each point, observations were recorded for 10 min. The distance between the two points was about 1000 m. Survey and data were collected while following the rules and laws used by (Bibby et al., 2000; Khan and Gabol, 2021; Khan et al., 2021; Sadam et al., 2021, 2022).

Identification of birds

Most birds were identified by direct observations in the field. However when facing some problems using equipment like binoculars (70 X 40mm) for observation and Digital cameras to take photographs to identify bird species (Umar et al., 2018). The two field guides were used for the identification of avian species: (1) Birds of Pakistan (Umar et al., 2018) and (2) Waterbirds of Asia (Bibi and Ali, 2013).

Statistical analysis

Collected data were arranged in an MS Excel sheet to analyze. One-way ANOVA and Shannon Diversity Index were applied each for comparison and diversity of bird species (Mahboob, 2009; Khan et al., 2022; Shuaib et al., 2021).

RESULTS

In this study, avian diversity and threats were explored systematically. A total of 112 species of birds relating to 40 families and 15 orders were noted. Most abundant bird species were Indian black-winged stilt (375), great egret (180), western reef egret (75), house sparrow (72), little egret (60), house crow (55), common myna (43), white-eared bulbul (40) and greater sand plover (40) (Table I). Of 112 species 44 were resident, 57 were winter visitors, five were passage migrants and 11 were summer and altitudinal visitors (Fig. 2).

 

Table I. List of bird species along with concerned information recorded in the study area.

Orders/ Families

Common name (Scientific name)

Status

Observations

Pelecaniformes

Pelecanidae

Great white pelican (Pelecanus onocrotalus)

WV

26

Phalacrocoracidae

Little cormorant (Phalacrocorax niger)

R

06

Great cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo)

WV

04

Indian cormorant (Phalacrocorax fuscicolis)

R

02

Ciconiiformes

Ardeidae

Great egret (Carmerodius alba)

WV

180

Little egret (Egretta garzetta)

R

60

Western reef egret (Egretta gularis)

R

75

Grey heron (Ardea cinerea)

WV

26

Indian pond heron (Ardeola grayii)

R

65

Little heron (Buturoides striatus)

R

03

Ciconiidae

White stork (Ciconia ciconia)

WV

3

Threskiornithidae

Eurasian spoonbill (Platalea leucorodia)

WV

1

Falconiformes

Pandionidae

Osprey (Pandion haliaetus)

WV

35

Coraciformes

Alcedinidae

Common kingfisher (Alcedo atthis)

R

25

Kingfisher (Halcyon smyrensis)

R

09

Pied kingfisher (Ceryle rudis)

R

10

Meropidae

Green bee-eater (Merops orientalis)

R

09

Upupidae

Common hoopoe (Upupa epops)

WV

7

Coraciidae

Indian roller (Coracias benghalensis)

R

7

Charadriiformes

Charadriidae

Red-wattled lapwing (Vanellus indicus)

R

18

Kentish plover (Charadrius alexandrinus)

WV

12

Lesser sand plover (Charadrius mongolus)

WV

21

Greater sand plover (Charadrius leschenaultia)

WV

40

Common ring plover (Charadrius hiaticula)

WV

08

Little-ringed plover (Charadrius dubius)

WV

05

Scolopacidae

Whimbrel (Numenius phaeopus)

WV

08

Eurasian curlew (Numenius arquata)

WV

21

Black tailed godwit (Limosa limosa)

WV

38

Bar tailed godwit (Limosa lapponica)

WV

06

Common redshank (Tringa totanus)

WV

04

Marsh sandpiper (Tringa stagnatilis)

WV

25

Common greenshank (Tringa nebularia)

WV

10

Terek sandpiper (Xenus cinereus)

WV

05

Common sandpiper (Tringa hypoleucos)

WV

05

Green sanpiper (Tringa ochropus)

WV

03

Table continues on next page ..............

Orders/ Families

Common name (Scientific name)

Status

Observations

Great knot (Calidris tenuirostris)

WV

04

Sanderling (Calidris albus)

WV

06

Little stint (Calidris minutus)

WV

18

Temminck’s stint (Calidris temminckii)

WV

12

Dunlin (Calidris alpine)

WV

10

Curlew sandpiper (Calidrius testaceus)

WV

10

Spotted redshank (Tringa erythropus)

WV

04

Recurvirostridae

Black winged stilt (Himantopus himantopus)

R

375

Pied avocet (Recurvirostra avocetta)

WV

36

Dromadidae

Crab plover (Dromas ardeola)

M

02

Laridae

Common gull (Larus canus)

WV

19

Brown-headed gull (Larus brunnicephalus)

WV

04

Black headed gull (Larus ridibundus)

WV

16

Slender billed gull (Larus genei)

R

10

Pallas gull (Larus ichthyaetus)

WV

02

Heuglin’s gull (Larus heuglinii)

WV

02

Caspian gull (Larus cachinnans)

WV

02

Sternidae

Gull billed tern (Gelochelidon nilotica)

WV

13

Caspian tern (Hydroprogne caspia)

M

07

Sandwhich tern (Sterna sandvicensis)

M

01

Common tern (Sterna hirundo)

SV

03

White checked tern (Sterna repressa)

SV

03

Little tern (Sterna albifrons)

R

10

Whiskered tern (Chlidonias hybrida)

02

Oyster catcher (Haematopus ostralegus)

WV

02

Anseriformes

Anatidae

Common shelduck (Tadorna tadorna)

WV

04

Common teal (Anas crecca)

WV

03

Northern shovler (Anas clypeata)

WV

03

Common pochard (Aythya ferina)

WV

02

Accipitriformes

Accipitridae

Black kite (Milvus migrans)

R

18

Brahminy kite (Haliastur indus)

R

06

Marsh harrier (Circus aeruginosus)

WV

02

Shikra (Accipiter badius)

R

02

Greater spotted eagle (Aquila clanga)

WV

02

Steppe eagle (Aquila nipalensis)

WV

02

Gruiformes

Gruidae

Common crane (Grus grus)

PM

08

Phoenicopteriformes

Phoenicopteridae

Greater flamingo (Phoenicopteris ruber)

V

12

Lesser flamingo (Phoenicopterus minor)

VW

20

Table continues on next page ..............

Orders/ Families

Common name (Scientific name)

Status

Observations

Passeriformes

Pyconotidae

White eared bulbul (Pycnonotus leucogenys)

R

40

Red vented bulbul (Pycnonotus cafer)

R

16

Sylviidae

Lesser white throat (Sylvia curruca)

WV

04

Boated warbler (Hippolais caligata)

WV

12

Plain leaf warbler (Phyllosscopus neglectus)

WV

14

Common chiffchaff (Pylloscopus collybita)

WV

16

Timalidae

Afghan babbler (Turdoides caudatus)

R

22

Jungle babbler (Turdoides striatus)

R

08

Alaudidae

Indian bush lark (Mirafra erhythroptera)

R

02

Sparrow lark (Eremopterix grisea)

R

02

Short toad lark (Calandrella brachydactyla)

WV

02

Crested lark (Galerida cristata)

R

24

Eurasian sky lark (Alauda arvensis)

WV

08

Sand lark (CalaRndrella raytal)

R

02

Passeridae

House sparrow (Passer domesticus)

R

72

Nectariniidae

Purple sunbird (Nectarinia asiatica)

R

02

Motaciliidae

White wagtail (Motacilla alba)

WV

02

Citrine wagtail (Motacilla citreola)

WV

01

Yellow wagtail (Motacillla flava)

PM

01

Tawny pipit (Anthus compestris)

WV

04

Laniidae

Long tailed shrike (Lanius schach)

R

02

Corvidae

Rufous treepie (Dendrocitta vagabunda)

R

02

House crow (Corvus splendens)

R

55

Sturnidae

Myna (Acridotheres tristis)

R

43

Dicruridae

Black drongo (Dicrurus macrocercus)

R

16

Hirundinidae

Barn swallow (Hirundo rustica)

WV

08

Turdidae

Indian robin (Saxicoloides fulicata)

R

02

desert wheatear (Oenanthe deserti)

WV

02

Isabellin wheatear (Oenanthe isabellina)

WV

02

Estrildidae

Indian silverbill (Lonchura malabarica)

R

18

Appodiformes

Apodidae

House swift (Apus affinis)

R

03

Psittacidae

Rose ringed parakeet (Psittacula krameri)

R

02

Strigiformes

Strigidae

Spotted owlet (Athene brama)

R

01

Eurasian eagle (Bubo bubo)

R

01

Galliformes

Phasianidae

Common quail (Coturnix coturnix)

M/PM

12

Columbiformes

Columbidae

Blue rock pigeon (Columba livia)

R

09

Red turtle dove (Streptopelia tranquebarica)

R

05

Collared dove (Streptopelia decaocto)

R

03

Laughing dove (Streptopelia senegalensis)

R

02

 

 

Bird diversity and deviation

In all selected habitats bird diversity and distribution were varied to some extent. Bird species were recorded in all habitats however, one of the three habitats had more diversity of bird species while the other two had less density. The most diverse habitat was Gharo Creek which had about 51% of bird species followed by scrubland about 27% and Bhambore fort terrestrial land about 21%. The most abundant order was Charadriiformes which had about 41 species (36.60%) followed by Passeriformes 30 species (26.78%). The remaining 13 orders ranged from 1-8 birds species, percentages ranging from 0.89-7.14 (Table II).

 

Table II. Orders and number of birds species with their percentage.

S. No.

Orders

No. of species percentage (%)

1

Pelecaniformes

4 (3.57)

2

Ciconiformes

8 (7.14)

3

Falconiformes

1 (0.89)

4

Gruiformes

1 (0.89)

5

Coraciformes

6 (5.35)

6

Phoenicopteriformes

2 (1.78)

7

Anseriformes

4 (3.57)

8

Charadriiformes

41 (36.60)

9

Accipitriformes

6 (5.35)

10

Passeriformes

30 (26.78)

11

Strigiformes

2 (1.78)

12

Columbiformes

4 (3.57)

13

Galliformes

1 (0.89)

14

Apodiformes

1 (0.89)

15

Psittasiformes

1 (0.89)

 

No, numbers.

 

The most diverse and abundant bird species were Indian black-winged stilt (375), great egret (180), western reef egret (75), house sparrow (72), and Indian pond heron (65) (Table III). Similarly, based on seasonal status most abundant species were winter visitors (57), summer visitors (2), and vagrants (1) (Table IV).

Threats

The main threats faced by the birds were habitat destruction in the form of vegetation cutting and pollution, construction, and destruction which greatly disturbed the bird species. Illegal hunting and killing were rampant for various purposes like meat, plumage, and hunting purposes. Human interruption and disturbance in the form of grazing, wood collection, and general visiting to bird habitats play a key role in bird decline. Furthermore, drought and scarcity of feeding and foraging materials greatly affect birds. Waterbirds are largely affected by liquid effluents from boats and domestic wastewater.

 

Table III. Resident birds’ species and their observation.

Common name/ Scientific name

Numbers

Indian black-winged stilt (Himantopus himantopus)

375

Great egret (Carmerodius alba)

180

Western reef egret (Egretta gularis)

75

House sparrow (Passer domesticus)

72

Indian pond heron (Ardeola grayii)

65

Little egret (Egretta garzetta)

60

House crow (Corvus splendens)

55

Common myna (Acridotheres tristis)

43

White eared bulbul (Pycnonotus leucotis)

40

Greater sand plover (Charadrius leschenaultia)

40

 

Table IV. Seasonal status of birds species in Gharoo Creek.

Status of birds

Number of species

Resident

44

Winter visitors

57

Passage migrant

05

Migrant

03

Summer visitors

02

Vagrants

01

 

DISCUSSION

The current research was conducted on the avian fauna of Gharo creek, district Thatta, Sindh, Pakistan during the period April 2020 to March 2021. All the possible habitats, distribution, diversity of avian fauna, and threats explored. The highest number of species were recorded from order Charadriiformes followed by order Passeriformes. The birds near the bank of Creek were about 700 in number. In some habitats, single species were abundant while some species were in very low frequency because of their low density. Our result is similar to that of Ghalib et al. (2008). Umar et al. (2018) reported 670 bird species in Pakistan. Khan and Gabol (2021) reported 133 bird species in Balochistan. They also worked in the main jungle of Western Brazil where all the possible habitats were greatly affected by human interruptions and illegal activities greatly affects avian fauna.

Our studied habitats have low agricultural lands, rapid urbanizations, and constructions. Secondly, the illegal hunting and fishing by locals greatly disturb the feeding and foraging activity of both local and migratory birds. Habitat degradation, hunting, disturbance, and drought-affected the avifauna of the area. Similarly, liquid effluents from boats, savage and other wastes are directly dumped in the water (Gharo Creek) and in surrounding which badly affect avifauna. Ghalib et al. (2008) reported that the overall numbers of water birds have fallen during recent years due to the degradation of wetlands, lack of management, disturbance, and environmental pollution including the effect of pesticides. Similarly, Ghalib et al. (2008) also reported the major threats to the shorebirds were habitat degradation, land reclamation, hunting, disturbance, and droughts.

In Gharo Creek deforestation of mangroves greatly affects avifauna. Mangroves prevent soil erosion, reduces the effects of flooding, etc. They also provide perching, foraging, and nesting sites to the avifauna especially the migratory birds belong to the orders Ciconiiformes, Charadriiformes, etc. Younas et al. (2017) reported that constructions of roads and factories decline the various flora as a source of habitat, feeding, and foraging activities for avian fauna. Similarly, Muzzafar (2000) reported that floral vegetation provides all the basic resources to various residential birds.

In the study area, dense forests and grasslands are present which provide nesting sites in trees as well on land. Except for mountainous habitats all the basic habitats were present which provide an aesthetic environment to avian fauna. Altaf et al. (2013) reported that bird species mostly depend on attractive habitats which fulfill all their basic life requirements. In the same way, Sadam et al. (2021) also reported the habitat and possible requirements of common birds of district Mardan. Sulieman et al. (2016) reported that urbanization and cutting of forests decline the attraction and habitats of common birds.

We were recorded more birds species in Gharo Creek (which consists of a water body) 51% followed by scrubland 27% and Bhambore fort 21%. Similarly, Luo et al. (2019) recorded most species 41% in habitat near a water body, and 14% species in habitats of scrubland. Sadam et al. (2021) also recorded more species in agricultural areas near urban areas. He also reported bird’s species are more diverse and abundant in dense forests. Begum et al. (2016) reported 133 birds’ species near the coastal and allied area of Balochistan.

CONCLUSION

The major threats to the avian fauna of gharo creek are habitat degradation, loss of habitat due to land reclamation, hunting, water pollution, and other anthropogenic activities.

ACKNOWLEDGMENT

The author of this paper greatly acknowledges the University of Karachi, Pakistan.

Statement of conflict of interest

The authors have declared no conflict of interest.

REFERENCES

Altaf, M., Javid, A., Irfan, M.A., Munir, S.A., Iqbal, K.J., and Umair, M., 2013. Diversity, distribution and ecology of birds in summer season flathead Khanki, Punjab, Pakistan. Biologia (Pakistan), 59: 131-137.

Begum, A., Khan, M.Z., Ghalib, S.A., Kanwal, R., Zehra, A., Yasmeen, G., and Safi, A., 2016. Distribution, status and current trends in the population of coastal birds of Balochistan. Can. J. Pure appl. Sci., 10: 3853-3864.

Bibby, C.J., Burgess, N.D., Hillis, D.M., Hill, D.A., and Mustoe, S., 2000. Bird census techniques: Elsevier.

Bibi, F., and Ali, Z., 2013. Measurement of diversity indices of avian communities at Taunsa Barrage Wildlife Sanctuary, Pakistan. J. Anim. Pl. Sci., 23: 469-474.

D’Amen, M., Rahbek, C., Zimmermann, N.E., and Guisan, A., 2017. Spatial predictions at the community level from current approaches to future frameworks. Biol. Rev., 92: 169-187. https://doi.org/10.1111/brv.12222

Ghalib, S.A., Jabbar, A., Wind, J., Zehra, A., and Abbas, D., 2008. Avifauna of hingol national park, Balochistan. Pakistan J. Zool., 40: 317-330.

Ghalib, S.A., Rais, M., Abbas, D., Tabassum, F., Begum, A., and Jabeen, T., 2009. An overview of the status of shorebirds and internationally important sites in Pakistan. Pakistan J. Zool., 41: 165-172.

Govender, C.O., 2021. Regional representativeness hotspots for world’s tetrapod vertebrate genera.

Khan, R.U., and Gabol, K., 2021. 34. Breeding biology of chakoor partridge (Alectoris chukar) in Bajaur, Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan: Critically affected by eggs collection and predation. Pure appl. Biol., 10: 913-921. https://doi.org/10.19045/bspab.2021.100094

Khan, R.U., Sadam, A., and Mahmood, S., 2021. Population ecology of chakor partridge (Alectoris chukar) in District Bajaur, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. Pakistan J. Zool., 52: 801-1200 https://doi.org/10.17582/journal.pjz/20190806070800

Luo, K., Wu, Z., Bai, H., and Wang, Z., 2019. Bird diversity and waterbird habitat preferences in relation to wetland restoration at Dianchi Lake, south-west China. Avian Res., 10: 1-12. https://doi.org/10.1186/s40657-019-0162-9

Mahboob, S., 2009. Diversity of avifauna of Trimmu Barrage, District Jhang, Punjab, Pakistan. Pakistan J. Zool., 41: 43-49.

Muzzafar, M., 2000. Some selected urban avian biodiversity of Lahore with special emphasis on species of concern. M.Sc. thesis. Deptt. of Envirn. Sci., Kinnaird College for Women, Pakistan.

Platt, S.G., Win, M.M., Lin, N., Aung, S.H.N., John, A., and Rainwater, T., 2021. Avian species richness in traditional rice ecosystems: a case study from upper Myanmar. J. Threat. Taxa, 13: 18719-18737. https://doi.org/10.11609/jott.6992.13.7.18719-18737

Roberts, T.J., 1991. The birds of Pakistan: Passeriformes: Pittas to buntings (Vol. 2). Oxford University Press.

Sadam, A., Khan, R.U., and Mahmood, S., 2021. Identifying bird traits that enable them to become urban exploiters in an urban area of Mardan, Pakistan. https://doi.org/10.17582/journal.pjz/20190805080803

Sadam, A., Gabol, K., Panhwar W.A., Mahmood. S., Kamal, M., Ullah, H., Abidullah, S., Tufail, M., Ahmad, B., Khan, G.B. and Hassan, U.H., 2022. Oriental Skylark (Alauda gulgula) nestling morphometry and feeding habits in Bajaur Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa Pakistan. Pakistan J. Zool., 54: 2519-2525. https://dx.doi.org/10.17582/journal.pjz/20210818110804

Shuaib, M., Hussain, F., Rauf, A., Jan, F., Romman, M., Parvez, R., and Bahadur, S., 2021. Traditional knowledge about medicinal plant in the remote areas of Wari Tehsil, Dir Upper, Pakistan. Braz. J. Biol., 83: e246803. https://doi.org/10.1590/1519-6984.246803

Steven, R., Rakotopare, N., and Newsome, D., 2021. Avitourism tribes: As diverse as the birds they watch consumer tribes in tourism. Springer. pp. 101-118. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-15-7150-3_8

Sulieman, Y., Pengsakul, T., and Afifi, A., 2016. Bird diversity in Shendi area, Sudan. Int. J. Res. Granthaalayah, 4: 55-63. https://doi.org/10.29121/granthaalayah.v4.i6.2016.2638

Umar, M., Hussain, M., Murtaza, G., Shaheen, F. A., and Zafar, F., 2018. Ecological concerns of migratory birds in Pakistan: A review. Punjab Univ. J. Zool., 33: 69-76. https://doi.org/10.17582/pujz/2018.33.1.69.76

Younas, S., Gul, S., Rehman, H.U., Junaid, F., Achakzai, W.M., Saddozai, S., and Ahmad, Z., 2017. Zoological fauna of Khurum Dam and Muhabbat Khel Dam of district Karak, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan.

To share on other social networks, click on any share button. What are these?

Pakistan Journal of Zoology

February

Pakistan J. Zool., Vol. 56, Iss. 1, pp. 01-501

Featuring

Click here for more

Subscribe Today

Receive free updates on new articles, opportunities and benefits


Subscribe Unsubscribe