Advances in Animal and Veterinary Sciences
Research ArticleAdvances in Animal and Veterinary Sciences 1 (2): 75–76
Serotyping and antibiotic sensitivity patterns of Escherchia coli isolates obtained from broiler chicks in Kashmir Valley, India
FU Peer, MM Ansari*, IA Gani, MM Willayat
Sher–e–Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology, Faculty of Veterinary Sciences and animal Husbandry
Shuhama, Alastaing, Srinagar–190006, J&K, India
Peer F.U, Ansari M.M, Gani I.A, Willayat M.M, (2013). Serotyping and antibiotic sensitivity patterns of Escherchia coli isolates obtained from broiler chicks in Kashmir Valley, India. Adv. Anim. Vet. Sci. 1 (2): 75–76 .
Received: 2013–05–19, Revised: 2013–06–26, Accepted: 2013–06–27
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A total number of 105 isolates of Escherichia coli were identified, characterized and serotyped out of one hundred twenty five samples collected from yolk sac material of healthy, sick and dead chicks in Kashmir Valley, India. The typable serotypes were 97 (92.40%), the untypable serotyopes were 5 (4.80%) and the rough serotypes were 3 (2.80%). Twenty eight different serotypes viz. O2, O8, O20, O21, O25, O26, O41, O45, O50, O51, O78, O87 , O88, O89, O95, O101, O103, O106, O109, O111, O123, O154, O159, O171, and UT were recorded. Serotypes O8 was predominant (17) followed by O154 (14), O41 (13), O103 (5), O20 (5), O51 (5), O2 (4), O26 (4), O171 (3), rough (3), O88 (3), O89 (2), O101 (2), O106 (2), O109 (2), O159 (2), O111 (2), O78 (2), O78 (2), O87 (2) and one each of O21, O45, O123, O50, O25 and O22. Drug sensitivity pattern indicated most of the serotypes of avian E. coli were sensitive to ciprofloxacin, norfloxacin, amikacin, pefloxacin and cloramphenicol, cephalexin has been found to be moderately effective whils maximum number of E. coli isolates showed resistance against cephalaxin, lincomycin, oxytetracycline, co–trimoxazole, amoxicillin and gentamycin Therefore, this disease problem can be checked by adopting judicious selection of suitable antibiotic based on antibiogram studies.
Escherchia coli (E. coli) is associated with various poultry disease manifestations viz. chronic respiratory disease, colisepticaemia, air sacculitis etc. and has been mainly responsible for omphalitis in broilers during first few days of hatching, favored by bad management and stress in growing chicks (Chauhan, 1990). The bacterium has been recovered in 70% of chicks with omphalitis (Calnek et al., 1991). E. coli has been labeled in accounting for great economic losses worldwide in broiler industry in terms of loss of growth, poor feed conversion and mortality (Pattison, 1993; Dhama et al., 2013). Considering the all these caused by E coliinfection and that of the isolates were found resistant to most of the selected antimicrobial drugs used in local poultry farming, omphalitis may be considered as a threat to the broiler. Therefore, in the present study, serotyping and antibiogram of various isolates of E. coli causing omphalitis in broiler chicks in Kashmir valley was undertaken.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
One hundred twenty five samples of yolk sac material from dead (80), ailing (16) and healthy chicks (29) were collected for isolation chicks of the Kashmir Valley from Broiler Project Hariparbath, Srinagar, were collected for isolation of E. coli. The bacterial isolation was carried out as per the procedure described by Edward and Ewing (1972) and Crickshanket al. (1975). The E. coli isolates thus obtained were serotyped at National Salmonella and Escherichia Research Centre, Kasauli (Himachal Pradesh). In–vitro drug sensitivity of E. coli isolates against 15 antimicrobials was carried out as described by Baur et al. (1996).
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Out of 125 samples collected from dead, ailing and healthy chicks, E. coli was confirmed in 84% (105 of the samples). Out of the 105 samples, 97 isolates were grouped under 26 different ‘O’ serogroups of E. coli. The typable seretypes were O2, O8, O20, O21, O25, O26, O41, O45, O50, O51, O78, O87 , O88 O89, O95, O101, O103, O106, O109, O111, O123, O154, O159, and O171. Besides this, there were 3 rough and 5 untypable serotypes too. Various serotypes have been reported by several workers. The different serotypes identified were O1, O2, O8, O11, O12, O14, O18, O19, O21, O20, O26,O53, O54, O57O60, O65, O68, O78, O80, O81, O83, O89 , O91, O101, O103, O106, O109, O111, O115, O123, O147, O148, and O162 (Ghose, 1988; Linzitto et al., 1988; Allen et al., 1993; Reddy et al., 1994; Blanco et al., 1998). Serotypes O8 was predominant (17) followed by O154 (14), O41(13), O103 (5), O20 (5), O51 (5), O2 (4), O26 (4), O171(3), rough (3), O88 (3), O89 (2), O101 (2), O106(2), O109 (2), O159 (2), O111 (2), O78 (2), O78 (2), O87 (2) and one each of O21, O45, O123, O50, O25 and O22.
The present findings do not coincide with earlier reports of Ike et al. (1990), Phukan et al. (1990) and Gowda et al. (1996) who opined that O2 was predominant among different serotyping of E. coli. May be different topography, season and other factors favoring O8 strains contribute to its high incidence in this region. In–vitro drug sensitivity results indicated ciprofloxacin, norfloxacin, amikacin, pefloxacin and cloramphenicol the most effective antibiotic exhibited efficacy of 78.90, 73.70, 68.40, 60.50 and 55.30 %, respectively, against the E. coli isolates, Cephotaxim was found to be moderately effective while maximum number of E. coli isolates showed against cephalaxin (92.40%), lincomycin (97.40%), oxytetracycline (84.20%), co–trimoxazole (71.10%), amoxicillin (68.40%) and gentamycin (52.60%). Effectiveness of ciprofloxacin, norfloxacin, and pefloxacin against E. coli isolates from chicks has also been reported by Dasgupta et al. (1992). The higher efficacy of these third generation antibiotics could be attributed to their and less use in poultry industry.
Resistance of co–trimoxazole, lincomycin, oxytetracycline, and amoxicillin have been reported by many workers which may be largely attributed to the large scale and indiscriminate use of antimicrobials as feed additives and for therapeutic purposes resulting in emergence of drug resistance to various isolates (Bandhopadhyay and Dhawedkar, 1985). Lambie et al. (2000) has also been reported a high level of resistance to antimicrobial drugs among pathogenic isolates. Therefore, this disease problem can be checked by adopting judicious selection of suitable antibiotic based on antibiogram studies.
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