Submit or Track your Manuscript LOG-IN

The Effect of Hook Size, Spinner Colour and Fishing Season on Catching Efficiency in Angling for Rainbow Trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum, 1792)

PJZ_51_5_1937-1942

 

 

The Effect of Hook Size, Spinner Colour and Fishing Season on Catching Efficiency in Angling for Rainbow Trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum, 1792)

Tuncay Ateşşahin1,* and Mehmet Cİlbiz2

1Fisheries Faculty, Fırat University, 23119, Elazıg, Turkey

2Eğirdir Fisheries Research Institute, Turkey

ABSTRACT

In this study, we aimed to determine the effects of hook size, spinner colour and fishing season on catching efficiency in angling for rainbow trout in Karakaya Dam Lake (Malatya, Turkey). Field studies were conducted monthly for a total of 48 fishing operations between May 2013 and April 2014 and again from January 2015 to December 2015. Fishing activities were carried out using fishing gear with three spinner colours (yellow, blue or red), three hook sizes (No. 2: 2 cm; No. 3: 3 cm; or No. 4: 4 cm) and in different seasons (spring, summer, autumn or winter) by three anglers. At the end of the study, 336 rainbow trout, 13.2–56.5 cm in length and 28.6–2,174.6 g in weight, were caught. The most efficient season for catching fish was in the winter. The mean catch per unit effort (CPUE) values for red, blue and yellow coloured spinners were 0.108, 0.051 and 0.036, respectively. The mean CPUE values for No. 2, No. 3 and No. 4 hooks were 0.049, 0.088 and 0.066, respectively. The mean yield per unit effort (YPUE) for No. 2, No. 3 and No. 4 hooks were 9.88, 24.13 and 19.78, respectively (p < 0.05). In conclusion, we recommend using No. 3–sized hooks in the winter season for maximum fishing efficiency of rainbow trout in Karakaya Dam Lake.


Article Information

Received 10 February 2017

Revised 12 March 2018

Accepted 03 May 2019

Available online 31 July 2019

Authors’ Contribution

TA and MC designed the study. TA performed fishing experiments. TA and MC evaluated data and wrote different parts of the article.

Key words

Different colour, Spinner, Angling, CPUE, YPUE

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.17582/journal.pjz/2019.51.5.1937.1942

* Corresponding author: tatessahin@firat.edu.tr

0030-9923/2019/0005-1937 $ 9.00/0

Copyright 2019 Zoological Society of Pakistan



Introduction

Recreational fishing constitutes the dominant use of wild fish stocks in all freshwater regions of industrialized countries, it is also prominent in many coastal (FAO, 2012) and inland water ecosystems. Recreational fisheries science has made great strides in understanding how various factors influence the catchability of fish (Anderson and LeRoy Heman, 1969; Ward et al., 2013). However, there has been little effort in understanding how lure colour influences these factors (Moraga et al., 2015), which is the focus of this study. Oncorhynchus mykiss is a popular and intensively managed recreational species targeted by anglers at the Karakaya Dam Lake (Malatya, Turkey). These fish are frequently caught by anglers using various spinner, spoon of varying colours and sizes. Recreational fishing is a socially and economically important use of fishery resources in most parts of the world (Cooke and Scramm, 2007).

Lure colour may affect catch rates for both longline fisheries (Hsieh et al., 2001) and amateur fishing (Moraga et al., 2015; Wilde et al., 2003). In this study we performed an experimental assessment of whether different lure colours (red, blue or yellow), seasons (winter, spring, summer or autumn) and spinner sizes (No. 2, No. 3 or No. 4) affect the catch rate. We chose O. mykiss because it is one of the most targeted species for amateur fisheries in the world and is not a species native to Karakaya Dam Lake. This species was introduced after trout aquaculture activities in a net cage (Ateşşahin et al., 2011, 2015; Cilbiz and Yalım, 2017).

Here, we present one of the first studies to evaluate the role of different spinner colours and hook sizes on the catch per unit effort (CPUE) and the yield per unit effort (YPUE) during different seasons for O. mykiss at an important recreational fishery in Turkish inland waters.

 

Materials and Methods

The aim of this study was to determine the effect of hook size, spinner colour and fishing season on catching efficiency in angling for rainbow trout in Karakaya Dam Lake. Karakaya Dam Lake, located in Eastern Anatolia (Turkey), is one of the region’s largest and most important water sources, both for irrigation and fisheries (Ozmen et al., 2006) (Fig. 1).


 

To control for angler skill, all O. mykiss were captured by the same experienced anglers (Rapp et al., 2008). Each angler completed a survey designed to categorize anglers into a specific level of expertise (Meka, 2004). For the experimental angling activities, three anglers with similar levels of experience were selected (Alós et al., 2009). We did not tag or mark fish that were released during our study.

Fishing gear and the duration of operations can significantly affect the catch composition (Kaykaç et al., 2003). The CPUE and YPUE efficiency were calculated according to Aydin (2011).

A field study was conducted monthly with a total of 48 fishing operations lasting 4 hours each during May 2013 to April 2014 and again from January 2015 to December 2015. Fishing activities were carried out using fishing gear with three spinner colours (yellow, blue or red), three hook sizes (No. 2: 2 cm; No. 3: 3 cm; or No. 4: 4 cm) and in different seasons (winter, spring, summer or autumn) by the same three anglers who had similar fishing experiences and tools. The duration of each sampling was fixed and limited to 4 hours. Experimental trials were carried out between 08:00 a.m. and 12:00 a.m. A technical plan for the use of the fishing line and spinner is shown in Figure 2. Caught fish were measured to within 1-mm accuracy and weighed to within 1-g accuracy. CPUE and YPUE values were calculated according to Godøy et al. (2003) and Aydın (2011). The changes in CPUE and YPUE values, according to hook sizes, spinner colour and fishing season, were statistically assessed using a one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). The differences between groups were then tested using Tukey’s honestly significant difference (HSD) test.

The CPUE and YPUE values were calculated as shown below using the formulas recommended by Godøy et al. (2003) and later customized by Aydın (2011).


 

 

Results

Over the study period, 336 O. mykiss were caught, ranging in size from 13.2 to 56.5 cm (n = 77 for No. 2; n = 145 for No. 3; and n = 114 for No. 4). The catching percentages for No. 2, No. 3 and No. 4 hooks were 22.9%, 43.1% and 33.9%, respectively. The mean YPUE values for No. 2, No. 3 and No. 4 hooks were 9.88, 24.13 and 19.78, respectively (Table I). In terms of CPUE, the No. 3 hook was significantly better than the other hook sizes. However, in terms of YPUE, the No. 2 hook was significantly better than both the No. 3 and No. 4 hooks (p < 0.05) (Fig. 3).

When the fish that were caught were evaluated according to spinner colour, the catching percentages of red, blue and yellow spinners were 55.4%, 26.2% and 18.5%, respectively. The mean CPUE values for red, blue and yellow spinners were 0.108, 0.051 and 0.036, respectively. Furthermore, the mean YPUE values for red, blue and yellow hooks were 30.273, 12.809 and 8.886, respectively (Table II). In terms of the spinner colour effect on CPUE and YPUE values, the red spinner colour was the red spinner colour was significantly more eficient at catching fish than the blue and yellow colors (p < 0.05) (Fig. 4). According to seasons, the CPUE values for spring, summer, autumn and winter were 0.167, 0.120, 0.178 and 0.313, respectively, and YPUE values were 43.608, 31.744, 56.959 and 75.562, respectively (Table III). The differences were significant for both CPUE and YPUE values (p ˂ 0.05) (Fig. 5).

 

Table I.- Statistical analysis of different spinner hook sizes for CPUE and YPUE values.

Hook Number

N

N (%)

Total Catch (g)

CPUE (Mean±SE)

YPUE (Mean±SE)

2

77

22.9%

15654.100

0.049±0.006a

9.883±1.382a

3

145

43.1%

39963.900

0.088±0.010b

24.133±3.111b

4

114

34.0%

34183.200

0.066±0.007a

19.782±2.799b

 

Table II.- Statistical analysis of different spinner colors for CPUE and YPUE values.

Colur of Spinner

N

N (%)

Total Catch (g)

CPUE (Mean±SE)

YPUE (Mean±SE)

Red

186.00

55.4%

52311.90

0.108±0.012b

30.273±4.224b

Blue

88.00

26.2%

22133.70

0.051±0.005a

12.809±1.247a

Yellow

62.00

18.5%

15355.60

0.036±0.005a

8.886±1.193a

 

Table III.- Statistical analysis of different fishing seasons for CPUE and YPUE values.

Fishing Season

N

N (%)

Total Catch (g)

CPUE (Mean±SE)

YPUE (Mean±SE)

Autumn

77

22.9%

24606.1

0.178±0.029a

56.959±14.441a

Spring

72

21.4%

18838.7

0.167±0.026a

43.608±5.878a

Summer

52

15.4%

13713.5

0.120±0.013a

31.744±4.095a

Winter

135

40.3%

32642.9

0.313±0.031b

75.562±5.042b


 

 

 

Discussion

Recreational fishing studies in Turkey have, thus far, been generally focused on either the socioeconomics of the fishermen (Ünal et al., 2010; Tunca et al., 2012) or hook selectivity (Ateşşahin et al., 2015; Öztekin et al., 2018). There are many issues that directly or indirectly affect fisheries and the lake management of fisheries. The colours of natural or artificial bait used in recreational fishing have a direct impact on fishing efficiency. Several researchers have examined the effects of various colours of equipment (nets, longlines, hook lines, etc.) for their efficiency in catching different fish species (Balık and Çubuk, 2001; Orsay and Duman, 2010; Ulaş and Aydin, 2011; Akyasan et al., 2016). Catching efficiencies with these fishing gear have been variable and depend on the fish species, the regions inhabited, fishing equipment and whether they are sea or freshwater fish.

This study showed that the CPUE and YPUE values for angling O. mykiss were positively related to different colours (red, blue and yellow), different spinner sizes and seasons (winter, spring, summer and autumn). Wilde et al. (2008) examined four lure sizes and five colour patterns to assess the effects on the number and length of largemouth bass captured by angling. Ulaş and Aydin (2011) reported that red coloured jigs were the most efficient compared with other colours for squid jigging efficiency. However, Altinagac (2006) determined that the green jigs were more efficient than the red ones.

Several studies have suggested there is a significant increase in CPUE when using small hooks (Alós et al., 2009; Erzini et al., 1996; Halliday, 2002) and gillnet fisheries (Dartay et al., 2017). However, in our study, the No. 3 hook was significantly better than the No. 2 hook. Hsieh et al. (2001) suggested that lure colour is not a significant factor in determining catch rate in mackerel long line fisheries when the lure type is standardized. Our research suggests that a red colour is a significant factor in determining CPUE and YPUE values in Karakaya Dam Lake for O. mykiss (p < 0.05). Akyasan et al. (2016) found that, in chub mackerel (Scomber japonicus, Houttuyn, 1782), the brown colour was more efficient than other colours for CPUE and YPUE values.

The O. mykiss is not a species native to Karakaya Dam Lake; rather, it was introduced after the activities of the trout aquaculture in a net cage. These fish have an important place in the day-to-day fish populations of dam lakes. Thus, it is very important, in terms of economic value, for fish to be brought into recreational fisheries (Ateşşahin et al., 2011). In conclusion, we recommend using No. 3–sized hooks during the winter season for maximum fishing efficiency of rainbow trout and suggest that red coloured lures are a significant factor in determining CPUE and YPUE values in Karakaya Dam Lake.

 

Acknowledgements

This study was presented at the International Symposium on Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences (FABA 2016) as an oral presentation.

 

Statement of conflict of interest

We declare no conflicts of interest in this study.

 

References

Akyasan, E., Oztekin, A., Altinagac, U. and Ayaz, A., 2016. Effects of different feather colors in chub mackerel (Scomber japonicus Houttuyn, 1782) handline used at Gökçeada Region on fishing efficiency. Mar. Sci. Tech. Bull., 5:1-5.

Alós, J., Mateu-Vicens, G., Palmer, M., Grau, A.M., Cabanellas-Reboredo, M. and Box, A., 2009. Performance of circle hooks in a mixed-species recreational fishery. J. appl. Ichthyol., 25: 565-570. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1439-0426.2009.01272.x

Altinagac, U., 2006. Effect of jigs color to catching efficiency in the squid fishing in Turkey. Pakistan J. biol. Sci., 9: 2916-2918. https://doi.org/10.3923/pjbs.2006.2916.2918

Anderson, R.O. and Heman, M.R., 1969. Angling as a factor influencing catchability of largemouth bass. Trans. Am. Fish. Soc., 98: 317-320. https://doi.org/10.1577/1548-8659(1969)98[317:AAAFIC]2.0.CO;2

Ateşşahin, T., Dartay, M., Duman, E. and Gül, M.R., 2011. Fishing efficiency and fishing rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) in Karakaya Dam Lake (in Turkish). J. biol. Sci. Res., 4: 113-117.

Ateşşahin, T., Duman, E. and Cilbiz, M., 2015. Selectivity and catch efficiency of three spinner hook sizes in angling for rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss Walbaum, 1792) in Karakaya Dam Lake (Eastern Turkey). Turkish J. Fish. aquat. Sci., 15: 851-859.

Aydın, İ., 2011. Is natural bait type a stochastic process for size and condition of fishes in the recreational fishery of İzmir Bay? Mediterr. Mar. Sci., 12: 390-400. https://doi.org/10.12681/mms.39

Balık, İ. and Çubuk, H., 2001. Effect of net colours on efficiency of Monofilament Gillnets for catching some fish species in Lake Beyşehir. Turkish J. Fish. aquat. Sci., 1: 29-32.

Cilbiz, M. and Yalım, F.B., 2017. Growth, Mortality, recruitment and yield of rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss walbaum, 1792 in Karacaören-I Dam Lake, Turkey. Pakistan J. Zool., 49: 825-832. http://dx.doi.org/10.17582/journal.pjz/2017.49.3.825.832

Cooke, S.J. and Schramm, H.L., 2007. Catch-and-release science and its application to conservation and management of recreational fsisheries. Turkish J. Fish. aquat. Sci., 14: 73-79. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2400.2007.00527.x

Dartay, M., Atessahin, T. and Duman, E., 2017. Effects of water temperature and depth on the catch rate and catch per unit effort for mirror carp (Cyprinus carpio) caught by gillnets. Pakistan J. Zool., 49: 967-971. http://dx.doi.org/10.17582/journal.pjz/2017.49.3.967.971

Erzini, K., Gonçalves, J.M.S., Bentes, L., Lino, P.G. and Cruz, J., 1996. Species and size selectivity in a Portuguese multispecies artisanal long-line fishery. ICES J. mar. Sci., 53: 811-819. https://doi.org/10.1006/jmsc.1996.0102

FAO., 2012. Technical guidelines for responsible fisheries. No:13, Recreational fisheries, Rome, pp. 176.

Godøy, H., Furevik, D. and Løkkeborg, S., 2003. Reduced bycatch of red king crab (Paralithodes camtschaticus) in the gillnet fishery for cod (Gadus morhua) in northern Norway. Fish. Res., 62: 377-384. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0165-7836(02)00281-3

Halliday, R.G., 2002. A comparison of size selection of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) and haddock (Melanogrammus aeglefinus) by bottom longlines and otter trawls. Fish. Res., 57: 63-73. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0165-7836(01)00336-8

Hsieh, K.-Y., Huang, B.-Q., Wu, R.-L. and Chen, C.-T., 2001. Color effects of lures on the hooking rates of mackerel longline fishing. Fish. Res., 62: 408-414. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1444-2906.2001.00276.x

Kaykaç, M.H., Ulaş, A., Metin, C. and Tosunoğlu, Z., 2003. A study on catch efficiency of straight and kirbed hooks at hand line fishing (in Turkish). E.U. J. Fish. aquat. Sci., 20: 227-231.

Meka, J.M., 2004. The influence of hook type, angler experience, and fish size on injury rates and the duration of capture in an Alaskan catch-and-release rainbow trout fishery. N. Am. J. Fish. Manage., 24: 1309-1321. https://doi.org/10.1577/M03-108.1

Moraga, A. D., Wilson, A. D. M. and Cooke, S. J., 2015. Does lure colour influence catch per unit effort, fish capture size and hooking injury in angled largemouth bass? Fish. Res., 172: 1-6. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fishres.2015.06.010

Orsay, B. and Duman, E., 2010. The comparison of catch efficiency of monofilament gill nets different colour and different hanging ratio on seasonal variations(in Turkish). J. Fish. Sci., 4: 224-237. https://doi.org/10.3153/jfscom.2010024

Ozmen, M., Güngördü, A., Kucukbay, F.Z. and Güler, R.E., 2006. Monitoring the Effects of Water Pollution on Cyprinus carpio in Karakaya Dam Lake, Turkey. Ecotoxicology, 15: 157-169. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10646-005-0045-1

Öztekin, A., Ayaz, A., Özekinci, U. and Kumova, C.A., 2018. Hook selectivity for bluefish (Pomatomus saltatrix Linneaus, 1766) in Gallipoli Peninsula and Çanakkale Strait (Northern Aegean Sea, Turkey). J. agric. Sci., 24: 50-59. https://doi.org/10.15832/ankutbd.446380

Rapp, T., Cooke, S.J. and Arlinghaus, R., 2008. Exploitation of specialised fisheries resources: The importance of hook size in recreational angling for large common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.). Fish. Res., 94:79-83. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fishres.2008.06.019

Tunca, S., Ünal, V., Miran, B., 2012. A prelim-inary study on economic value of recreational fishing in Izmir Inner Bay, Aegean Sea (Tur-key). Ege J. Fish. aquat. Sci., 29: 55-62. https://doi.org/10.12714/egejfas.2012.29.2.01

Ulaş, A. and Aydin, İ., 2011. Effect of jigs color to catching efficiency in the squid fishing in Turkey. Afri. J. Biotechnol., 10: 1721-1726.

Ünal, V., Acarli, D., Gordoa, A., 2010. Charac-teristics of marine recreational fishing in the Çanakkale Strait (Turkey). Mediterr. Mar. Sci., 11: 315-330. https://doi.org/10.12681/mms.79

Ward, H.G.M., Askey, P.J. and Post, J.R., 2013. A mechanistic understanding of hyperstability in catch per unit effort and density-dependent catchability in a multistock recreational fishery. Can. J. Fish. aquat. Sci., 70: 1542-1550. https://doi.org/10.1139/cjfas-2013-0264

Wilde, G.R., Pope, K.L. and Durham, B.W., 2008. Lure-size restrictions in recreational fisheries. Fisheries, 28: 18-26. https://doi.org/10.1577/1548-8446(2003)28[18:LRIRF]2.0.CO;2

To share on other social networks, click on P-share. What are these?

Pakistan Journal of Zoology

December

Vol. 51, Iss. 6, Pages 1999-2399

Featuring

Click here for more

Subscribe Today

Receive free updates on new articles, opportunities and benefits


Subscribe Unsubscribe