Submit or Track your Manuscript LOG-IN

Seasonal Variation in Aquatic Biota in Relation to Physico-Chemical Parameters of Sonmiani, Balochistan, Pakistan


Research Article

Seasonal Variation in Aquatic Biota in Relation to Physico-Chemical Parameters of Sonmiani, Balochistan, Pakistan

Nasratullah Baloch1*, Naeem Tariq Narejo2, Hamida Narejo3, Muhammad Farooq Hassan4, Muhammad Hanif Chandio5, Faheem Saddar6, Dharti Shahnawaz Thebo7, Ghulam Abbas8 and Shahnaz Rashid8

1Education College Department, Government of Balochistan, Quetta, Pakistan; 2Department of Fresh Water Biology and Fisheries, University of Sindh, Jamshoro, Pakistan; 3Department of Sociology, University of Sindh, Jamshoro, Sindh, Pakistan; 4Department of Veterinary Pathology, Shaheed Benazir Bhutto University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Sakrand, Sindh, Pakistan; 5Department of Fisheries (Inland) Government of Sindh, Thandi Sarak, Hyderabad, Sindh, Pakistan; 6Department of Marine Fisheries, Government of Pakistan, West Warf, Karachi, Pakistan; 7Department of Zoology, University of Sindh, Jamshoro, Sindh, Pakistan; 8Centre of Excellence in Marine Biology, University of Karachi, Pakistan.

Abstract | Seasonal variation in phyto- and zooplankton (aquatic biota) in relation to physico-chemical parameters from Sonmiani Bay, Balochistan, Pakistan was studied from January to December 2016. For month-wise analysis of zoo- and phytoplankton was performed by using net of 25 µm mesh size. For the qualitative and computable examination of planktons, the 50 liters of bay water was strained and residue fixed with 5% formalin in sampling bottles. The 99 genera of both the planktons were recorded, which included 52 zoo- and 47 for phytoplankton from the experimental area. Among the zooplankton, Copepods were found to be rich 65% followed by Brachyuran zoa 15% while in case of phytoplankton genus Coscinodiscus were noted to be rich 60% followed by Rhizosolenia 15% during the whole duration of investigations. It reflects that the bay water was found to be rich with primary productivity. Vital physicochemical factor such as pH, temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen, and transparency were taken into account twice in a month from sampling area during the whole period of research. The temperature found to be varied from 21-35.7oC, pH8.0-8.1, DO 3.57–5.0 mg/l, salinity 34.2-39.9 mg/l and transparency 38.5-53.0 µS/cm. Lastly it was resolved that the atmosphere of Sonmiani bay found to be supportive for the aquatic biota (zoo and phytoplankton) which in turn conducive for the rearing of commercial fish species in it.

Received | January 02, 2023; Accepted | February 02, 2023; Published | March 06, 2023

*Correspondence | Nasratullah Baloch, Education College Department, Government of Balochistan, Quetta, Pakistan; Email:

Citation |Baloch, N., N.T. Narejo, H. Narejo, M.F. Hassan, M.H. Chandio, F. Saddar, D.S. Thebo, G. Abbas and S. Rashid. 2023. Seasonal variation in aquatic biota in relation to physico-chemical parameters of Sonmiani, Balochistan, Pakistan. Sarhad Journal of Agriculture, 39(1): 251-255.


Keywords | Aquatic biota, Zoo and phytoplankton, Seasonal variation, Sonmiani, Balochistan

Copyright: 2023 by the authors. Licensee ResearchersLinks Ltd, England, UK.

This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (


Aquatic biota referred as primary productivity of any water body that is significantlydependent on presence of micro-organisms (unicellular plants) reckoned as producers and their first users (unicellular animals) zoo and phytoplankton both are regarded as indicators of life in environment (Diaz et al., 2006). The kinds and numbers of species of fish existing in water body denotedtheir capacity in terms of biota directly or indirectly (Hashim et al., 2016). The presence of producers, consumers and decomposers in form of micro and macrophytes, zooplanktons and fish in good quantity is necessary which reflects the pond or lake environment as productive one and ideal. According to Dastagir et al. (2014) anydeviation in aquatic ecosystems is significantly affected by numerous physico-chemical factors, exclusively rapid rise and reduction in temperature readings. As a result, it is indispensableforregularly monitoringof pondassortmentwhich would be profited for socialwell-being and species configuration. Further, Levêque et al. (2007) stated varieties of kinds of fish available in moderate areas aresuggestivelybetter-offin comparison to glaciated one. Various factors involved for the determining the quality of water that are very important not only for the drinking purpose but also for the culture of severalaquatic organism. Few factors are considered as mandatorybefore the launching of any fish raising event (Hashim et al., 2016). The deviation in certain factors of waterseriouslyinfluenced not only the nature of the environment but at great extent on seasons as well.

The objectives of the study were to assess the seasonal variation in phyto- and zooplankton (aquatic biota) in relation to physico-chemical parameters from Sonmiani Bay, Balochistan, Pakistan.

Materials and Methods

The population of planktons were determined from Sonmiani bay through monthly sampling during January to December 2016. Two stations were selected in this region in such a way that the distance between both stations was 300 meters. In case of zooplankton 50 liters of water was filtered by net of 25 µm. For quantifiable and qualitative examination, the samples were fixed with 5% formalin in sampling flasks. Zooplankton analyses (record and documentation) weretaken place by using counting tray and binocular microscope 100×. Phytoplankton samples were procured with the use of plankton net, fixed with 3-4% formalin and their cyclical deviation was dogged after centrifuge at 1000 rpm for a period of 10-15 minutes. Phytoplankton residue then was counted drop by drop method by the usage of Sedgwick Rafter chamber. Documentation of both the planktons (zoo and phyto) was conceded through illustration and keys as recommended (Desikachary, 1959; Prescott, 1962; Mizuno and Takahashi, 1991; Battish, 1992; Cook, 1996). Factors related to the quality of water were examined twice in a month during January- December 2016from the experimental area. The water sample was obtained by using 4 liters capacity jar, the water was taken from surface and around 1-2 meters depth of the bay. All factors such as temperature, pH, salinity, total dissolved solids and conductivity were examined in the field throughelectronic analyzer (Model No. C-6030 USA made). Oxygen content was determined through titration method in the lab and Secchi disc was used for transparency.

Results and Discussion

Abundance of zooplankton

52 genera of zooplankton recognized from Sonmiani bay as shown (Figure 1). During the investigations the Copepods found highly rich (65%). Percentages of diverse zooplankton wereBrachyuran zoa (15%). Medusa (6%), Chaetognatha (5%), Carida larva (4%) and Foraminifera was (3%). The Brachyuran zoa (15%), Medusa (6%) found at station 1 and 2, Chaetognatha (5%) abundant at station 1, 3 and 4, Carida larva (4%) was abundant at station 3 and 4, Foraminifera was (3%) at station 1, 2 and 3 during the month of March and Ichthyo-plankton was found abundant at station 1, 2 and 3 during the month of December to January 2016 (Figure 1).


Phytoplankton abundance

Total 47 genus of phytoplankton identified from 4 stations of Sonmiani presented in Figure 2. It was noticed that a high abundance of phytoplankton was reported during the month of May to September 2016 and low abundance of phytoplankton was recorded in the month of December to February 2016. The highest peak of total phytoplankton was observed 70,125 cell/l in the month of May. However, results of station no. 1 and 2 showed a high abundance of aquatic biota than other shore stations. The mean value of data collected from both stations was analysed. It was concluded that genus Coscinodiscus found to be most dominant from all station (50-60%) during the months of May to September 2016. The percentages of other genus are as follows:

Genus Rhizosolenia (15%) Genus Noctiluca (8%) at (St. 1, 2) in the month of March to April and October 2016, Genus Biddulphia (6%) at (St.1, 2) in the month of October to February 2016, Genus Anaulus (5%) at (1, 2) in the month of March to December 2016, Genus Hemidiscus (4%).


Factors of physico-chemical

Various factors of physico chemical of water such as temperature, DO, pH, transparency, salinity was monitored and recorded throughout the year on fortnightly basis and shown in table (Table 1). The physicochemical parameter such as temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen, transparencyand salinity, were documented fortnightly at 9:00–11:00 AM and 3:00–4:00 PM during entire period of examination, the temperature was found to be deviated from 21.0-35.7°C, pH 8.0-8.1, DO 3.57–5.0mg/l, salinity 34.2– 39.9 and transparency 38.5-53.0 µS/cm. The Sonmiani bay was noted to be the ideal, safe, supportive and favors the aquatic biota, which in turn benefited for the rearing of economically important fish species.

The study was designed to elucidate the aquatic biota in terms physico-chemical factors of Sonmiani bay from January to December 2016.52 genera of zooplankton recognized from Sonmiani bay during the examinations and the Copepods were found highly rich (65%). Percentages of diverse zooplankton were Brachyuran zoa (15%). Medusa (6%), Chaetognatha (5%), Carida larva (4%) and Foraminifera was (3%). Diverse investigators such as (Tripathi and Tiwari, 2006; Larik et al., 2007) suggested that for copepod Cyclopsregarded as most common zooplankton species and for cladocerans Moina, Bosmina and Daphnia noted as exceptional. Tripathi and Tiwari (2006) provided evidence concerning to the availability of zooplankton from confined environment and commented that maximum kinds and types of planktonsdocumented in bulk quantity during hot months as compared to less numbers and kinds during cold month alike observation was reported by (Larik et al., 2007) from hatchery. The observations of the above scientists agreed with the present research. Total 47 genus of phytoplankton identified during analyses the genus Coscinodiscus found to be most dominant (60%)


Table 1: Month-wise variation in different physico-chemical parameters of Sonmiani, Balochistan during (January to December 2016). Values are the mean of two stations (Mean±SE).



Temperature oC

Transparency µS/cm

Salinity ppt

Dissolved oxygen mg/L


8.0± 0.5

21.0 ± 1.0

53.0 ± 1.5

39.9 ± 1.1

4.85± 1.15


8.1± 0.25

24.0 ± 1.0

50.75 ± 1.25

38.7± 1.30

5. 0± 0.50


8.02± 0.8

28.0 ± 1.5

47.7 ± 2.30

37.6± 1.40

4.15± 0.85


8.07± 0.25

32.0 ± 1.2

45.5 ± 2.50

37.4± 0.60

4.0± 1.5


8.02 ± 0.80

35.7 ± 1.2

41.2 ± 1.80

36.4± 0.60

3.57± 0.43


8.02 ± 0.8

33.2 ± 1.8

40.4 ± 2.6

35.2 ± 0.8

3.85 ± 1.15


8.0 ± 0.2

32.8 ± 1.2

39.8 ± 1.2

35.0 ± 0.5

4. 0 ± 0.5


8.0± 0.50

32.0 ± 1.6

38.5 ± 2.50

34.7± 0.30

4.05± 0.95


8.1± 0.90

28.5 ± 1.5

44.2 ± 1.80

34.2± 1.80

4.22± 0.78


8.01 ± 0.9

25.5 ± 1.5

47.5 ± 1.5

35.2± 0.80

4.27± 0.73


8.05± 0.45

23.5 ± 1.0

49.0 ± 1.50

35.9± 1.10

4.22± 0.78


8.02± 0.8

21.5 ± 1.5

51.2 ± 1.80


4.70± 0.30


followed by Rhizosolenia (15%), Noctiluca (8%), Biddulphia (6%), Anaulus (5%) and Hemidiscus (4%). Dissimilar scholars like (Aravind et al., 2005; Larik et al., 2007; Levêque et al., 2007; Chughtai et al., 2011) recommended that very communal kind of phytoplankton as Keratellatropica in confined water (lake) and optimistic about itsavailability round the year and rotifer as leading zooplankton. They also commented that deviation of planktons greatly influenced by the hot and cold region. Findings of mentioned authorsare more or similar to the present investigations. Minute deviation in the interpretations possibly for the dissimilar ecological conditions of the aquatic ecosystems of the study area.

Numerous physico-chemical aspects of water exhibited essential part to determine its suitability for consumption, raising of aquatic animals and house-hold purposes. Out of which certain significant that are known as very necessary for fish culture processes (Dastagir et al., 2016). During the examinations, the temperature varied from 21.0-35.7oC, pH 8.0-8.1, DO 3.570–5.0 mg/l, salinity 34.2-39.9 mg/l and transparency38.5-53.0 µS/cm. Variety of dissimilar authors (Larik et al., 2007; Khuhawar et al., 2009; Mahar et al., 2010; Vohra et al., 2012; Das and Sharma, 2012; Dastagir et al., 2014, 2016) recommended that these aspects of physico-chemical nature of water mainly influenced by whether (cold and hot climate). The comments of aforesaid investigators are more or less similar to the observations obtained during the investigations. Physico-chemical parameters of Sonmiani bay were noted to be ideal and conducive for fish culture operations. Lastly, it has beendecided that the ecology of Sonmiani bay Lasbela, Balochistan favourable for the aquatic biota which is suitable for the fishculture operation.

Conclusions and Recommendations

It was concluded from the present investigations that the Physico-chemical analysis of the Sonmiani bay found to be within the suitable ranges for the growth and propagation of aquatic biota which in turnis suitable for the stocking of commercial fish species. The Governmental, non-governmental organizations and print media should come forward to create awareness among the masses for the utilization of natural resources for food security in future.


The present research is part of the PhD thesis of the first author (Nasratullah Baloch), Education College Department, Government of Balochistan, Quetta, Pakistan. He wishes to his gratitude to research supervisor, Prof. Dr. Naeem Tariq Narejo, Department of Fresh water Biology and Fisheries, University of Sindh, Jamshoro, for his idea for the current research and also provides laboratory facilities as well.

Novelty Statement

The present investigations show that the Physico-chemical analysis of Sonmiani bay was found to be within the suitable ranges for the growth and propagation of aquatic biota which in turn is suitable for the stocking of commercial fish species.

Author’s Contribution

Nasratullah Baloch: Performed the experiment and prepared initial draft of the manuscript.

Naeem Tariq Narejo: Designed and conceived the idea of this experiment.

Hamida Narejo: Helped in checking of data.

Muhammad Farooq Hassan: Data analysis.

Muhammad Hanif Chandio: Searched the literature, manuscript reviewed, composed the document with data acquisition.

Faheem Saddar and Dharti Shahnawaz Thebo: Collected fish and eggs samples for the research.

Ghulam Abbas and Shahnaz Rashid: Helped in the relevant literature and assisting in formatting setting.

Conflict of interest

The authors have declared no conflict of interest.


Aravind, N.A., K.P. Rajashekhar and N.A. Madhyastha. 2005. Species diversity, endemism and distribution of land snails of the Western Ghats, India. Rec. West. Austral. Muse. Suppl., 68: 31-38.

Battish, S., 1992. Freshwater zooplankton of India. Oxford and IBH Publishing Company.

Chughtai, M.I., K. Mahmood and A.R. Awan. 2011. Assessment of planktonic diversity in river Chenab as affected by sewage of Multan city. Pak. J. Bot., 43: 2551-2555.

Cook, C.D., 1996. Aquatic and wetland plants of India. Oxford University Press.

Das, B. and S. Sharma. 2012. Ichthyofaunal diversity of river Jamuna, Karbi Anglong, Assam, India. Clarion Int. Multidiscipl. J., 1: 65-69.

Dastagir, G., N.T. Narejo and S. Jalbani. 2014. Physico-chemical parameters and their variations in relation to Fish Production in Zhob River, Balochistan. Pak. J. Anal. Environ. Chem., 15(2): 77-81.

Dastagir, G., S. Jalbani, N.T. Narejo and P. Khan. 2016. Effect of physico-chemical parameters on fish growth in Hanna Lake, Balochistan, Pakistan. Pak. J. Anal. Environ. Chem., 17(2): 175–179.

Desikachary, T.V., 1959. Cyanophyta. Indian Council of Agril Res., New Delhi.

Díaz, S., J. Fargione, F.S. Chapin III and D. Tilman. 2006. Biodiversity loss threatens human well-being. PLoS Biol., 4: e277.

Hashim, F., N.T. Narejo, P. Khan, S. Jalbani, G. Dastagir and P.K. Lashari. 2016. Fish potential from Karez Sarawan, Panjgoor Balochistan. Sindh Univ. Res. J., 48(4): 733-736.

Khuhawar, M., M.A. Mirza, S. Leghari and R. Arain. 2009. Limnological study of Baghsar Lake district Bhimber, Azad Kashmir. Pak. J. Bot., 41: 1903-1915.

Larik, Z.A., M.A. Mahar, N.T. Narejo, S.M. Laghari and S.I.H. Jafri. 2007. Natural productivity of fishponds in relation to physico-chemical parameters at Chilya fish hatchery, Thatta, Sindh, Pakistan. Sindh Univ. Res. J., 39(1): 41-48.

Levêque, C., T. Oberdorff, D. PAUGy, M. Stiassny and P.A. Tedesco. 2007. Global diversity of fish (Pisces) in freshwater In Freshwater animal diversity assessment. Springer. pp. 545-567.

Mahar, M.A., Z.A. Larik, N.T. Narejo and S.I.H. Jafri. 2010. Limnological study of fishponds and Kalribaghar lower canal at Chilya fish hatchery Thatta, Sindh, Pakistan. Pak. J. Zool., 42(4): 419-430.

Mizuno, T. and E. Takahashi. 1991. An illustrated guide to freshwater zooplankton in Japan, Tokai University Press.

Prescott, G., 1962. Algae of the western great lakes area. WM. C.C. Brown Co., Dubuque, Iowa.

Tripathi, R., I. Singh and D. Tiwari. 2006. Qualitative and quantitative study of zooplankton in Seetadwar lake of Shravasti, U.P. India. Flora and Fauna (Jhansi). 12: 37-40.

Vohra, M.A., N.T. Narejo, M. Naeem, G.M. Wadhar and A. Dayo. 2012. Effect of dry poultry waste on the physico-chemical and fish growth parameters of Cyprinus carpio at carp fish hatchery, district Badin, Sindh, Pakistan. Sindh Univ. Res. J., 44(2): 239-244.

To share on other social networks, click on any share button. What are these?

Sarhad Journal of Agriculture


Vol.39, Iss. 1, Pages 1-297


Click here for more

Subscribe Today

Receive free updates on new articles, opportunities and benefits

Subscribe Unsubscribe