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Response of Cabbage Cultivars to Different Concentrations of Gibberellic Acid

PJAR_32_4_562-565

 

 

 

Research Article

Response of Cabbage Cultivars to Different Concentrations of Gibberellic Acid

Naveed Ahmed1*, Abdul Waheed1, Farrukh Siyar Hamid1, Imtiaz Ahmed1, Muhammad Abbas Khan1, Sohail Aslam1, Muhammad Adil Younis2, Seemab Ali1, Nadia Khan1 and Madiha Bashir1

1PARC, National Tea and High Value Crops Research Institute, Shinkiari Mansehra, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan; 2Department of Agriculture, Hazara University, Mansehra, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan.

Abstract | The experiment was carried out at Pakistan Agricultural Research Council, National Tea and High Value Crops Research Institute Shinkiari, Mansehra during the season of 2018. There were two cabbage cultivars (Asha and Red) and four concentrations of Gibberellic acid (GA3) (0, 20, 40 and 60 ppm). Experiment was laid out on Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with three replications. Data showed a significant difference among most of the growth parameters. Maximum head weight (2306.7 g), stem length (42.66 cm), number of leaves plant-1(15.73cm), root length (27.53 cm), yield (55.63 t/ha) was recorded for cultivar cabbage red with the application of 60ppm of GA3.


Received | October 16, 2018; Accepted | April 10, 2019; Published | October 18, 2019

*Correspondence | Naveed Ahmed, PARC, National Tea and High Value Crops Research Institute, Shinkiari Mansehra, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan, Email: naveedahm89@gmail.com

Citation | Ahmed, N., A. Waheed, F.S. Hamid, I. Ahmed, M.A. Khan, S. Aslam, M.A. Younis, S. Ali, N. Khan and M. Bashir. 2019. Response of cabbage cultivars to different concentrations of gibberellic acid. Pakistan Journal of Agricultural Research, 32(4): 562-565.

DOI | http://dx.doi.org/10.17582/journal.pjar/2019/32.4.562.565

Keywords | Cabbage, Gibberellic acid, Growth and yield



Introduction

Cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata L.), belongs to the family Cruciferae. It is one of the most popular vegetable throughout the world due to its nutritive and culinary use. It was originated in the Denmark, north-western part of France and sea coast of England (Thompson and Kelly, 1957). According to categorization cabbage is included in biennial crops but generally grown as annual crop. In Pakistan, during 2014-15, total area under cabbage cultivation was 4983ha with the production of 77233 tones whereas, in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa during 2014-15 area under cultivation was 605ha with the production of 5219 tons.

Cabbage is a rich source of essential amino acid, tryptophan and vitamin C (Rashid, 1993). According to FAO record at least 5% calories meet is from fruits and vegetables, which may fulfill the human requirement of minerals and vitamins. It has been recorded that 100g edible portion of cabbage contains 24 calories of food, water 92%, carbohydrate 9.8g, calcium (Ca) 40mg, protein 1.5g, Iron (Fe) 0.6mg, thiamine 0.05 mg, carotene 600 IU, niacin 0.3 mg, vitamin E 60 mg and riboflavin 0.05 mg (Rashid, 1993).

In addition to nutrients, small amount of growth regulators is proficient in altering the growth (Leopold, 1963). Plant growth regulators are playing an important role to modify plant growth, development and physiological processes (Dharmender et al., 1996). It was examined that in most of the plants after a minute application of GA3, cabbage started quick and efficient growth (Islam et al., 1993). Morphological characters like plant growth, plant height, Number of leaves, head diameter and yield are stimulated by the application of GA3.

Due to the environmental conditions, application of GA3 plays a very important role by reducing the transplanting shock from nursery to main field. GA3 helps the plants in establishing and encouraging the quick growth (Chhonkar and Jha, 1963). Present study was carried out to find out the impact of different concentration of GA3 on the growth characters and yield of cabbage.

 

Materials and Methods

The experiment was conducted at National Tea and High Value Crops Research Institute Shinkiari, Mansehra to study the “Response of cabbage cultivars to different concentration of GA3” during the season of 2018. Two Cabbage cultivars (Asha and Red) were selected to run the experiment treated with four different concentrations levels (G1-0 ppm; G2-20 ppm; G3-40 ppm; G4- 60 ppm) of GA3 through foliar application. Nurseries of both the cabbage cultivars were raised on flat beds each having size of 5m×1m. At the time of transplantation experimental site were well ploughed and leveled. The experiment was laid out on a randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three replications. One month old healthy and uniform seedling of cabbage cultivars were transplanted in to main experimental site. GA3 was sprayed two time after the transplantation of the seedling in to main field, once after the 30 days of transplantation and secondly at the time of flowering.

Statistical analysis

The experimental data obtained for various parameters were statistically analyzed to find out significance of different levels of GA3 for cabbage growth and yield. The means and least significance difference (LSD) value of all the selected parameters were evaluated by using STATISTIX software at 5% level of significance (Steel and Torrie, 1980).

 

Results and Discussion

Days to head flowering and maturity

Data regarding days to head flowering and head maturity showed significant difference for cultivars and different concentration of GA3. Maximum number of days to head flowering (61.66) was recorded for cultivar Cabbage Red with control treatment while the minimum (40.66) number of days to head flowering were recorded for cultivar Asha treated with 60ppm of GA3. Likewise, maximum number of days to head maturity (76.33) was observed for cultivar Cabbage Red by the application of 40ppm GA3, whereas minimum days (68.66) were observed for the cultivar cabbage Red by the application of 60ppm of GA3. Data presented in Table 1 also showed the significant variation for head diameter (cm). Maximum diameter (60.46 and 59.66 cm) was measured for cultivar Cabbage Red and Asha respectively when treated with 60ppm of GA3 while minimum head diameter (50.86 cm) was observed for cultivar Asha in control treatment, followed by cultivar Cabbage Red (53.80 cm) and Asha (53.50 cm) treated with control and 20ppm of GA3 respectively. Our results are in close agreement with the conclusions of (Roy and Nasiruddin, 2011), they reported that days to flowering and maturity decreases with the increase of GA3 concentration up to 75ppm.

Head weight (g)

Data regarding head weight for both the cultivars was influenced by GA3 Concentration, maximum head weight (2306.7 g) was recorded for cultivar Red by the application of 60ppm of GA3, while minimum head weight (1483.3 g) was recorded for cultivar Asha in control treatment. The variation in head weight is due to the GA3 application by the synthesis of new enzymes which are associated with the motivation of RNA synthesis, GA3 is also involved in the alteration and formation of cell component (Booji, 1989).

Stem length (cm)

Table 1 shows that stem length showed significant difference between cultivars and GA3 concentration, highest stem length (42.66 cm) were recorded for cultivar Red by the application of 60ppm of GA3, closely followed by (41.40 cm) for same cultivar by the application of 40ppm of GA3, while lowest stem length (26.33 cm) were recorded for cultivar Asha in control treatment. The GA3 is normally used for cell elongation and growth promotion of the plants. Results showed that by the application of GA3 concentration up to 60ppm promoted the plant growth by increasing the stem length (Reddy, 1989).

 

Table 1: Days to head flowering, days to head maturity, head diameter (cm), head weight (g) and stem length (cm) in cabbage as affected by cultivars and different concentrations of GA3.

Cultivar

GA3 Treatments (ppm)

Days to Head Flowering

Days to Head Maturity

Head Diameter (cm)

Head Weight (g)

Stem Length (cm)

Asha

00

53.33c

68.66d

50.86f

1483.3g

26.33e

20

48.66e

68.33d

53.50e

1610.0f

35.30d

40

46.33f

74.66b

57.80c

1860.0d

36.86d

60

40.66g

68.66d

59.66ab

1940.0c

38.46c

Cabbage Red

00

61.66a

75.00ab

53.80e

1760.0e

35.33d

20

56.00b

71.00c

55.50c

1876.7d

41.06b

40

50.33d

76.33a

58.86b

2146.7b

41.40ab

60

46.33f

68.66e

60.46a

2306.7a

42.66a

LSD at: 0.05

1.522

1.397

0.932

52.34

1.568

Means not followed by the same letters differ significantly at 5% probability.

 

Number of leaves plant-1

Data regarding number of leaves showed significant difference for cultivars and GA3 concentration as presented in Table 2. Maximum number of leaves plant-1 (15.73) was observed for cultivar Red by the application of 60ppm of GA3 whereas minimum number of leaves plant-1 (11.10) was observed for cultivar Asha in control treatment. Our results are in close agreement with the findings of Roy and Nasiruddin, 2011, who noticed the maximum number of leaves at 50ppm of GA3 while minimum for control treatment.

 

Table 2: Number of leaves plant-1, root length (cm), stem diameter (mm) and yield (t/h) in cabbage as affected by cultivars and different concentrations of GA3.

Cultivars

GA3 Treatments (ppm)

No. of Leaves Plant-1

Root Length (cm)

Stem Diameter (mm)

Yield (t/ha)

Asha

00

11.10f

20.66e

36.63cd

35.77g

20

12.56e

21.96cde

40.30b

38.83f

40

13.13d

22.76c

41.30b

44.85d

60

13.86c

23.33bc

46.83a

46.78c

Cabbage Red

00

13.20d

21.33de

32.63e

42.44e

20

14.36b

22.66cd

34.86de

45.25d

40

14.70b

24.50b

36.13cd

51.77b

60

15.73a

27.53a

37.66c

55.63a

LSD at: 0.05

0.335

1.432

2.363

1.261

Means not followed by the same letters differ significantly at 5% probability.

 

Root length (cm)

Root length was significantly influenced by cultivars and application of GA3 as shown in Table 2. Longest root length (27.53 cm) was measured for cultivar Red by the application of 60ppm of GA3, whereas shortest root length (20.66 cm) were measured for cultivar Asha, closely followed by cultivar Cabbage Red (21.33 cm) without any application of GA3. These results are similar to the observation of Roy and Nasiruddin, 2011.

Stem diameter (cm)

Stem diameter of cabbage was significantly influenced by the application of GA3 as well as cultivars as presented in Table 2. The thickest (46.83 mm) stem diameter was observed for cultivar Asha when treated with 60ppm of GA3 whereas the thinnest (32.63 mm) was observed in control (0.0). Our results are similar with the findings of Roy and Nasiruddin, 2011, who reported that the thickest stem was obtained by the application of high concentration of the GA3.

Yield (t/h)

Table 2 shows that data regarding yield (t/h) was significantly affected by the application of GA3 and cultivars. Maximum yield (55.63 t/h) was recorded, for cultivar Red treated with 60ppm of GA3 followed by 51.77 t/h with the application of 40ppm of GA3. While the minimum yield (35.77 t/h), followed by (38.83 t/h) was recorded for cultivar Asha by the application of Control (0.0) and 20ppm of GA3, respectively. Our results are in line with the findings of Roy and Nasiruddin, 2011, they observed that the maximum yield of cabbage was obtained by the application of GA3.

 

Conclusions

The experimental results indicated that cultivar Red gave the superior results by the application of 60 ppm of GA3 concentration as compared to cultivar Asha. The investigated results showed that head weight, stem length, number of leaves plant-1, root length and yield (t/ha) were significantly increased due to the effect of GA3 compared to control. The gainful production of cultivar cabbage red by the application of 60ppm of GA3 under the agro-climatic condition of Mansehra is more effective for the better growth, development as well as quality curd production of cabbage.

 

Author’s Contribution

Naveed Ahmed, Abdul Waheed, Farrukh Siyar Hamid and Imtiaz Ahmed designed the study, conducted the experiments and analyzed the experimental data. Muhammad Abbas Khan, Sohail Aslam and Muhammad Adil Younis provided technical assistance at each step and revised the article. Seemab Ali, Nadia Khan and Madiha Bashir helped in data collection and compilation.

 

References

Booji, R. 1989. Effect of growth regulators on curd diameter of cauliflower. Sci. Hortic. 38(1-2): 23-32. https://doi.org/10.1016/0304-4238(89)90016-2

Chhonkar, V.S and R.N. Jha. 1963. The use of starter solutions and plant growth regulators in transplanting of cabbage and their response on growth and yield. India. J. Hort. 20(2):122-128.

Dharmender, K., K.D. Hujar, R. Paliwal and D. Kumar. 1996. Yield and yield attributes of cabbage as influenced by GA3 and NAA. Crop Res. Hisar. 12(1): 120 -122.

Islam, M.A., A. Siddiqua and M.A. Kashem. 1993. Effect of growth regulators on growth, yield and ascorbic acid content of cabbage. Bangladesh J. Agric. Sci. 20(1): 21-27.

Leopold, A.C. 1963. Auxins and plant growth, Berkeley and los Angeles, Univ. Calif. Press. p. 5.

Rashid, M.M. 1993. Sabjibiggan Bangla academy, Dhaka. pp. 189-196.

Reddy, S.A. 1989. Effect of foliar applications of urea and gibberellic acid of cauliflower. J. Res. APAU. 17(1): 79-80.

Roy, R. and K.M. Nasiruddin. 2011. Effect of different level of GA3 on growth and yield of cabbage. J. Environ. Sci. Nat. Res. 4(2): 79-82.

Steel, R.D.G. and J.H. Torrie. 1980. Principles and procedures of statistics. Mecgraw hill book co. Inc. New York.

Thompson, H.C. and W.C. Kelly. 1957. Vegetable crops, McGraw hill book co. pp.278-279. https://doi.org/10.2307/1292320

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