Antimicrobial resistance has become one of the most severe worldwide dangers to human and veterinary Medicine. β-lactam resistant Salmonellae are of great concern as they are becoming multi-drug resistant. This study describes the role of chicken in harboring and environmental spread of ESBL and carbapenemase - producing Salmonella spp, which could pose a potential hazard to human and animal health. A total of 334 chicken meat samples, 197 eggshells and 160 human stool specimens were included in this study. The presence of salmonellae spp. was examined using bacteriological isolation and serological identification. PCR amplification of the ESBL and carbapenemase-encoding genes was performed. The bacteriological examination of the samples showed that 6 Salmonella strains [S. Typhimurium (3), S. enteritidis (2) and S. Infantis (1)] were isolated from chicken meat and eggshell surface samples. In human, it was found that 6 salmonella strains (S. Typhimurium, S. Enteritidis, S. Infantis, S. Virchow, S. Haifa, S. Kentucky) were isolated. The results of multiplex PCR showed that ESBL-producing salmonellae and Carbapenem-resistant salmonellae occurred in four strains from chicken meat samples while not from egg, also in human five strains carried the β-lactamase-producing genes while no strain was positive to carbapenemases. The detection of ESBL and carbapenemase- producing salmonellae from chicken in Egypt is confirmed and represents a major public health problem.
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