High Seroprevalence of PPRV-Antibodies among Sheep and Goats in Hail, Saudi Arabia
High Seroprevalence of PPRV-Antibodies among Sheep and Goats in Hail, Saudi Arabia
Ahmed Zein Mahmoud1, Muaz Abdellatif2* and Ahmed Abdalla3
1Veterinary Laboratories, Ministry of Environment, Water and Agriculture, Saudi Arabia; 2Department of Biology (Microbiology), Faculty of Arts and Science, Northern Borders University, Saudi Arabia; 3Sudan University of Sciences and Technology, Veterinary Medicine and Surgery, Sudan.
Abstract | Peste des petits ruminant’s virus (PPRV) causes a highly contagious disease in both domestic, wild ruminants and camels. Sera from non-vaccinated sheep (n=683), goats (n=624) and camels (n=155) of all ages and sexes were collected in a cross-sectional study in Hail, Bagaa, Shenan and Ghazalah. Saudi Arabia. The seroprevalece was determined by NP-epitopes based competitive ELISA. The overall prevalence was 59.9%, goats had a significantly higher sero-prevalence of 75.3% compared to 59.4% obtained from sheep, whereas camels were seronegative. The prevalence of PPR was increasing from 27.9% in 2011 to 77.3% in 2016. Seropositivity was higher in wet seasons (60.9 to 61.4%) to 56.7% in dry hot season. Species, year and location appeared to be having significant effect (p<0.01) on the frequency of circulating antibodies in the study. The results highlight that PPR in Hail is alarming and warrants mass vaccination along with appropriate control measures.
Editor | Muhammad Abubakar, National Veterinary Laboratories, Park Road, Islamabad, Pakistan.
Received | January 01, 2017; Accepted | February 01, 2017; Published | February 08, 2017
*Correspondence | Muaz Abdellatif, Department of Biology (Microbiology), Faculty of Arts and Science, Northern Borders University, Saudi Arabia; Email: email@example.com
Citation | Mahmoud, A.Z., M. Abdellatif and A. Abdalla. 2017. High seroprevalence of PPRV-antibodies among sheep and goats in Hail, Saudi Arabia. Veterinary Sciences: Research and Reviews, 3(1): 1-5.
Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) is a highly infectious and often fatal viral disease of sheep, goats and wild small ruminants. The disease is caused by PPR virus (PPRV), classified under genus Morbillivirus in the family Paramyxoviridae (; ). Its transmitted by direct contact with infectious animals shedding the virus in both ocular-nasal discharges and in fecal matter (; ). After first identification, the virus spread to sub- Saharan Africa, the Middle East, Turkey and the Indian subcontinent. During the last decade, the disease has been reported for the first time in China, Kenya, Uganda, Tanzania, Morocco and Tunisia (; ). The first report in Saudi Arabia was in 1990 (), later it was reported in eastern and central region (; ; ). We recorded evidence of spreading PPR in smaller population of non-vaccinated sheep and goats in Hail during 2012–2013 (), the present study was proposed to evaluate the status of the disease in larger population during 2011-2016 surveys.
Materials and Methods
Sera (n=1462) were collected from non-vaccinated sheep (n=683), goats (n=624) and camels (n=155) of all ages and sexes in Hail district, Saudi Arabia () during 2011–2016 surveys and outbreaks investigation (). Samples were stored at –20ºC until further analysis.
The prevalence of PPR and the associations between variables and seropositivity were estimated. Pearson correlation was performed to assess statistical significance of seroprevalence with discrete variables. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS-22 (Statistical Package for Social Sciences 22).
|% within Result||46.3%||53.7%||0.0%||100.0%|
|% within Result||47.3%||26.3%||26.5%||100.0%|
|% within Result||46.7%||42.7%||10.6%||100.0%|
|% within Result||4.1%||8.8%||3.8%||21.1%||32.3%||29.9%||100.0%|
|% within Result||15.9%||16.0%||7.7%||15.0%||32.3%||13.1%||100.0%|
|% within Result||8.8%||11.7%||5.3%||18.7%||32.3%||23.2%||
|Season||Wet cold||wet moderate||Dry hot|
|% within Result||47.9%||27.3%||24.8%||100.0%|
|% within Result||46.1%||25.6%||28.3%||100.0%|
|% within Result||47.2%||26.6%||26.2%||100.0%|
|% within Result||68.8%||18.0%||6.8%||6.3%||
|% within Result||49.3%||26.1%||12.5%||12.1%||100.0%|
|% within Result||61.0%||21.3%||9.1%||8.6%||
*: Correlation is significant at the 0.05 level (2-tailed); **: Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed)
Out of tested sera eight hundred and seventy-six (59.9%) were found positive for PPRV-antibodies, 470 (75.3%) from goats, compared to 406 (59.4%) obtained from sheep. However, all camel samples were seronegative (and ).
The prevalence of PPR was found to be higher in 2016 (77.3%) compared to 27.9% in 2011 (). The positivity was higher in wet moderate season (61.4%) followed by 60.9% in wet cold and 56.7% in dry hot season (). Species, year and location appeared to be having significant effect (p< 0.01) on the frequency of circulating antibodies in the study ().
Seroprevalence of antibodies clarifies the status of the PPR especially in non-vaccinated flocks. The present investigation provided data about infection in Hail district in goats, sheep and camels during 2011-2016 where vaccination is not practiced. We reported evidence of spreading PPR in the region in relatively small population ().
The study showed overall prevalence of 59.9%, high sero-prevalence rates in goats (75.3%) and sheep (59.4%), whereas camels were seronegative. Our results further suggest that the incidence was increasing from 27.9% in 2011 onwards to 77.3% in 2016. Species, year and location are significant variables associated with PPRV. Seropositivity was higher in wet seasons (60.9 to 61.4%) to 56.7% in dry hot season. reported that clinical conditions of small ruminants was influenced by seasonality, with high percentage of PPR (9.59%) on dry season. and who recorded 25.1% of PPR in dry season. The results obtained varied from previously recorded data (; ; ), which may be due to seasonal effects, host population density, age, prevailing management practices and the social environment that can influence the contact rates (; ; ; ). Field and laboratory observations indicate that PPR is less severe in sheep than in goats (; ). Seronegative camel sera may be related to sample size and/or the circulating virus strain.
Saudi Arabia serves as a major center for international trade, where hundreds of thousands of ruminants are imported every year changing prevalence in a short period of time. Increasing prevalence of PPR in Hail district is alarming and necessitate systematic and intensive serological surveillance programme along with measurement of clinical prevalence, implementing intensive vaccination campaigns and effective control measures/strategies for PPR.
The authors gratefully acknowledge the outstanding staff of the Veterinary Laboratory. Hail, Ministry of Environment, Water and Agriculture, Saudi Arabia
Conflict of Interests
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
Mahmoud, A.Z., M. Abdellatif collected and tested sera, performed statistical analysis and wrote the manuscript. A. Abdalla supervised the study and corrected the manuscript, all read and approved it for submission.
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