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PJAR_33_4_789_797

 

 

 

Research Article

Exogenous Application of Selected Antioxidants and Phyto Development Directors Influenced the Development, Output and Biochemical Attributes of Tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum Mill.)

Safina Naz1, Syed Atif Hasan Naqvi2*, Bushra Siddique3, Muhammad Asif Zulfiqar4 and Abdur Rehman5

1Department of Horticulture, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan, Pakistan; 2Department of Plant Pathology, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan, Pakistan; 3Department of Entomology, University College of Agriculture and Environmental Sciences, Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Pakistan; 4PARC, Research and Training Station, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan; 5Plant Protection Department, College of Food and Agriculture Sciences, King Saud University, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

Abstract | This study investigated the comparative efficacy of phyto development director i.e. N.A.A.GA3, 2, 4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid and antioxidants i.e. Ascorbic acid and 2-hydroxybenzoic acid on development, fruit bearing, output along with biochemical attributes of Lycopersicum esculentum fruits during 2014 and 2015. Foliar spray of GA3(100 ppm) and 2-hydroxybenzoic acid (200 parts/million and 100 parts/million) give rise to significantly taller plants and greater leaf area while, shorter plants and lower leaf area was recorded in control. Greater leaf number per plant was obtained with application of GA3(100 ppm). This was followed by salicylic acid (200 ppm). Leaf number was significantly lesser in the plants grown in control. Significantly greater fruit count /plant, length of fruit including sole fruit freshness and dry mass were recorded with GA3(100 parts/million) and salicylic acid (200 ppm) provision and lower values for these parameters were recorded with control. Fruit weight for single plant and output of fruit per hectare successfully recorded from plants grown containing foliar spray of Gibberellic acid at 100 parts/million while lower values were attained with control. Spray of salicylic acid (200 ppm), GA3(100 ppm) and salicylic acid (100 ppm) resulted in greater values for Total Soluble Salts (TSS), vitamin C, lycopene and carotenoids while, lower values for these parameters were recorded in control. Total acidity was significantly greater in fruits when GA3(100 ppm) was applied. Total acidity was significantly lower in fruits of plants from control.


Received | June 01, 2020; Accepted | July 20, 2020; Published | October 08, 2020

*Correspondence | Syed Atif Hasan Naqvi, Department of Plant Pathology, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan, Pakistan; Email: atifhasanshah@hotmail.com

Citation | Naz, S., S.A.H. Naqvi, B. Siddique, M.A. Zulfiqar and A. Rehman. 2020. Exogenous application of selected antioxidants and phyto development directors influenced the development, output and biochemical attributes of tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum Mill.). Pakistan Journal of Agricultural Research, 33(4): 789-797.

DOI | http://dx.doi.org/10.17582/journal.pjar/2020/33.5.789.797

Keywords | GA3, Salicylic acid/ 2, Hydroxybenzoic acid, Ascorbic acid, growth, Yield, Biochemical attributes


Introduction

Tomato played a vital role in food nutrition due to its main contribution of minerals, vitamins and lycopene viz. ß-carotene and ascorbic acid which are antioxidants and tend to maintain good health (Wilcox et al., 2003). Plant growth regulators have significant role in horticulture to promote growth, development and fruit yield of plants by enhancing fruit setting, fruit number and fruit size. Plant growth regulators played a vital function in maintaining internal plant growth processes by interrelating with major metabolic mechanisms i.e., protein synthesis and nucleic acid metabolism. Application of gibberellins and auxin are effectual in enhancing yield attributes and tomato fruit quality (Gemici et al., 2006). Plant growth regulators may be used as alternatives to enhance crop production. It has been realized globally that PGR’s are helpful in improving crop yield. Among PGR’s, Gibberellins controlled various developmental processes viz. germination, growth, shoot and internodes elongation, flowering, tuber formation, enzyme production and fruit set in different plant species (Davies, 1995). These PGRs were used widely in tomato to increase yield such as number of fruits, fruit set and fruit size (Serrani et al., 2007; Batlang, 2008). Fruit setting in tomato was improved by the application of Gibberellic acid (GA3) at lower quantity reported by Sasaki et al. (2005) and Khan et al. (2006). Alam and Khan (2002) reported that application of Naphthyl acetic acid NAA reduced pre-harvest dropping of fruit in addition to enhance fruit numbers and yield. Improved tomato growth and fruit yield was obtained with the spray of 2, 4-D (5 mg/ l) (Anwar et al., 2010). GA3 is one of the important PGRs that might have role to modify plant growth, yield and yield attributes (Rafeekher et al., 2002). Gibberellic acid plays an imperative Partin cell division and elongation and ultimately affecting the plant growth positively (Batlang et al., 2006).

Salicylic acid (SA) is an endogenous plant hormone phenolic in nature are documented to affect the diverse biochemical and physiological processes of plants, regulate the growth and productivity of plants (Hayat et al., 2010), flower induction, thermogenesis, ethylene biosynthesis and nutrient uptake (Hayat and Ahmad, 2007), photosynthesis and increase dry matter production (Fariduddin et al., 2003). It played a diverse role in improving growth of plants such as leaf area of Glycine max and Zea mays (Khan et al., 2003), enhance germination in wheat (Shakirova, 2007). Foliar spraying of salicylic acid (SA) to soya bean increased flower number and pod formation (Kumar et al., 1999). Increased growth attributes, pigments and photosynthetic rate was recorded when salicylic acid was applied on maize (Khodary, 2004). Spraying of salicylic acid to carrot plants also improved growth, enhanced physiological processes and antioxidant activities (Eraslan et al., 2007). Larque and Martin (2007) reported that yields of tomato and cucumber amplified meaning fully with the provision of 2-hydroxybenzoic acid concentrations at lower amounts. This study was therefore carried out to determine suitable doze of antioxidants and phy to development directors that improve tomato quality, output and development of fruit.

 

Materials and Methods

Experimentations were pursued at the Agricultural experimental vegetable farm, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan, Pakistan during 2014 and 2015. Six weeks old tomato seedlings were transplanted at line to line and herb to herb distance of 1 m and 0.4m, correspondingly. All the important cultural operations were performed during experiment. The conducts consist of control (only water spray), two levels of each PDD i.e. GA3 (50 and 100 ppm), NAA (30 and 60 parts/million) beside with 2, 4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (10 and 20 parts/million) in addition antioxidants i.e. salicylic acid at one hundred and two hundred parts/million and ascorbic acid at one hundred and two hundred parts/million). The treatments were arranged in a Completely Randomized Block Design (CRBD) with three replications. The experiments stock solutions (1000 ppm) of all PGRs were prepared and diluted in distilled water to prepare these ppm solutions of PGRs and antioxidants. These were sprayed on plants fifteen days after transplanting the seedlings and subsequent sprays were applied three times at fifteen days interval.

Growth and yield attributes

The height of plants, leaf number per plant and leaf area was measured at the time of picking. Leaf area meter (AM 200, ADC, Taiwan) was used to measure leaf area. Fruit number per plant from each treatment was counted by adding up the fruit number at each picking. Fruit length was measured from each treatment with measuring scale. Fruits fresh and dry weight of individual fruit in each treatment was measured. Weight of fruits per plant at every picking was weighed, and then summed up all the fruits of each picking. Fruit yields per plot and hectare from each treatment were calculated.

Biochemical attributes

Totally solvable solids (TSS) (Brixo) of tomato berry were estimated by means of digital refractometer (At ago PAL-1 Japan) (AOAC, 1970). Total acidity in fruits was measured following the method given by Wills and Ku (2002). Titrimetric method was used to measure vitamin C using 2, 6- dichloroindophenol (AOAC, 1970). Fruit lycopene contents were determined by using the method (Sadasivan and Manikam, 1992). Carotenoids in fruit pericarp were extracted by 85% acetone and estimated on spectrophotometer (UV 3000, ORI, Germany) following the method described by Lichtenthaler and Weliburn (1983).

Arithmetical scrutiny

The outcomes gained were point estimates± SD of three repeats. One-way ANOVA was applied by using MSTAT-C statistical software (version 1.3) (Steel et al., 1996). Duncan’s Multiple Range test (DMR-test) was utilized to observe the differences among mean values at 5% probability level (Duncan, 1952).

 

Results and Discussion

Growth attributes

Phyto-stature: The data on plant stature of tomato as influenced by shoot system provision ofphyto development directors and free-radical huntersare displayed in the Table 1. Significantly taller (104.37 cm) tomato plants were documented with the GA3 provision at 100 parts/million, trailed by salicylic acid with concentration of200 parts/ million (103.63 cm) and 100 ppm (102.53). However, GA3 at 100 parts/million and 2, hydroxybenzoic acid at 200 parts/million and 100 parts/million appeared alike statistically. While, the minimum plant height (80.90 cm) was documented using control, which was statistically at face value to 2, 4-D at 10 ppm.

Number of leaves per plant: There were remarkable variations in leaf number per tomato plant in response to application of various PGRs and antioxidants (Table 1). The maximum leaf number per plant (284.50) was recorded at 100 ppm GA3, which was followed by salicylic acid at 200 ppm (268.50), while the minimum leaf number (108.33) were recorded in the plants from control, which was statistically alike with NAA (30 ppm) and 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (10 parts/million).

Leaf area (m2plant-1): Leaf area of tomato was expressively influenced due to provision of various development directors and antioxidants (Table 1). Significantly larger leaf area (48.83 cm3) was observed when shoot spray of 2, hydroxybenzoic acid (200 ppm) was subjected, GA3at 100 ppm (48.56 cm3) and salicylic acid at 100 ppm (47.33 cm3). These three treatments were statistically at par with each other. While, spraying of 2,4-D (10 ppm) resulted in lower leaf area (28.23 cm3), which was statistically alike with control and NAA (Table 1).

Yield attributes

Fruit number per plant: Phyto development directors and antioxidants had substantial effect on number of fruits on individual plant. The maximum fruit number (30.23), (29.50) and (28.90) were seen with the application of GA3(100 parts/million), and 2, Hydroxybenzoic acid (100 and 200 parts/million), correspondingly. Whilst, the minimum fruit number per tomato plant (15.70) found in control (without Phyto development directors and antioxidants), shadowed by 2, 4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid with dose 10 parts/million (Table 2).

Fruit length: Length of tomato fruit was remarkably varied due to application various PDDs and antioxidants. It is cleared from Table 2, length of fruit (4.95 cm) and (4.90 cm) remarkable increase occur in response to spray of Gibberellic acid (100 parts/million) and salicylic acid (200 ppm), respectively. While, shorter length (4.23 cm) of fruits was attained with control.

Individual fruit fresh weight: The specific fruit fresh heaviness (91.20 g) was significantly increased with the spray of GA3 (100 parts/million), shadowed by 2, Hydroxybenzoic acid (200 parts/million) (90.90 g). Though, lower fresh weight of fruit (81.40 g) was found in control (Table 2).

Individual fruit dry weight: The foliar spraying of PGRs and antioxidants significantly affected the dry weight of individual fruit. GA3 at 100 ppm (10.32 g) and salicylic acid at 200 ppm (10.29 ppm) were statistically at par with greater fruit dry mass. Whilst, lower fruit dryness (9.21 g) was observed with control (Table 2).

Bulk of fruits from individual plant: Individual plant’s fruit weight was significantly raised due to exogenous spraying of GA3 (100 parts/million), trailed by2, Hydroxybenzoic acid (200 and 100 parts/million). While, the minimum weight of fruits per plant was obtained with control (Table 3).

Yield per hectare: Significantly greater tomato yield was obtained with GA3spray (100 ppm), followed by salicylic acid (200 and 100 ppm). While, lower yield was recorded with control (Table 3).

 

Table 1: Comparative efficacy of growth regulators and antioxidants on growth of tomato.

Treatments

Concentration applied

Plant height (cm)

Leaf number

Leaf area (cm3)

Control (only water spray)

0 ppm

80.90±0.30fg

108.33 ± 0.57h

28.90 ± 0.36g

Gibberellic acid (GA3)

50 ppm

94.10 ± 0.70b

227.83 ± 0.28d

44.47 ± 0.25b

100 ppm

104.37±0.70a

284.50 ± 0.50a

48.83 ± 0.35a

Naphthalene acetic acid (NAA)

30 ppm

83.37± 0.97e

108.83 ± 0.28h

30.90 ± 0.36fg

60 ppm

88.73±0.40c

190.33 ± 0.57e

40.73 ± 0.25c

2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D)

10 ppm

81.13 ± 0.55f

111.40 ± 0.52gh

28.23 ± 0.58g

20 ppm

88.30±0.53c

183.67 ± 0.58f

37.73 ± 0.28de

Salicylic acid (SA)

100 ppm

102.53± 0.68a

263.33 ± 0.57c

47.33 ± 0.15a

200 ppm

103.63± 0.90a

268.50 ± 0.50b

48.56 ± 0.12a

Ascorbic acid

100 ppm

85.63± 0.12de

192.67 ± 0.58e

36.77 ± 0.25e

200 ppm

92.30 ±0.80b

226.33 ± 0.57d

43.37 ± 0.66b

Data are means of two seasons- Mean values ± SD of three replications. Dissimilar letters in columns showed remarkable differentiations (p ≤ 0.05) among means of various actions.

 

Table 2: Comparative efficacy of growth regulators and antioxidants on fruiting of tomato.

Treatments

Concentration applied

Fruit number per plant

Fruit length (cm)

Specific fruit fresh mass (g)

Specific fruit dry mass (g)

Control (only water spray)

0 ppm

15.70 ± 0.20e

4.23 ± 0.05h

81.40 ± 0.10ef

9.21 ± 0.01f

Gibberellic acid (GA3)

50 ppm

25.77 ± 0.25bc

4.29 ± 0.02c

89.13 ± 0.72b

10.08 ± 0.08b

100 ppm

30.23 ± 0.25a

4.95 ± 0.10a

91.20 ± 0.26a

10.32 ± 0.02a

Naphthalene acetic acid (NAA)

30 ppm

16.77 ± 0.15de

3.43 ± 0.05g

82.43 ± 0.15e

9.33 ± 0.01de

60 ppm

23.33 ± 0.20c

3.89 ± 0.05de

86.47± 0.25d

9.79 ± 0.02d

2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D)

10 ppm

15.88± 0.08e

3.60 ± 0.10f

82.30 ± 0.40e

9.32 ± 0.04e

20 ppm

23.57 ± 0.12c

3.77 ± 0.05e

86.70 ± 0.20cd

9.81 ± 0.02d

Salicylic acid (SA)

100 ppm

28.90 ± 0.40ab

4.83 ± 0.05b

90.10 ± 0.26ab

10.19 ± 0.04ab

200 ppm

29.50 ± 0.72a

4.90 ± 0.01ab

90.90 ± 0.36a

10.29 ± 0.03a

Ascorbic acid

100 ppm

23.40 ± 0.10c

3.87 ± 0.05e

87.03 ± 0.98c

9.85 ± 0.11cd

200 ppm

24.53 ± 0.25c

3.57 ± 0.15f

88.13 ± 0.72bc

10.09 ± 0.08b

Data are means of two seasons- Mean values ± SD of three repetitions. Dissimilar letters in columns showed substantial differences (p ≤ 0.05) among means of differentiated actions.

 

Table 3: Comparative efficacy of growth regulators and antioxidants on yield of tomato.

Treatments

Concentration applied

Fruits weight per plant (g)

Fruit yield (tonnes/ha)

Control (only water spray)

0 ppm

1274.97 ±0.63h

21.30 ± 0.73j

Gibberellic acid (GA3)

50 ppm

2278.66 ± 0.81c

45.49 ± 0.62c

100 ppm

2742.94 ±0.85a

55.72 ± 0.51a

Naphthalene acetic acid (NAA)

30 ppm

1382.12 ± 0.22f

24.41 ± 0.67h

60 ppm

2024.86 ±0.80e

38.84 ± 0.86fg

2,4-Dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2,4-D)

10 ppm

1306.12 ± 0.79g

22.162 ± 0.23i

20 ppm

2033.57 ±0.89e

37.83 ± 0.75g

Salicylic acid (SA)

100 ppm

2635.02 ± 0.62b

53.89 ± 0.70b

200 ppm

2666.70 ± 0.60b

54.99 ± 0.36ab

Ascorbic acid

100 ppm

2009.92± 0.15f

38.40 ± 0.55fg

200 ppm

2163.09± 0.91d

41.89 ± 0.50e

Data are means of two seasons- Mean values ± SD of three repetitions. Dissimilar letters in columns showed momentous differentiations (p ≤ 0.05) among means of different conducts.

 

Table 4: Comparative efficacy of plant growth regulators and antioxidants on biochemical attributes of tomato fruits.

Treatments

Concentration applied

TSS (mg/g d. wt)

Total acidity (mg/l)

Vitamin C (mg/100 cm3)

Lycopene

Carotenoids (mg/g d.wt)

Control (only water spray)

0 ppm

59.53 ± 0.65fg

3884.33 ± 0.57a

235.33 ± 0.57f

13.56 ± 0.05g

0.250 ± 0.01f

Gibberellic acid (GA3)

50 ppm

69.40 ± 0.10b

2955.66 ± 0.57c

253.46 ± 0.45c

19.03 ± 0.25c

0.420 ± 0.01c

100 ppm

75.23 ± 0.66a

2440.33 ± 0.58f

272.50 ± 0.50ab

23.56 ± 0.20a

0.533 ± 0.005ab

Naphthalene acetic acid (NAA)

30 ppm

60.5 ± 0.81ef

3789.17 ± 0.76b

240.33 ± 0.57e

13.73 ± 0.05g

0.256 ± 0.005f

60 ppm

65.46 ± 0.20cd

2678.16 ± 0.76e

247.83 ± 0.76d

15.76 ± 0.15ef

0.383 ± 0.005d

2,4-Dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2,4-D)

10 ppm

58.53 ± 0.65g

2657.33 ± 0.58e

239.66 ± 0.57e

13.53 ± 0.41g

0.250 ± 0.010f

20 ppm

65.47 ± 0.82cd

2450.66 ± 0.57f

246.10 ± 0.85d

15.63 ± 0.23e

0.384 ± 0.011d

Salicylic acid (SA)

100 ppm

74.56 ± 0.20a

3685.67 ± 0.57c

271.16 ± 0.76b

22.50 ± 0.43b

0.526 ± 0.005b

200 ppm

75.40 ± 0.10a

2448.67 ± 0.57f

274.16 ± 0.76a

23.96 ± 0.80a

0.550 ± 0.01a

Ascorbic acid

100 ppm

66.73 ± 0.58cd

2964.16 ± 0.76c

248.33 ± 0.57cd

14.63 ± 0.15fg

0.370 ± 0.01e

200 ppm

66.80 ± 0.95c

2748.66 ± 0.57d

252.93 ± 0.86c

17.47 ± 0.05d

0.433 ± .005c

Data are means of two seasons- Mean Values ± SD of three repetitions. Dissimilar letters in columns showed considerable differences (p ≤ 0.05) among means of different conducts.

 

Biochemical attributes

Total soluble solids (TSS): Significant variations were recorded in all the quality attributes of tomato due to application of various growth regulators and antioxidants (Table 4). Provision of 200 parts/million of 2, Hydroxybenzoic acid resulted in greater totally solvable solids, shadowed by GA3 application at 100 parts/million and salicylic acid 100 parts/million. These three concentrations of salicylic acid and GA3were arithmetically at face value. The minimum figure of TSS was obtained from control.

Total acidity: Significantly greater total acidity was recorded with control (only water spray). While, lower values for total acidity was recorded with GA3(100 parts/million), which was statistically homogeneous with 2, Hydroxybenzoic acid (200 parts/million) and 2,4-D (20 ppm) (Table 4).

Vitamin C: 200 parts/million provision of 2, Hydroxybenzoic acid resulted in greater vitamin C, trailed by spraying of Gibberellic acid GA3 (100 parts /million) and salicylic acid (100 ppm). Former two treatments were statistically at par and later two were also statistically alike with each other. While, the minimum value for total acidity was recorded with control (Table 4).

Lycopene (mg/100 g of fresh matter): Spray of salicylic acid (200 ppm) and GA3 (100 ppm) resulted in significantly greater value for lycopene. These two treatments were statistically at par with each other. While, the minimum value for lycopene was obtained with control, that was statistically alike with NAA at 30 ppm, 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid at 10 parts/million and ascorbic acid at 100 parts/million (Table 4).

Carotenoids: Remarkably higher carotenoids were documented with the spray of 2, Hydroxybenzoic acid (200 parts/million), down to it withGA3 (100 parts/million). While least content of carotenoids was recorded with control, followed by 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (10 parts/million) and Naphthyl acetic acid (100 parts/million). These three treatments were statistically homogeneous (Table 4).

Taller plants and leaf number per plant were documented when Gibberellic acid GA3 (100 parts/million) and Hydroxybenzoic acid (200 and 100 part/million) was sprayed, The increase in growth attributes might possibly due to that these PGRs accelerated greater cell division, cell enlargement and stem elongation which ultimately resulted in longer tomato plants and greater leaf number. Similar findings for tomato growth were also described by various researchers (El-Soad et al., 1976; Viradia, 1982; Gabal et al., 1999; Gupta and Gupta, 2000; Rai et al., 2006; Uddain et al., 2009). The ongoing learning was also supported by Akand et al. (2015), who also obtained the longest tomato plants and greater leaf number with the spray of 125 ppm GA3 compared to control one.

Spray of 2, Hydroxybenzoic acid (200, 100 parts/million) and GA3 (100 parts/million) increased the leaf area of tomato. It might probably due to that salicylic acid and PGRs enhanced cell division. It was also previously stated that the spray of salicylic acid (SA) and PGRs tends to promote cell division and cell enlargement (Viradia, 1982; Gabal et al., 1999; Hayat et al., 2005; Uddain et al., 2009). Increased leaf area of sugarcane due to the spray of salicylic acid was also documented by Zhou et al. (1999).

Applied GA3 and 2, Hydroxybenzoic acid resulted in greater fruit number, fruit length, sole fruit’s desiccated and non-desiccated weight per plant fruit weight and yield per hectare. It might possibly GA3 application enhanced fruit setting and fruit size when applied at vegetative stage, which ultimately enhance fruit number and fruit weight in tomato. Increased weight and length of fruit of tomato also recorded with the spray of GA3 (Serrani et al., 2007; Verma et al., 2014), which supported the present results. The present outcomes were collaborated with the deductions of Khan et al. (2006) and Akand et al. (2015), who found that GA3spraying to tomato enhanced the fruit set that tends to increase fruit number and size and ultimately enhance fruit yield. Kaushik et al. (1974) revealed that foliar spraying of PGRs and antioxidants was effectual as it might be contributed to more supply and accumulation of food materials in plants and its efficient mobility in plants resulting in increased growth stimulation, ultimately helped in earlier flower initiation, increased fruit set, rapid fruit development, fruit number, fruit length and weight of fruits which all together enhanced yield. These results are closely related to those of Viradia, 1982; Sharma and Tiwari, 1987; Mehta et al. (1989); Pundir and Yadav (2001); Bhosle et al. (2002) and Patel et al. (2012). Significantly increased tomato growth and yield was also obtained with the spraying of GA3 (Kumar et al., 2014). The present results are in close agreement with Kumar et al. (1999) who documented that the application of salicylic acid resulted in amplified flowering, pod formation and yield of soybean. Similarly, increased growth, produce and produce characteristics of tomato was attained with the spraying of 2, Hydroxybenzoic acid (Stevens et al., 1977). They further proposed that increased fruit yield of tomato due to application of salicylic acid (SA) was associated with the effect of this antioxidant on photosynthetic attributes and water relations of plants. Similarly, enhanced rate of photosynthesis, concentration of carbon dioxide greater water utility efficiency was recorded in Brassica juncea when salicylic acid (SA) was applied externally (Fariduddin et al., 2003).

Exogenous spray of 2, Hydroxybenzoic acid at 200 ppm increased totally solvable solids (TSS), ascorbic acid, lycopene and carotenoids in fruits of Lycopersicum esculentum, which was followed by spraying of GA3 application (100 ppm) and salicylic acid (100 ppm). TSS values were associated with flavor and taste and it was important sign for improvement in fruit quality of tomato. The present outcomes are in close proximity with the discoveries of (Stevens et al., 1977), stated that the 2, Hydroxybenzoic acid application raised TSS values of tomato fruits. This could be related that salicylic acid had effective role in improving membrane permeability, which ultimately facilitated the assimilation, exploitation of mineral nutrients and helped in transport of assimilates. Similarly, TSS values of cowpea were significantly increased with the 2, Hydroxybenzoic acid application as stated by Stevens et al., 1977. Furthermore, 2, hydroxybenzoic acid (SA) usehas a beneficial effect in increasing the TSS values (Abdullahi et al., 2011. The present study was partially related with Gelmesa et al. (2012), Graham and Ballesteros, (2006) and Kumar et al. (2014), they reported that maximum TSS in fruit of tomato was found when GA3 was applied related to parameter of control.

Foliar spray of2, Hydroxybenzoic acid to tomato enhanced the lycopene contents and vitamin C contents in fruits when compared with control likewise the present study. Kumar et al. (2014) described that greater ascorbic acid of tomato fruits found when GA3 at50 ppm was applied compared to control which was partially supported the present study. Foliar application of GA3 to tomato significantly enhanced fruit lycopene contents of tomato (Khan et al., 2003) which was also related to the present study. Similarly, provision of Gibberellic acid raised the lycopene contents of tomato fruits that were attributed with greater accumulation of phosphorus in leaves and stems (Afaf et al., 2007; Gelmesa et al., 2010). Current findings are in close relation with conclusions of Moharekar et al. (2003), who stated that 2, Hydroxybenzoic acid (SA) played dynamic role to enhance the synthesis of xanthophylls and carotenoids.

Total acidity was significantly increased in fruits of the plants from control and it was observed that antioxidants and PGRs at their higher concentrations were not effective in increasing total acidity. Our findings are in relation with the observations of Ouzounidou et al. (2010), who foundedGA3unaffected onto acidity of Capsicum fruit which is titratable. Qureshi et al. (2013) confirms the present results concerning the influence ofGA3 on acidity of strawberries which is titratable. Titratable acidity was also unaffected by 2, Hydroxybenzoic acid spray (Qureshi et al., 2013).

 

Conclusions and Recommendations

From the present study, it is inferred that the foliar spraying of GA3 at 100 ppm or salicylic acid at 200 and 100 ppm can be opted to increase the growth and development, yield and concerned attributes of it. Salicylic acid (SA)/ 2, Hydroxybenzoic acid founded to be an effective plant hormone due to its assorted regulatory/ directory functions in maintaining plant metabolism and influences the photosynthetic attributes, ultimately enhances growth and fruit output of tomato. It might possibly have concluded that the continued enhancement in the studied attributes due to spraying of GA3 (100parts/million) and salicylic acid (200 parts/million) probably leading to greater growth, productivity, TSS, vitamin C, total acidity, lycopene and carotenoids of tomato.

 

Novelty Statement

Foliar applications of N.A.A., GA3, 2, 4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid and antioxidants i.e. Ascorbic acid and 2-hydroxybenzoic acid have a strong effect on the development of fruit bearing and overall growth of the plant with biochemical attributes of Lycopersicum esculentum.

 

Author’s Contribution

Safina Naz conceived the idea and wrote introduction and methodology, statistical analysis was performed by Syed Atif Hasan Naqvi and Abdur Rehman and overall management of the article was done by Bushra Siddique and Muhammad Asif Zulfiqar.

Conflict of interest

The authors have declared no conflict of interest

 

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