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Effects of Five Pesticides on Toxicity, Detoxifying and Protective Enzymes in Phauda flammans Walker (Lepidoptera: Zygaenidae)

PJZ_51_4_1457-1463

 

 

Effects of Five Pesticides on Toxicity, Detoxifying and Protective Enzymes in Phauda flammans Walker (Lepidoptera: Zygaenidae)

Ailing Huang, Lingyu Meng, Wei Zhang, Junyan Liu, Guangyao Li, Huihua Tan, Wen Lu and Xialin Zheng*

Guangxi Key Laboratory of Agric-Environment and Agric-Products Safety, College of Agriculture, Guangxi University, Nanning 530004, China

Ailing Huang and Lingyu Meng have contributed equally to this work.

ABSTRACT

Effects of beta-cypermethrin, abamectin, chlorpyrifos, thiamethoxam and bisultap on toxicity against 1st-6th instar larvae in Phauda flammans Walker (Lepidoptera: Zygaenidae) were tested using the leaf-dipping method. Meanwhile, effects of these pesticides on detoxifying and protective enzymes in P. flammans larvae were also measured. Results showed that the LC50 value of beta-cypermethrin, abamectin, chlorpyrifos, thiamethoxam and bisultap against P. flammans larvae were related to the instar and pesticide. Control efficacy of beta-cypermethrin was the best among of these pesticides, and the LC50 value of which against 1st instar larvae in P. flammans reached 2.038 mg/L at 8 h after treatment, and reached 6.416-48.764 mg/L for 2nd-6th instar larvae at 24 h after treatment. Control efficacy of abamectin was less than beta-cypermethrin, and the LC50 value of which against 1st instar larvae in P. flammans reached 241.953 mg/L at 8 h after treatment, and reached 19.285-266.207 mg/L for 2nd-6th instar larvae at 24 h after treatment. Control efficacy of chlorpyrifos, thiamethoxam and bisultap was less than the first two pesticides. Changes of detoxifying and protective enzymes in P. flammans larvae were related to the kinds of enzyme and its sensitivity to pesticide after treatment with different pesticides. Compared with control, effect of beta-cypermethrin on Carboxylesterase (CarE) was the most obvious than other four pesticides; activity of glutathione-s transferase (GST) was inhibited by abamectin, while the trend was in the opposite direction for other four pesticides; activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) was promoted by beta-cypermethrin and chlorpyrifos, and inhibited by abamectin and bisultap; Activity of catalase (CAT) was promoted by beta-cypermethrin, chlorpyrifos and bisultap, inhibited the influence of promotion by thiamethoxam. Results suggested that P. flammans larvae could be effectively controlled by beta-cypermethrin 10 mg/L and abamectin 25 mg/L with alternate spray, which could prevent the resistance to pesticides in this pest.


Article Information

Received 21 February 2018

Revised 13 May 2018

Accepted 25 June 2018

Available online 15 May 2019

Authors’ Contribution

XLZ conducted this research. ALH, LYM, WZ, GYL and HHT designed and implemented the experiment. JYL, HHT and WL analyzed the data. ALH, LYM and XLZ wrote the article.

Key words

Phauda flammans, Pesticides, Toxicity, Detoxifying enzymes, Protective enzymes.

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.17582/journal.pjz/2019.51.4.1457.1463

* Corresponding author: zheng-xia-lin@163.com

0030-9923/2019/0004-1457 $ 9.00/0

Copyright 2019 Zoological Society of Pakistan



Introduction

Ficus (Urticales: Moraceae) are important decorative trees which used to line avenues in the urban landscapes of China and Southeast Asian countries (Liu et al., 2016). However, biodiversity descended obviously in an ecosystem or landscape with the increasing of the cultivated area of Ficus resulting in a sharp rise of pest species (Arthurs et al., 2016; Bhandari and Cheng, 2016).

Phauda flammans Walker (Lepidoptera: Zygaenidae) is one of the notorious defoliating pests of Ficus in southern China (Liu et al., 2015a), India (Nageshchandra et al., 1972; Verma and Dogra, 1982), Vietnam (FOF, 2015) and Tailand (Anonymous, 2017). P. flammans develops 2-3 generations per year in Nanning City, Guangxi, southern China. Adults fly in the daytime. Eggs are aggregated on leaves. The larval peaks of the first and second generations occur from mid-May to late June and early August to mid-October, respectively. Most larvae prefer to pupate near roots and tussocks exposed on the ground, and only a few individuals pupate in the topsoil. Larvae of this species can be found on F. microcarpa leaves even during winter (Liu et al., 2014, 2015a). P. flammans is a chill-intolerant species, which larvae can live safely on F. concinna and F. benjamina leaves during winter (Liu et al., 2015b; Zheng et al., 2017).

Although four species of insect parasitoids were identified from P. flammans, chemical control is one of the main ways for the management of P. flammans due to the lower parasitoid rates of their enemies (Zheng et al., 2015). However, much less is known of the effective pesticides and its concentrations to control them, especially during the period of outbreak.

The detoxifying and protective enzymes of insects, removing or dissolving toxic substances in the body for self-protection, mainly include carboxylesterase (CarE), glutathione-s transferase (GST), and superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) (Bolter and Chefurka, 1990; Zou et al., 2017). The activities of detoxifying and protective enzymes varied after different pesticides act on insects due to the different mechanisms (Desneux et al., 2007). Thus, study on the effects of different pesticides on detoxifying and protective enzymes in insects can provide theoretical basis for rational using of pesticides (Zhang et al., 2009; Allen` and Balin, 1989).

The purpose of this study is to explore the effects of several pesticides on toxicity against P. flammans larvae, and their effects on detoxifying and protective enzymes. Addressing this issue is conducive to provide reasonable suggestion to manage the P. flammans population.

 

Materials and methods

Insects

Larvae of 1st - 6th instar were collected from Guangxi University (108°29’E, 22°85’N) in Nanning City, Guangxi, southern China. Three P. flammans larvae were reared with fresh leaves of F. microcarpa on each petri dish (d = 9 cm) in laboratory with a light photoperiod of L16:D8 h and 70 ± 5% relative humidity maintained at 27 ± 1 °C. Leaves were renewed daily. Larval instars were determined according to Liu et al. (2015a).

Pesticides

Five pesticides were tested: beta-cypermethrin 3% EW, abamectin 16% SW, chlorpyrifos 30% EW, thiamethoxam 25% SC and 36% bisultap mother liquor. All of the pesticides were provided by Guangxi Tianyuan Biochemical Co., Ltd. (Guangxi, China).

Chemicals

Carboxylesterase (CarE) activity determination kit, glutathione-s transferase (GST) assay kit, superoxide dismutase (SOD) test box, catalase (CAT) test box, coomassie brilliant blue G-250 were provided by Nanjing Jiancheng Bioengineering Institute (Nanjing, China). Bovine serum albumin, dibasic sodium phosphate (Na2HP04), sodium dihydrogen phosphate (NaH2PO4), phosphoric acid (analytical reagent, purity ≥ 95%), ethanol (analytical reagent, purity ≥ 95%), acetic acid (analytical reagent, purity ≥ 95%), acetone (analytical reagent, purity ≥ 95%) were obtained from Tianjin Fuyu Fine Chemical Co. Ltd. (Tianjin, China).

Toxicity of pesticides against P. flammans larvae

The leaf-dipping method was used to determine the toxicity of five pesticides to P. flammans larvae. Based on the preliminary experiments, pesticides were diluted to a series of concentrations as the experimental treatment and the distilled water as the control (Wang et al., 2012; Rong et al., 2016). The leaves of F. microcarpa without any pesticides were punched by puncher (Φ = 2cm), and immersed in the diluted pesticides for 10 s. These leaves were used to rear 1st - 6th instar larvae (3 larvae / petri dish) after natural drying, and maintained at 27 ± 1 °C placed with a light photoperiod of L16: D8 hr and 70 ± 5% relative humidity in laboratory.

This experiment was three replications with total of 60 per instars in each concentration and pesticide. After treatment of 8 h, 12 h, 24 h, 48 h, the number of dead larvae of P. flammans were counted. In this experiment, the volume concentrations of beta-cypermethrin, abamectin, chlorpyrifos, thiamethoxam and bisultap were 6, 7.5, 10, 15 and 30 mg/L; 32, 40, 53.3, 80 and 160 mg/L; 60, 75, 100, 150 and 300 mg/L; 50, 62.5, 83.3, 125 and 250 mg/L; 72, 90, 120, 80 and 360 mg/L.

Effects of pesticides on detoxifying and protective enzymes

According to the results of toxicity, the LC50 of each pesticide was selected as sub-lethal metrology to study the effects of five pesticides on detoxifying and protective enzymes in 4th instar larvae of P. flammans. The result of this experiment was expressed as the enzyme specific activity (Rumpf et al., 1997; Quan et al., 2016). The leaf-dipping method was used as mentioned above, and the 4th instar larvae after treatments for 24 h and 48 h were collected as experimental materials.

Enzymatic preparation

Larvae (n = 9) treated by different pesticides and times were selected, respectively. All selected larvae were placed in precooled mortar, and then 2 mL phosphate buffer (0.1 mol/L, pH = 7.0) were put to mill in the ice bath. The mixture were centrifugalized with TGL-16 high-speed refrigerated centrifuge (Hunan Xiangyi Laboratory Instrument Development Co. Ltd., Hunan, China) in the 2 ml centrifuge tube (4 °C, 10000 r/min) for 15 min after milling. The supernatant stored at -20°C for the following experiments.

Determination of protein content

According to Bradford (1976) method, 0.1 ml enzyme, 0.9 ml distilled water and 5 ml Coomassie Brilliant Blue G-250 were added to a test tube and the contents mixed either by inversion or vortexing. The control group without enzyme was added in the same reagents as the experiment group. The absorbance at 595 nm was measured with visible spectrophotometer (Spectrumlab 722 sp, Shanghai Jiguang Technology Co. Ltd., Shanghai, China) after 2-3 min, and this experiment was three replications. The protein content was calculated according to the standard curve of bovine serum protein.

 

Table I.- Toxicity of five pesticides to 1st - 6th instar larvae in Phauda flammans.

Insecticides

Instar

Treatment time (h)

Regression equation

χ2

P

LC50 (mg/L)

95% Fiducial limit

Beta-cypermethrin

1

8

y=-0.967+3.130x

0.335

0.953

2.038

-

2

24

y=-2.437+3.019x

3.835

0.28

6.416

5.057-7.475

3

24

y=-0.888+1.065x

0.563

0.905

6.82

2.885-9.572

48

y=-0.853+1.664x

0.253

0.969

3.256

1.055-4.944

4

24

y=-1.113+1.254x

4.391

0.222

7.719

4.547-10.228

48

y=-1.298+1.926x

0.398

0.941

4.722

2.620-6.255

5

24

y=-1.230+1.241x

0.383

0.944

9.799

6.727-13.000

48

y=-0.952+1.346x

1.364

0.714

5.097

2.190-7.166

6

24

y=-1.356+0.028x

4.909

0.179

48.764

33.601-149.585

48

y=-2.145+1.955x

0.705

0.872

12.511

10.313-15.450

Abamectin

1

8

y=-4.352+1.826x

0.521

0.914

241.953

163.273-580.977

2

24

y=-1.880+1.463x

0.135

0.987

19.285

6.568-28.902

3

24

y=-4.459+3.018x

1.404

0.705

30.034

22.473-35.582

48

y=-3.930+3.315x

1.085

0.781

15.324

1.860-23.278

4

24

y=-3.565+2.213x

1.229

0.746

40.849

32.486-48.141

48

y=-2.778+2.094x

0.116

0.99

21.205

11.142-28.549

5

24

y=-2.850+1.626x

2.669

0.445

56.645

44.475-70.568

48

y=-2.340+1.671x

0.351

0.95

25.127

13.129-33.896

6

24

y=-1.944+0.802x

0.828

0.843

266.207

131.157-36274.553

48

y=-2.295+1.502x

1.859

0.602

33.672

20.307-43.711

Chlorpyrifos

1

8

y=-4.507+2.476x

9.27

0.026

66.046

2.299-102.087

2

24

y=-3.758+2.735x

0.569

0.904

23.665

1.846-39.591

3

24

y=-1.260+0.838x

0.36

0.948

31.956

0.484-60.031

48

y=-1.700+1.310x

0.98

0.806

19.846

1.390-38.629

4

24

y=-4.234+2.105x

6.23

0.101

102.666

55.268-165.564

48

y=-1.895+1.196x

1.638

0.651

38.486

10.151-59.701

5

24

y=-3.337+1.634x

2.591

0.459

110.155

87.865-136.959

48

y=-2.650+1.496x

0.945

0.814

59.046

34.405-77.293

6

24

y=-4.170+1.578x

2.506

0.474

438.66

290.298-1113.188

48

y=-3.461+1.745x

0.159

0.984

96.299

76.144-117.040

Thiamethoxam

1

8

y=-2.580+2.029x

1.603

0.659

18.684

2.669-32.036

2

24

y=-3.302+2.011x

3.292

0.349

43.773

27.803-55.724

3

24

y=-2.592+1.055x

0.77

0.857

286.866

180.019-1245.596

48

y=-4.322+2.207x

1.942

0.584

90.758

76.629-107.144

4

24

y=-2.915+1.029x

0.097

0.992

680.492

300.340-49718.394

48

y=-2.354+1.137x

1.242

0.743

117.768

85.174-191.653

5

24

y=-1.861+0.574x

0.33

0.954

1754.739

-

48

y=-1.975+0.910x

0.599

0.897

148.041

102.677-385.708

6

24

y=-1.891+0.482x

0.143

0.986

8319.048

-

48

y=-2.729+1.083x

0.436

0.933

331.013

200.551-1631.084

Bisultap

1

8

y=-3.645+2.123x

1.231

0.746

52.096

23.481-71.487

2

24

y=-4.125+2.280x

4.586

0.205

64.472

38.039-82.536

3

24

y=-3.961+1.711x

0.989

0.804

206.475

166.847-285.195

48

y=-3.522+1.642x

0.936

0.817

139.884

111.079-177.169

4

24

y=-4.171+1.744x

0.546

0.909

246.348

195.658-361.874

48

y=-3.788+1.706x

0.579

0.901

168.891

135.276-214.532

5

24

y=-4.024+1.659x

2.613

0.455

266.572

208.327-411.650

48

y=-3.470+1.531x

0.871

0.832

184.82

148.113-255.082

6

24

y=-3.349+1.357x

5.109

0.164

293.475

215.709-563.172

48

y=-4.090+1.783x

2.900

0.407

196.482

161.407-260.268

 

Determination of detoxifying and protective enzymes

activities

CarE, GST, SOD and CAT activities were determined by using assay kit (Nanjing Jiancheng Biotechnology Institute, Nanjing, China), and the tests were carried out strictly with the assay kit directions. The experiments were replicated three times.

Data analysis

Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS 16.0 (SPSS, Chicago, IL, USA). Duncan’s multiple range tests was used for significance test (P ≤ 0.05).

 

Results

Effect on P. flammans larvae

The LC50 values of the same pesticide increased gradually with increasing of the larval instar of P. flammans. The LC50 values of the same pesticide decreased gradually with increasing of the treatment time (Table I). Beta-cypermethrin showed the highest toxicity for P. flammans larvae in the five pesticides. Abamectin had no significant lethal effect for P. flammans 1st instar larvae at 8 h after treatment in the five pesticides. Bisultap had the lowest toxicity for P. flammans 2th instar larvae at 24h after treatment and 3th - 5th instar larvae at 48h after treatment, while the lowest toxicity for P. flammans 6th instar larvae at 48h after treatment was thiamethoxam. The order of toxicity against P. flammans larvae from high to low for the five pesticides was as follows: beta-cypermethrin, abamectin, chlorpyrifos, thiamethoxam and bisultap.

Effects on detoxifying enzymes

There were different effects of five pesticides on detoxifying enzymes in P. flammans larvae (Fig. 1A, B). Compared with control, CarE activity in P. flammans 4th instar larvae at 24h (F = 55.938, df = 5, 17, P < 0.001) and 48h (F = 15.148, df = 5, 17, P < 0.001) after treatment were significant difference in the five pesticides. Activity of CarE was promoted by beta-cypermethrin, the effect of which on CarE activity was the most obvious (Fig. 1A). Compared with control, GST activity in P. flammans 4th instar larvae at 24h (F = 6.926, df = 5, 17, P < 0.01) and 48h (F = 21.771, df = 5, 17, P < 0.001) after treatment were significant difference in the five pesticides. Beta-cypermethrin, thiamethoxam and bisultap played a significant role in promoting GST activity. Beta-cypermethrin and bisultap promoted the activity of GST, and weakened slowly, but thiamethoxam always enhanced the activity of GST (Fig. 1B). As the results showed, effects of beta-cypermethrin on the CarE and GST activities were the most obvious among the five pesticides.


 

Effects on protective enzymes

Five pesticides had different effects on detoxifying enzymes of P. flammans larvae (Fig. 1C, D). Compared with control, SOD activity in P. flammans 4th instar larvae at 24h (F = 76.773, df = 5, 17, P < 0.01) and 48h (F = 116.253, df = 5, 17, P < 0.001) after treatment were statistical significance in the five pesticides. Beta-cypermethrin and chlorpyrifos promoted the activity of SOD, while abamectin and bisultap inhibited SOD activity; thiamethoxam inhibited the SOD activity at first and promoted it at later (Fig. 1C). Compared with control, CAT activity in P. flammans 4th instar larvae at 24h (F = 3.320, df = 5, 17, P < 0.05) and 48h (F = 57.217, df = 5, 17, P < 0.001) after treatment were statistical significance in the five pesticides. Effects of beta-cypermethrin, chlorpyrifos and bisultap on CAT activity had positive impacts, while abamectin and thiamethoxam showed no significant effects on CAT activity compare with the control (Fig. 1D). As the results, effect of beta-cypermethrin on the SOD activity was the most obvious among five pesticides, and chlorpyrifos had the greatest effect on CAT activity.

 

Discussion

Beta-cypermethrin, a pyrethroid pesticide, is an efficient isomer of cypermethrin with high biological activity, which has the characteristics of wide insecticide controlling spectrum, rapid effects and high insecticidal activity (Qu et al., 2017). Wang et al. (2012) found that beta-cypermethrin had high toxicity in the toxicity test of 6 pesticides on Histia rhodope Ceamer. Our results also indicated that low-dose beta-cypermethrin had good control effect on 1st-6th instar larvae of P. flammans. Abamectin, an antibiotic pesticide, had high toxic activity to Achelura yunnanensis Horie&Xue (Rong et al., 2016). In our study, the mortality of larvae rose with treated time delay of abamectin. The changes of detoxifying and protective enzymes in insects are different under the action of pesticides (Li et al., 1994; Ding et al., 2001). In order to achieve detoxification, insects will oxidize, restore, hydrolyze or combine the toxic compounds entered into the body from natural environment by increasing the activity of their detoxifying enzymes, so as to enhance the water-solubility of the toxic compounds, and make it easy to eliminate toxins from the body or turn them into low-toxic or non-toxic substances (Xing et al., 2011; Zhang et al., 2015; Jia et al., 2016a). The enhancement of detoxifying enzymes activity is one of the mechanisms for insects to improve the resistance against pesticides. For example, abamectin and beta-cypermethrin could induce the increasing of GST activity in Plutella xylostella L. (Liang et al., 2003). However, some pesticides killed insects by inhibiting the activity of detoxifying enzymes. For example, sub-lethal concentration of abamectin could obviously inhibit the GST activity of Diadegma semiclausum Hellen (Jia et al., 2016b). Results from the current study showed that beta-cypermethrin promoted the activities of both CarE and GST in P. flammans larvae, while abamectin promoted CarE activity but inhibited GST activity. It indicated that the sub-lethal concentration of beta-cypermethrin induced the increase of detoxifying enzymes activity to enhance the detoxification ability of P. flammans larvae. Therefore, we speculated that P. flammans might resist beta-cypermethrin when it used for a long time. The sub-lethal concentration of abamectin inhibited detoxifying enzymes activity in P. flammans, which reduced the ability of larvae to degrade pesticides and enhanced its toxicity. Furthermore, effect of beta-cypermethrin on SOD activity in Blattella germanica appeared a trend of “rise-decrease-rise”, which was reported by Ma et al. (2009). However, it was different from the positive effects of beta-cypermethrin on SOD and CAT activities in P. flammans larvae. It hinted that P. flammans larvae resisted beta-cypermethrin mainly by enhancing the protective enzymes activity. Abamectin could inhibit SOD activity, but effect of abamectin on CAT activity was not significant, which suggested that abamectin could destroy protective enzymes when it acted on P. flammans larvae for killing them.

Although the toxicity of beta-cypermethrin was the best in this study, it significantly activated the activity of detoxifying enzymes in P. flammans which may lead to insect resistance. Effect of abamectin on toxicity was slightly inferior than beta-cypermethrin, but it effectively inhibited detoxifying and protective enzymes activities. Therefore, we recommend that P. flammans larvae could be effectively controlled by beta-cypermethrin 10 mg/L and abamectin 25 mg/L with alternate spray, which could prevent the resistance to pesticides in this pest.

 

Acknowledgements

We are grateful to the anonymous referees for their valuable comments on an earlier version. This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (31660206) and Natural Science Foundation of Guangxi (2015GXNSFAA139056).

 

Statement of conflict of interest

Authors have declared no conflict of interest.

 

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Pakistan Journal of Zoology

June

Vol. 51, Iss. 3, Pages 801-1202

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