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Effect of Genotype × Environment Interaction on Grain Yield Determinants in Bread Wheat

Effect of Genotype × Environment Interaction on Grain Yield Determinants in Bread Wheat

Malak Atiq Ullah Khan* and Fida Mohammad 

Department of Plant Breeding and Genetics, The University of Agriculture, Peshawar, 25130, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. 


Knowledge of genotype by environment interaction (GEI) is essential for identifying environment-specific and widely adapted genotypes. Multi-environment trials were conducted to evaluate the magnitude of genotype (G), environment (E) and GEI effects on yield and yield components of wheat. Eighty-one wheat genotypes were evaluated under nine environments within Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan during 2013/14, 2014/15 and 2015/16 cropping seasons. Combined analyses of variance for G and GEI were significant for almost all traits. Significant GEI suggested that the performance of genotypes was not consistent across environments, revealing strong influence of environments. Generally, GEI explained major portion of total variation and thus had larger effect than G and E on the expression of phenotype for all traits. Average over nine environments, genotype G-79 exhibited maximum values for tillers m-2 (181 tillers); grains spike-1 (71 grains); grain yield (4862 kg ha-1) and thus appeared as leading genotype for yield and production traits. Similarly, G-79 had higher grain yield in all test environments except E-03 i.e. E-01 (4537 kg ha-1); E-02 (4840 kg ha-1); E-04 (5035 kg ha-1); E-05 (4976 kg ha-1); E-06 (4797 kg ha-1); E-07 (5024 kg ha-1); E-08 (4767 kg ha-1); E-09 (4886 kg ha-1) signifying it as high yielding and widely adaptable genotype. However, G-08 with higher grain yield in E-01 (5272 kg ha-1) and E-07 (4840 kg ha-1), G-37 in E-04 (5106 kg ha-1) and E-08 (4906 kg ha-1), G-41 in E-05 (5034 kg ha-1) and E-06 (5272 kg ha-1), G-9 in E-02 (4975 kg ha-1) and G-49 in E-03 (5271 kg ha-1), established their specific adaptability in respective environments. Among environments, E-01, E-02, E-03, E-06 and E-07 were identified as highly productive environments in terms of grain yield. Correlation analysis revealed significant positive association of grain yield with tillers m-2 (rg = 0.72**), grains spike-1 (rg = 0.41**) and 1000-grain weight (rg = 0.30**). Based on mean yield performance, G-79 was found as high yielding genotype and thus could be recommended for commercialization in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. 

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Sarhad Journal of Agriculture


Vol. 39, Sp. Iss. 2


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