Submit or Track your Manuscript LOG-IN

Effect of Farm Yard Manure and Compost Application on Transgenic BT Cotton Varieties

PJAR_33_2_371-380

 

 

 

Research Article

Effect of Farm Yard Manure and Compost Application on Transgenic BT Cotton Varieties

Muhammad Jan1*, Safdar Hussain2, Muhammad Anwar ul Haq3, Javed Iqbal4, Ilyas Ahmad4, Muhammad Aslam4 and Aiman Faiz3

1Department of Soil and Environmental Science, Ghazi University, Dera Ghazi Khan, 32200, Pakistan; 2Department of Agronomy, Ghazi University, Dera Ghazi Khan, 32200, Pakistan; 3Institute of Soil and Environmental Sciences, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad 38040, Pakistan; 4Soil and Water Testing Laboratory, Dera Ghazi Khan, 32200, Pakistan.

Abstract | In Pakistan, the research work on cotton since started from the independence and many of the cultivars were introduced and evolved. But the fiber quality and seed cotton yield up to now till is poor in quality as compared to other developed countries. A judicious combination of manures and fertilizers depending upon the availability, the type of the soil and crops to be grown would not only maximize the crop production and improve the quality of agricultural products but would also maintain the fertility, productivity and overall health of the soil for posterity. So, keeping in view the beneficial effects of organic sources i-e compost and farm yard manure (FYM), a field experiment was planned with the objectives to study the comparative effect of organic sources on cotton growth and yield and to evaluate the comparative performance of different BT cotton variety. The treatments were T0: Control T1: FYM @10 tons ha-1, T2: Compost @10 tons ha-1 and T3: FYM @10 tons ha-1+ Compost @10 tons ha-1. Three BT cotton varieties (BT-142, Lala zar and BT-786) were tested against the organic sources applications impacts. The application of compost and FYM in combined increased the physical parameters number of bolls per plant, plant height, sympodial branches, monopodial and seed cotton yield as compared to compost and FYM individual application. Among the all varieties, Lalazar performed better by producing maximum monopodial and sympodial branches, plant height, bolls per plant and seed cotton yield as compared to BT-142 and BT-786 while minimum performance was observed in BT-142.


Received | January 01, 2020; Accepted | March 25, 2020; Published | June 22, 2020

*Correspondence | Muhammad Jan, Department of Soil and Environmental Science, Ghazi University, Dera Ghazi Khan, 32200, Pakistan; Email: mjanleghari@gmail.com

Citation | Jan, M., S. Hussain, M.A. Haq, J. Iqbal, I. Ahmad, M. Aslam and A. Faiz. 2020. Effect of farm yard manure and compost application on transgenic BT cotton varieties. Pakistan Journal of Agricultural Research, 33(2): 371-380.

DOI | http://dx.doi.org/10.17582/journal.pjar/2020/33.2.371.380

Keywords | BT Cotton, Soil properties, Organic amendment, Pod yield



Introduction

Current estimates for world production are about 25 million tonnes or 110 million bales annually, accounting for 2.5% of the world’s arable land. Cotton is one of the most important commercial fibers produced and is one of the most important commodity imported and exported all over the world due to their uses in textile industry, mattress and bedding industry. The annual world production of cotton is staggering 25 million tons, accounting for 2.5% of the world’s arable land. Cultivation of cotton balls is a difficult task in itself and requires a lot of effort and labor. Invention of Cotton ginning process and mechanisation has helped the producers to decrease labor and boost the production (Gudeta and Egziabher, 2019).

In Pakistan economy of foreign exchange, cotton accounts for 1.5 percent in GDP and 7.1 percent in agriculture value addition and production was 9861 thousand bales. During July-March 2014-15, textile industry fetched foreign exchange of US$ 10.22 billion (GOP, 2019). Pakistani soils are organic matter deficient because of arid and semi arid climate while the continuous cropping without concerning the organic sources of fertilizers is also an alarming issue. Soil organic matter improve the soil structure, aeration, porosity, water holding and nutrient holding capacity. FYM application improve the soil fertility as well as crop production (Weil and Magdoff, 2004; Jamal et al., 2019).

The important crops (wheat, rice, sugarcane maize and cotton) account 21.90 percent in the value addition of agriculture sector and 4.06 percent in GDP. The other crops account 11.21 percent in the value addition of agriculture sector and 2.08 percent in GDP. The production of cotton was 9861 thousand bales (Pakistan Bureau of Statistics, 2018-19).

Compost applications have a great role in sustainability of agriculture. The proper use and its management have many advantages especially by adding the nutrients (Tejada et al., 2001), increasing soil organic matter, improving physical properties like soil aggregation, bulk density, penetration resistance and water holding capacity. All these factor act as a supplier for nutrient supply and improves the plant growth (Wells et al., 2000; Togun and Akanbi, 2003; Sarwar et al., 2008). The sources of organic fertilizers have got a great importance because of their source of multiple nutrients and soil physical and chemical characteristics especially low input of organic material. The application of organic sources like manure application improved the soil physical properties especially soil texture, availability of nutrients like N, P and S as well as the micronutrients and also lower down the soil temperature and conserve the moisture (Ouedraogo et al., 2001; Palm et al., 2001; Soumare et al., 2003).

Pakistan already facing the challenges like food and energy crisis. The utilization of inorganic fertilizers is also industrial dependent which is the reason of their higher cost and also harmful for environment if they are applied in higher dose. Another hand by using organic fertilizers pollution can be controlled as well as the produce quality will be improved. For these investigations survey should be carried for comprehensive technology and production package for efficient utilization of all available sources on farm Ahmad et al. (2008). The daily boost up prices as well as energy crisis in Pakistan are the main constraints to purchase the inorganic fertilizers. Formers utilizing organic sources of fertilizers like FYM and compost as they are the cheapest sources and easily available (Zahir et al., 2007; Sial et al., 2007).

Keeping in view the importance of organic sources effect on cotton growth, a field experiment was conducted to study the comparative effect of organic sources on cotton growth and yield and to evaluate the comparative performance of different BT cotton varieties

Materials and Methods

Location and experimental layout

The field experiment was conducted at Mouza Nari Dhumrya, Tehsil Kot Chutta, Dera Ghazi Khan (33o 38 N, 73o 05). This is part of the core area for cotton production in Punjab. Soil samples were taken from the depth of 0-15 and 15-30 cm to check the fertility status of soil and processed in the laboratory after air drying and grinding. After determination of soil texture, samples were analyzed to determine soil ECe, pH, soluble cations and anions as according the given method of US Salinity Lab. Staff (1954) (Table 1). The plots in the field were designed randomized complete block design with repetition of each block in four times. The compost was purchased from Syngenta company. Bouyoucous hydrometer method was used for soil texture determination (Bouyoucos, 1962). Soil had pHs 7.93 and ECe of 1.79 dS m−1 with 0.85% organic matter (Nelson and Sommers, 1982). Three BT cotton varieties BT Cotton verities BT 142, Lala Zar and BT 786 were used as plant material. The concentration of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium was measured from compost and farm yard manure. Keeping in view the original concentration of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium in farm yard manure and compost the treatments were finalized (Table 2). There were four treatments i-e T0: Control, T1: FYM @10 tons ha-1, T2: Compost @10 tons ha-1 and T3: FYM @10 tons ha-1+ Compost @10 tons ha-1. The half-recommended dose of NPK @100-75-50 kg ha-1 were applied in the form of Urea, Di-ammonium phosphate and potassium sulphate. The calculated rate of compost and FYM was applied before the sowing of crop.

Measurements and calculations

The planting was made with combine cotton drilling machine. The experiment was thinned and hoed two times by hand and three times with machine and only once herbicides were applied just before sowing. Insects were monitored throughout the experiment and decided that no insect control was necessary during growing season.

All plots were irrigated seven times through furrow irrigation.

For the analysis of physical parameters like monopodial, sympodial branches, plant height, number of bolls per plant, seed cotton yield (g), lint percentage, lint yield and seed cotton weight per boll were recorded. The lint obtained from each sample was weighed and lint percentage was calculated by following formula.

Image465662.PNG 

For the analysis of ionic parameters plant samples were oven dried at 75oC for 48 hours. The plant samples were wet digested by using di-acid (HNO3:HClO4 ratio of 2:1) mixture (Jones and Case, 1990) while nitrate- nitrogen concentration in leaf was determined by the method of (McGill and Figueiredo, 1993).

Statistical analysis

To measure the difference among the means of treatments, data was subjected to statistical analysis in RCBD 2 factorial arrangement (Steel et al., 1997) by using Statistics 8.1 software.

Results and Discussion

Sympodial and monopodial branches per plant

Application of both organic sources in combine or individual increased the sympodial and monopodial branches per plant of all the varieties as compared to the controlled conditions. Maximum sympodial branches per plant (18) and monopodial branches per plant (7.00) were observed in lala zar cotton varieties while minimum sympodial (4.66) and monopodial branches per plant (4.66) was observed in BT-142 varieties (Figure 1).

Organic sources application creates a significant (P<0.05) difference in case of monopodial and sympodial branches per plant of all the varieties. Comparatively, Lala zar varieties produced maximum sympodial branches (18.33) through combined application FYM and compost while minimum sympodial branches (16.00) was observed in BT-142 varieties.

Bolls per plant and lint percentage (%)

The bolls plant-1 of all the varieties increased by organic sources application into the soil. The maximum bolls plant-1 (60.66) and percent of lint (40.66%) was observed in lala zar and BT-786 while minimum bolls plant-1 (43.33) and lint percent (36%) was observed in BT-142 varieties (Figure 2).

Application of organic sources significantly (P<0.05) increased bolls plant-1 (60.66) and lint percent of all cotton varieties. In case of combined application of both organic sources, maximum bolls plant-1 (21.33) and lint percent (40) was observed in Lala zar varieties while minimum bolls plant-1 (17.33) and lint percent (37) was observed in BT-142 varieties.

Seed cotton yield (kg ha-1) and lint yield

The application of organic sources increased the seed cotton yield of all cotton varieties. The maximum seed cotton yield (2088.7) and lint yield (913 kg ha-1) was observed in lala zar and while minimum seed cotton yield (1590 kg ha-1) and lint yield (490 kg ha-1) was observed in BT-142 varieties (Figure 3).

A significant difference (P< 0.05) was observed between the treatments on seed cotton yield and lint yield by applying organic sources. In case of combined application of both organic sources, maximum seed cotton yield (2353.3 kg ha-1) and seed cotton yield (880 kg ha-1) was observed in Lala zar varieties while minimum seed cotton yield (1963.3 kg ha-1) and minimum lint yield (843 kg ha-1) was observed in BT-142 varieties.

Plant height (cm) and seed cotton weight per boll

The organic sources application improved the plant growth and increased the plant height per plant of all the varieties. Maximum plant height per plant (90.66) and seed cotton weight per boll (1.40 g boll-1) was observed in lala zar cotton varieties while minimum plant height per plant (66.33 cm) and cotton weight per bolls (1.15 g boll-1) was observed in BT-786 varieties (Figure 4). Application of both the organic sources significantly increased the plant height and seed cotton weight per boll of all the cotton BT varieties. In case of combined application of both organic sources, maximum plant height per plant (94 cm) and seed cotton weight per boll (1.36 g boll-1) was observed in Lala zar varieties while minimum plant height per plant (79.33 cm) and minimum Seed cotton weight per boll (1.33 g boll-1) was observed in BT-142 varieties.

Leaf N and P concentration

The effect of treatments on N content was significant at (P< 0.05).

FYM application significantly increased the N content of all the varieties. The maximum N content (30.05 g kg-1N) and P content (2.98 g kg-1P) was observed in Lala zar varieties while minimum N content (20.00 g kg-1N) and P content (2.66 g kg-1P) was observed in BT-142 varieties (Figure 5).

In case of Compost application, compost application significantly (P<0.05) increased the N content of all the varieties. The maximum N content (24.00 g kg-1N) and P content (2.34 g kg-1P) was observed in Lala zar varieties while minimum N content (21.00 g kg-1N) and P content (2.39 g kg-1P) was observed in BT-142 varieties. In case of combined application, maximum P content (2.67 g kg-1P) was observed in Lala zar varieties while minimum P content (2.56 g kg-1P) was observed in BT-142 varieties.

Leaf K concentration

The effect of treatments on K content was significant at (P< 0.05). In case of FYM application, FYM application significantly (P<0.05) increased the K content of all the varieties. The maximum K content (20.52 g kg-1K) was observed in Lala zar varieties while minimum K content (18.78 g kg-1K) was observed in BT-142 varieties (Figure 6). In case of Compost application, maximum K content (16.50 g kg-1K) was observed in Lala zar varieties while minimum K content (14.67 g kg-1K) was observed in BT-786 varieties. By applying FYM and compost combined, maximum K content (19.30g kg-1K) was observed in Lala zar varieties while minimum K content (17.90 g kg-1K) was observed in BT-142 varieties.

Table 1: Physicochemical properties of soil used for experiment.

Soil characteristics Values
Saturation percentage (%) 56
Texture Clayey soil

pHs

7.50

SAR (mmol L-1)1/2

3.38

ECe (dS m-1)

1.85
Total N (%) 0.047

Extractable P (mg kg-1)

7.4

Extractable K (mg kg-1)

85
Organic matter (%) 0.60

 

Table 2: Nutrient concentration of FYM and compost used for experiment.

NUTRIENT (%)

FYM COMPOST
N 1.86 1.20
P 0.94 1.76
K 0.76 1.26

 

Organic sources are the composed of plants and animals waste material as they are the main source of essential elements beside of this they have a key role in water and nutrient holding capacity and also increased the cation exchange capacity (CEC) of soil. Positive effect of compost and FYM application on plant height and seed yield of cotton was due to enhanced carbon sequestration in soil and other improved soil properties. Application of FYM and compost could have boosted cotton growth and yield (Nazarov and Boltaev, 2010). Application of N fertilizer at the later stages caused the accumulation of more N which was found beneficial Yang et al. (2013).

A clear difference was observed through FYM application then compost application in case of boll bearing branches. Similar findings were also observed by other researchers especially in case of boll bearing branches and plant height through FYM application (Sawan et al., 2000; Kassem et al., 2009; Gebaly, 2011). These results are in agreement with the findings of with those stated by Al-Kahal et al. (2007) in case of number of open bolls plant-1, monopodial and sympodial branches by Attia et al. (2008) and Gebaly (2011) and boll weight and seed index by Abdel Aal et al. (2011).

Beneficial effects of combined application of organic manures with inorganic fertilizers to cotton in respect of nutrient uptake are supported by observations of Badole and More (2001) and Peshin et al. (2007). The application of organic sources increased the cotton yield and yield components (Ali et al., 2011). Among the organic sources FYM application is mostly common and have a beneficial effect on plant growth by improving the soil physical properties and have a role in nutrient availability (Clement-Bailey and Gwathmey, 2007; Sawan et al., 2008). Some other studies have reported that the application of organic sources increased the number of bolls by improving the plant growth (Dong et al., 2010; Boquet, 2005; Rinehardt et al., 2004). Our results indicate that the application of FYM increased the plant growth as compared to compost application which is also reported by Singh et al. (2013).

Application of organic manure showed a significant effect on the size of cotton boll. This result is in line with that of (Adeli et al., 2005) who reported larger boll size in poultry manure amended soil compared with non- applied plot. Larger boll produced more lint’s and seed than the small size boll. Similar results have been reported by (Tewolde et al., 2007) on cotton lint yield. The highest boll weight of 6.57 g obtained in this study is close to and even higher than the boll weight of 5.30 g obtained by (Islam et al., 2014) from using 100% N from urea, and boll weight of 4.75 g obtained by (Gnanasekaran and Padmavathi, 2013) in India.

Phenotypic and genotypic correlation and showed that lint yield was the major contributor to yield, and it was followed by lint percentage and boll weight (Afiah and Ghoneim, 2000). However, other traits were found to have minor contributions towards the variations in seed cotton yield. The genetic variances were found greater than environmental variances and the heritability was also high with desired genetic gain and in presence of positive correlation, authenticated that the cultivars have the potential to enhance the lint %. Meena et al. (2007) studied the stability and adaptability of G. hirsutum and observed varied values for lint percentage. Khan et al. (2009) confirmed through study of upland that bolls per plant had the most important effect on lint yield. The inconsistent findings and different views of past researchers about the said trait might be due to genotypic and environmental differences.

The yield components such as number of boll per plant and boll weight strongly influence the cottonseed yield (Sattar et al., 2017). The high lint and seed yields obtained in this study is in agreement with that of (Tewolde et al., 2009) who reported that lint and seed yields per boll were relatively higher under the application of poultry manure. In this study, seed yield increased relatively more than the lint yield contradicting (Tewolde et al., 2009) report that lint yield increased relatively more than seed yield.

Similarly, Gwarazimba (2009) also observed that the application of organic sources like FYM, compost, press mud and poultry manure application improve the physical conditions of soil and results into the enhancement in seed and lint yield of cotton crop. An enhancement in lint yield were also find by Beedy et al. (2010) through the application of farm yard manure. Application of organic fertilizers like farm yard manure and compost alone or in combination significantly increased the N, P and K content in cotton. Organic materials alone increased N contents of plants over control which might be due to organic sources decomposition which enhances the process of mineralization of organic matter (Lal et al., 2009), releasing more nutrients into the soil–plant system (Dube et al., 2009).

The highest N concentration was observed in Lala zar varieties where the FYM source was applied while the application of compost not increased the recovery and uptake of N. A positive interaction between organic (biological nutrients) and mineral fertilizers also reported by Ahmad et al. (2008) and Yaduvanshi (2003) as they argued that organic fertilizer application increased the nutrient efficiency and reduced their loss to environment.

The application of organic sources increased the P availability by releasing the organic acids and making complex with immobile nutrients (Eghball et al., 2004; Loecke et al., 2004). Potassium is the only element which is absorbed by the plant in the elemental form and remained same but having the main role in the enzymatic activities for the plant growth. Some other researchers (Muneshwar et al., 2001; Ahmad et al., 2008; Zahir et al., 2007; Rashid et al., 2016) also observed that the application of FYM and compost increased the growth of maize and wheat crop. An advantage associated with organic manures was their potential to supply nutrients over a longer period of time compared to chemical fertilizers which led to higher nutrient use efficiency and ultimately maize yield along with net returns were doubled (Ali et al., 2015; Akram et al., 2019; Ahmad et al., 2019).

Conclusions and Recommendations

It was concluded that the combined application of FYM and compost application increased the all morphological and chemical attributes as compared to their individual source application. Comparing the sources the application of FYM was beneficial as compared to compost application.

Outcome of current study reveals that the application of organic sources especially the combined application remained beneficial. Furthermore, the results from this research depict that organic sources application improved the cotton growth and the combination of these organic sources fertilizer increase the crop growth and reduce the fertilizer cost if some one adopt the mixed strategy.

Author’s Contribution

Muhammad Jan conceived different research idea and conducted experiment Safdar Hussain participated in article overall management Anwar ul Haq improved the language Javed Iqbal conducted data analysis Ilyas Ahmad prepared first draft Muhammad Aslam provided technical input Aiman Faiz helped out to improve manuscript.

Conflict of interest

The authors have declared no conflict of interest.

References

Abdel Aal, S.M., M.E. Ibrahim, A.A. Ali, G.A. Wahdan, O.A. Ali and Y.F. Ata Allah, 2011. Effect of foliar application of growth regulators, macro and microelements on abscission, yield and technological characters of Egyptian cotton (Gossypim barbadense L.). Minufiya J. Agric. Res., 36: 1277-1304.

Adeli, A., K.R. Sistani, D.E. Rowe and H. Tewolde 2005. Effects of broiler litter on soybean (Glycine max L.) production and soil nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations. Agron. J. 97:314–321. https://doi.org/10.2134/agronj2005.0314

Afiah, S. and E. Ghoneim. 2000. Correlation, stepwise and path coefficient analysis in Egyptian cotton under saline conditions. Arab Uni. J. Agric. Sci. 8, 607-618.

Ahmad, R., A. Khalid, M. Arshad, Z.A. Zahir and T. Mahmood. 2008. Effect of compost enriched with N and L-tryptophan on soil and maize. Agron. Sustainable Dev. 28: 299-305. https://doi.org/10.1051/agro:2007058

Ahmad, A., M. Shahid, S. Khalid, H. Zaffar, T. Naqvi, A. Pervez and W. Nasim. 2019. Residues of endosulfan in cotton growing area of Vehari, Pakistan: an assessment of knowledge and awareness of pesticide use and health risks. Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res., 26(20): 20079-20091. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-018-3169-6

Akram, M.W., N. Akram, W. Hongshu and A. Mehmood. 2019. An Assessment of Economic Viability of Organic Farming in Pakistan. Custos E Agronegocio On Line, 15(1): 141-169.

Ali, K., F. Munsif, M. Zubair, Z. Hussain, M. Shahid, I.U. Din, and N. Khan. 2011. Management of organic and inorganic nitrogen for different maize varieties. Sarhad J. Agric 27: 525-529.

Ali, S., M.K. Abbasi and T. Hussain. 2015. Effects of integrated use of organic and inorganic nutrient sources with effective microorganisms (EM) on seed cotton yield in Pakistan. Bioresource Technol. 97: 967-972. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2005.05.002

Al-Kahal, A.A., A.M. Alia, M. Namich and Abou-Zeid M.Y. 2007. Influence of integrated system of organic manures and nitrogen fertilizer for enhancing growth, yield and activity of some major microorganisms in the rhizosphere of cotton plant. J. Agric. Sci., Mansoura Univ., 32: 9407-9425.

Amulu, L. and O. Adekunle. 2018. Comparative effects of poultry manure, cow dung, and carbofuran on yield of Meloidogyne incognita-infested okra. J. Agric. Sci. Technol., 17: 495-504.

Attia, A.N., M.S. Sultan, E.M. Said, A.M. Zina and A.E. Khalifa, 2008. Effect of the first irrigation time and fertilization treatments on growth, yield, yield components and fiber traits of cotton. J. Agron., 7: 70-75. https://doi.org/10.3923/ja.2008.70.75

Ayeni, L., E. Adeleye and J. Adejumo. 2012. Comparative effect of organic, organomineral and mineral fertilizers on soil properties, nutrient uptake, growth and yield of maize (Zea mays). Int. Res. J. Agric. Sci. Soil Sci., 2: 493-497.

Badole, S. and S. More. 2001. Effect of integrated nutrient management system on the changes in soil microbial population under cotton-groundnut cropping system. J. Indian Soc. Cotton Improv. 26: 83-87.

Beedy, L.T., S.S. Snapp, F.K. Akinnifesi and G.W. Sileshi. 2010. Impact of Gliricidia sepium intercropping on soil organic matter fractions in a maize-based cropping system. Agric Ecosyst. Environ. 138:139–146. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agee.2010.04.008

Boquet, D.J. and G.A. Breitenbeck. 2000. Nitrogen rate effect on partitioning of nitrogen and dry matter by cotton. Crop Sci. 40: 1685-1693. https://doi.org/10.2135/cropsci2000.4061685x

Bouyoucos, G.J., 1962. Hydrometer method improved for making particle-size analyses of soils. Agron. J., 54: 464-465. https://doi.org/10.2134/agronj1962.00021962005400050028x

Clement-Bailey, J. and C.O. Gwathmey. 2007. Potassium effects on partitioning, yield, and earliness of contrasting cotton cultivars. Agron. J. 29: 1130-1136. https://doi.org/10.2134/agronj2006.0288

Das, A., M. Prasad, Y.S. Shivay and K.M. Subha. 2004. Productivity and sustainability of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cropping system as influenced by prilled urea, farmyard manure and Azotobacter. J. Agron. Crop Sci., 190: 298-304. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1439-037X.2004.00110.x

Dong, H., X. Kong, W. Li, W. Tang and D. Zhang. 2010. Effects of plant density and nitrogen and potassium fertilization on cotton yield and uptake of major nutrients in two fields with varying fertility. Field Crops Res. 119: 106-113. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fcr.2010.06.019

Dube, F., E. Zagal, N. Stolpe and M. Espinosa. 2009. The influence of land-use change on the organic carbon distribution and microbial respiration in a volcanic soil of the Chilean Patagonia. Forest Ecol. Manag. 257: 1695-1704. https://doi.org/10.1258/la.2011.011022

Eghball, B., D. Ginting and J.E. Gilly. 2004. Residual effects of manures and compost application on corn production and soil properties. Agron. J. 96:442–447.

El-Shazly, W.M.O. and M.F. El-Masri. 2002. A comparative study on the effect of some organic manures and miniral nitrogen fertilizer on the leaf chemical composition, growth, earliness and yield of cotton (Giza 89 cultivar). Minufiya J. Agric. Res., 27: 1325-1348.

Eyhorn, F., M. Ramakrishnan and P. Mäder. 2007. The viability of cotton-based organic farming systems in India. Int. J. Agric. Sustainability. 5: 25-38. https://doi.org/10.1080/14735903.2007.9684811

Gebaly, S.G., 2011. Studies on the use of mineral and bio nitrogen fertilizer with some of growth regulators on growth and yield of cotton variety Gina 80. Egypt. J. Agric. Res.

Gee, G.W. and J.W. Bauder. 1986. Particle-size analysis. In: Methods of Soil Analysis. Part 1: Physical and Mineralogical Methods, Klute, A. (ed.). Soil Sci. Soc. Am., Madison, USA. pp. 383–409. https://doi.org/10.2136/sssabookser5.1.2ed.c15

Gnanasekaran, J and S. Padmavathi. 2013. Influence of season on yield and yield components in cotton. Inter. J. Current Agric. Res. 2(12):59-61. https://doi.org/10.9734/IJPSS/2017/33124

GOP, 2016. Pakistan bureau of statistics. Nat. Resour. Div., Pak. Agric. Res. Council, Islamabad.

GOP, 2019. Pakistan Bureau of statistics. Nat. Resour. Div., Pak. Agric. Res. Council, Islamabad.

Gudeta, B. and A.G. Egziabher. 2019. Cotton production potential areas, production trends, research status, gaps and future directions of cotton improvement in Ethiopia.

Gwarazimba, V (2009). Cotton and cassava seed systems in Malawi, Mozambique and Zambia. FAO (Zimbabwe). (www.cantool.net).

Hose, T., M. Cougnon, A. De Vliegher, K. Willekens, E. Van Bockstaele and D. Reheul. 2012. Farm compost application: effects on crop performance. Compost Science and Util. 20: 49-56. https://doi.org/10.1080/1065657X.2012.10737022

Ibrahim, M., A. Hassan, M. Iqbal and E.E. Valeem. 2008. Response of wheat growth and yield to various levels of compost and organic manure. Pak. J. Bot. 40: 2135-2141.

Islam, M.K., M.K. Khalequzzaman and M. Kaikobad. 2010. Effect of organic and inorganic source of N on cotton yield. Annual Research Report 2014, Cotton Development Board, Ministry of Agriculture, Bangladesh. 131-142.

Jamal, A., W. Younas and M. Fawad. 2019. Performance of Wheat (Tricticum avestium L.) as Influenced by Application of Single Super Phosphate Alone and In Combination with Different Organic Fertilizers In Calcareous Soil of Swabi, Pakistan. Kahramanmaraş Sütçü İmam Üniversitesi Tarım ve Doğa Dergisi22(1): 14-18. https://doi.org/10.18016/ksutarimdoga.v22i39650.455876

Jones, J.R.J. and V.W. Case. 1990. Sampling, handling, and analysing plant tissue samples. Soil Test. Plant Anal., R.L. Westerman (ed.). SSSA. Madison, WI, USA. pp. 389-428. https://doi.org/10.2136/sssabookser3.3ed.c15

Kassem, M.M.A., S.A.F. Hamoda and M.A.A. Emara. 2009. Response of cotton growth and yield to foliar application with the growth regulators Indole Aceticacid (IAA) and Kinetin. J. Agric. Sci. Mansoura Univ., 34: 1835-1843.

Khan, A.I., Y.B. Fu and I.A. Khan. 2009. Genetic diversity of Pakistani cotton cultivars as revealed by simple sequence repeat markers. Commun. Biometry Crop Sci., 4(22): 455-466. http://agrobiol.sggw.waw.pl/cbcs.

Kuo, S., M. Ortiz-Escobar, N. Hue and R. Hummel. 2004. Composting and compost utilization for agronomic and container crops. Recent Res. Dev. Environ. Biol. 1: 451-513.

Lal, R., A. Javaid and N. Mahmood. 2009. Soils and food sufficiency. A review. Agron. Sustain. Develop. 29: 113-133. https://doi.org/10.1051/agro:2008044

Loecke, T. D., M. Liebman, C.A. Cambardella, and T.L. Richard. 2004. Corn response to composting and time of application of solid swine manure. Agron. J. 96:214–223.

Mandal, A., A.K. Patra, D. Singh, A. Swarup and R.E. Masto. 2007. Effect of long-term application of manure and fertilizer on biological and biochemical activities in soil during crop development stages. Bioresour. Technol., 98: 3585-3592. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2006.11.027

McGill, W. and C. Figueiredo. 1993. Total nitrogen. Soil sampling and methods of analysis. Lewis Publ., Boca Raton, FL, pp. 201-211.

Meena, R., D. Monga and K. Rajiv. 2007. Undescriptive cotton cultivars of north zone: an evaluation. J. Cotton Res. Develop. 21: 21-23. 

Mngomba, S.A., F.K. Akinnifesi, A. Kerr, K. Salipira and A. Muchugi. 2017. Growth and yield responses of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) to inorganic and organic fertilizers in southern Malawi. Agrofor. Syst. 91: 249-258. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10457-016-9924-0

Muthukrishnan, P., N. Thavaprakaash and K. Srinivasan. 2016. Performance of Cotton Varieties under Organic Management System in Tamil Nadu. Madras Agric. J. pp. 103.

Muneshwar, S., V.P. Singh, K.S. Reddy and M. Singh. 2001. Effect of integrated use of fertilizer nitrogen and farmyard manure or green manure on transformation of N, K and S and productivity of rice–wheat system on a Vertisol. J. Indian Soc. Soil Sci. 49:430–435.

Nazarov, R.C. and C. Boltaev. 2010. Farmyard manure and bentonite based compost use in cotton production of Uzbekistan (in Uzbek). J. Agric. Uzbekistan 8: 18.

Nelson, D.W. and L.E. Sommers. 1982. Total carbon, organic carbon and organic matter. In: Methods of Soil Analysis. Part 2: Chemical and Microbiological Properties, Madison, A.L. (ed.). Soil Sci. Soc. Am., Madison, Wisconsin, USA. pp. 570–571.

Ouattara, K., B. Ouattara, G. Nyberg, M. Sedogo and A. Malmer. 2008. Effects of ploughing frequency and compost on soil aggregate stability in a cotton–maize Gossypium hirsutum (Zea mays L.) rotation in Burkina Faso. Soil Use Manage., 24: 19-28. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1475-2743.2007.00129.x

Ouedraogo, E., a. Mando and N.P. Zombre. 2001. Use of compost to improve soil properties and crop productivity under low input agricultural system in West Africa. Agric. Ecosys. Environ. 84: 259–266. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0167-8809(00)00246-2

GOP, 2018-19. Pakistan Bureau of Statistics, 2018-19. http://www.finance.gov.pk/survey_1819.html

Palm, A.C., C.N. Gachengo, R.J. Delve, G. Cadisch and K.E. Giller. 2001. Organic inputs for soil fertility management in tropical agroecosystems: application of an organic resource database. Agric. Ecosys. Environ. 83: 27–42. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0167-8809(00)00267-X

Peshin, R., A. Dhawan, K. Vatta, and K. Singh. 2007. Attributes and socio-economic dynamics of adopting Bt cotton. Economic and Political Weekly. 73-80.

Rashid, M.I., L.H. Mujawar, T. Shahzad, T. Almeelbi, I.M. Ismail and M. Oves. 2016. Bacteria and fungi can contribute to nutrients bioavailability and aggregate formation in degraded soils. Microb. Res. 183: 26-41. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.micres.2015.11.007

Rinehardt, JM., K.L. Edmisten, R. Wells and J.C. Faircloth. 2004. Response of ultra–narrow and conventional spaced cotton to variable nitrogen rates. J. Plant Nutr. 27: 743-755. https://doi.org/10.1081/PLN-120030379

Sarwar, G., H. Schmeisky, N. Hussain, S. Muhammad, M. Ibrahim and E. Safdar. 2008. Improvement of soil physical and chemical properties with compost application in rice-wheat cropping system. Pak. J. Bot., 40(1): 275-282.

Sattar, M., M.E. Safdar, N. Iqbal, S. Hussain, M. Waqar, M.A. Ali, A. Ali and M.A. Javed. 2017. Timing of nitrogen fertilizer application influences on seed cotton yield. Int. J. Adv. Sci. Res., 2(1): 6-9.

Sawan, Z.M., A.A. Mohamed, R.A. Sakr and A.M. Tarrad. 2000. Effect of kinetin concentration and method of application on seed germination, yield components, yield and fiber properties of the Egyptian cotton (Gossypim barbadense L.). Environ. Exp. Bot., 44: 59-68. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0098-8472(00)00054-X

Sawan, Z.M., M.H. Mahmoud and A.H. El-Guibali. 2008. Influence of potassium fertilization and foliar application of zinc and phosphorus on growth, yield components, yield and fiber properties of Egyptian cotton (Gossypium barbadense L.). J. Plant Ecol. 1: 259-270. https://doi.org/10.1093/jpe/rtn021

Sial, R.A., E.H. Chaudhary, S. Hussain and M. Naveed. 2007. Effect of organic manures and chemical fertilizers on grain yield of maize in rainfed area. Soil Environ., 26(2): 29-32.

Singh, R.J., I. Ahlawat, and K. Kumar. 2013. Productivity and profitability of the transgenic cotton–wheat production system through peanut intercropping and FYM addition. Exper. Agri. 49, 321-335.  https://doi.org/10.1017/S0014479713000197

Soumare, M., F.M.G. Tack and M.G. Verloo. 2003. Effects of a municipal solid waste compost and mineral fertilization on plant growth in two tropical agricultural soils of Mali. Bioresour. Tech. 86: 15–20. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0960-8524(02)00133-5

Steel, R.G.D., J.H. Torrie and D.A. Dickey. 1997. Principles and Procedures of Statistics: A Biometrical Approach, 3rd edition McGraw Hill Co., New York, USA.

Tejada, M., M.M. Dobao, C. Benitez and J.L. Gonzalez. 2001. Study of composting of cotton residues. Bioresour. Technol., 79 (2): 199-202. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0960-8524(01)00059-1

Tewolde, H., N. Bushring, A. Adeli, K.R. Sistani, D.E. Rowe, and R.G. Pratt. 2009. Cotton response to chicken litter in rotation with corn in clayey soil. Agron. J. 101:626-634.

Tewolde, H., K.R. Sistani, and D.E. Rowe. 2007. Broiler litter as a micronutrient source for cotton: Concentrations in plant parts. J. Environ. Qual. 34:1697–1706.

Togun, A.O. and W.B. Akanbi. 2003. Comparative effectiveness of organic-based fertilizer to mineral fertilizer on tomato growth and fruit yield. Compost Sci. Util., 11 (4): 337-342. https://doi.org/10.1080/1065657X.2003.10702143

U.S. Salinity Lab. Staff. 1954. Diagnosis and improvement of saline and alkali soils. USDA Handb.60, Washington, D.C., USA. Washington: USDA.

Weil, R. and F. Magdoff. 2004. Significance of soil organic matter to soil quality and health. Magdoff, F. and Weil, R. (Eds). Soil organic matter in sustainable agriculture. CRC Press, Boca Raton, pp. 1-58. https://doi.org/10.1201/9780203496374.ch1

Wells, A.T., K.Y. Chan and P.S. Cornish. 2000. Comparison of conventional and alternative vegetable farming systems on the properties of a yellow earth in New South Wales. Agric. Ecosyst. Environ., 80 (1-2): 47-60. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0167-8809(00)00133-X

Yaduvanshi, N.P.S. 2003. Substitution of inorganic fertilizers by organic manures and the effect on soil fertility in rice–wheat rotation on reclaimed sodic soil in India. J. Agric. Sci. 140, 161–168. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0021859603002934

Yang, C.H.U., K. Tang, H. Nie and X. Zhang. 2013. Fertilizer 15N accumulation, recovery and distribution in cotton plant as affected by N rate and split. J. Integ. Agric. 12: 999-1007. https://doi.org/10.1016/S2095-3119(13)60477-3

Zahir, Z.A., M. Iqbal, M. Arshad, M. Naveed and M. Khalid. 2007. Effectiveness of IAA, GA3 and kinetin blended with recycled organic waste for improving growth and yield of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Pak. J. Bot 39, 761-768.

Zahir, Z.A., M. Naveed, M.I. Zafar, H.S. Rehman, M. Arshad and M. Khalid. 2007. Evaluation of composted organic waste enriched with nitrogen and L-tryptophan for improving growth and yield of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) Pak. J. Bot., 39(5): 1739-1749.

To share on other social networks, click on P-share. What are these?

Pakistan Journal of Agricultural Research

June

Vol. 33, Iss. 2, Pages 192-421

Featuring

Click here for more

Subscribe Today

Receive free updates on new articles, opportunities and benefits


Subscribe Unsubscribe