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Effect of Different Fallow Tillage Systems Integrated with Glyphosate Herbicide on Soil Moisture Dynamics and Wheat Grain Yield

Effect of Different Fallow Tillage Systems Integrated with Glyphosate Herbicide on Soil Moisture Dynamics and Wheat Grain Yield

Safdar Ali1*, Ghulam Abbas Shah1, Muhammad Naveed Tahir1, Shahid Mehmood2, Asim Gulzar3 , Ijaz Ahmad4 and Bashir Ahmad Khan5 

1Department of Agronomy,Pir Mehr Ali Shah, Arid Agriculture University, Rawalpindi, Pakistan; 2Department of Environmental Sciences, Pir Mehr Ali Shah, Arid Agriculture University, Rawalpindi, Pakistan; 3Department of Entomology, Pir Mehr Ali Shah, Arid Agriculture University, Rawalpindi, Pakistan; 4Ecotoxicology Research Institute, National Agricultural Research Centre Islamabad, Pakistan; 5Department of Agricultural Economics, Pir Mehr Ali Shah Arid Agriculture University Rawalpindi.

safdaraliarid@yahoo.com
 

ABSTRACT

 Sustainability of the soil productivity and soil moisture conservation are two major problems of rainfed agriculture. Thus, to address these issues, a two year field study was carried out at Agronomic Research Area of University Research Farm of PMAS-Arid Agriculture University Rawalpindi during 2012-14.The effects of different tillage systemscombined with glyphosate herbicide on soil moisture content,bulk density and porosity associated with wheat grain yield were evaluated. Seven tillage treatments were applied in the fallow periods (summer seasons) of both years before sowing of wheat crop. These tillage treatments were (i) Once Mould board plowing followed by 8 cultivations with planker (1 MBP + 8 CS) as a check, (ii) No-till followed by twice application of glyphosate herbicide (NT + GH), (iii) Once Mould board plowing followed by twice application of glyphosate herbicide (1 MBP + GH), (iv) Once Mould board plowing followed by 4 cultivations with planker (1 MBP + 4 CS), (v) Once disc harrowing followed by twice application of glyphosate herbicide (1 DH + GH), (vi) Once disc harrowing followed by 4 cultivations with planker (1 DH + 4 CS)and (vii) Once chisel plowing followed by twice application of glyphosate herbicide (1 CP + GH). Results of two year study showed integrated use of glyphosate and tillage systems in general did not affect soil moisture content (P > 0.05). However, soil moisture content was 9% higher in NT + GH as compared to check (1 MBP + 8 CS; P ≤ 0.05). Soil moisture content was significantly higher at 30-45 cm soil depth as compared to top soil (0-30 cm; P ≤ 0.05). Besides, higher soil moisture content was measured at wheat developmental stage relative to other stages (P ≤ 0.05). Soil porosity was significantly higher and bulk density was significantly lower under two statistically similar treatments, i.e. 1 MBP + 8 CS as well as 1 MBP + 4 CS.The wheat production was significantly affected by deep tillage systems having highest and statistically similar yield under the treatments,i.e. 1 MBP + 8 CS as well as 1 MBP + 4 CS. The regression analysis proved that soil moisture content and bulk density have a great association with tillage systems, whereas, the correlation analysis proved that soil porosity and tillage intensity have a strong and positive correlation with wheat grain yield. In conclusion soil moisture dynamics can be improved by combine use of no-till and glyphosate herbicide (NT + GH)while soil porosity, its productivity and wheat economical yield in rainfedagriculture can be enhance by once mould board plowing following 4 cultivations with planker (1 MBP + 4 CS). However, further long term investigations are recommended tostudy the dynamics of conserved soil moisture under conservation tillage system.

 

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Pakistan Journal of Agricultural Research

September

Vol. 31, Iss. 3, Pages 202-290

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