Description of Two New Species of Oriental Genus Halys Fabricius (Pentatomoidae, Pentominae, Halyini) from Sindh, Pakistan with a Key of its Nine Asian Species
Description of Two New Species of Oriental Genus Halys Fabricius (Pentatomoidae, Pentominae, Halyini) from Sindh, Pakistan with a Key of its Nine Asian Species
Nasreen Memon1,*, Rukhsana Parveen2, Imtiaz Ahmad2 and Nadir Ali Shah3
1Department of Zoology, University of Sindh, Jamshoro, Sindh, Pakistan
2Department of Zoology, University of Karachi, Karachi, Pakistan
3Department of Zoology, University of Sindh, Jamshoro, Pakistan
Till to date nine species of the genus Halys are described from Asia. Of the nine species, five are described from Pakistan, including present two new species from Sindh province. These two new species are described, illustrated and compared with the allied species. Illustrations include dorsal view, scent gland apparatus, external and internal male and female genitalia. A key of nine species is also given.
Received 30 March 2016
Revised 15 July 2016
Accepted 31 July 2016
Available online 8 July 2017
All authors designed the study. NM and RP identified the species. NM analyzed the data and wrote the article.
Halyini, Halys, New species, Sindh.
* Corresponding author: firstname.lastname@example.org
0030-9923/2017/0004-1301 $ 9.00/0
Copyright 2017 Zoological Society of Pakistan
The variable genus Halys was first described by to accommodate the type species Cimex dentatus . The status of genus Halys and most of its species always has been controversial and either changed, sysnonymized, or transferred by previous and present researchers like , , , , , , , , , , , , and . Because of this in two hundred years only four species have been added in this oriental genus Halys from Asia. Although the distributional range of Halys species is quite vast and were recorded from different areas of India, Iran, Afghanistan and Bangladesh but not from Pakistan, the most part of which is oriental (Punjab and Sindh province). and described their new species and recorded Halys sulcatus from different areas of Sindh, which was the first published record of Halys species from Pakistan, before it was recorded by from Bangladesh (former East Pakistan).
Till to date five species have been described from the oriental region (Sindh and Punjab province) of Pakistan. Among these five, four species including present two have been described from Hyderabad, Miani forest, Tando jam, and Shahdadkot and Noakot, of Sindh province and only one species H. mulberriences is described from Punjab province of Pakistan.
Halys Fabricius 1803
This genus Halys strikingly resembles Neohalys and Salixocoris in colour and general appearance like paraclypei tapering upward and apically acute, but it is a little closer to Neohalys because in both genera basal antennal segment distinctly shorter than apex of head (which is a tribal character and present in most of the Asian genera of tribe halyini), while in Salixocoris basal antennal segment is almost equal to head apex. Other than these characters, genus Halys is totally different from Neohalys in having comparatively short labium, striking difference is in the shape of paramere, both stem and blade and most peculiar is the apex of paramere blade and to some extent shape of pygophore too; the male genitalia of Salixocoris is also very different from genus Halys, particularly the venteroposterior margin of pygophore, and shape of conjunctival appendages.
KEY TO THE SPECIES OF THE GENUS HALYS FABRICIUS
1 Anterior part of 4th antennal segment dark brown; apical margin of male paramere almost straight with distinct and quite thick apical spin; spermathecal bulb with four processes of variable shape and size ................................................ sindillus
- Whole 4th antennal segment ochraceous brown; apical margin of male paramere not straight with or without very thin spine; spermathecal bulb with usually three sub equal and finger like processes ........................ 2
2 Head narrow, not tapered gradually; paraclypei with distinct tooth inmiddle .............................................. 3
- Head comparatively broad, tapering gradually; paraclypei smooth without tooth...............................7
3 Parameral blade oval with inner and outer margins sinuate, apex subround without inner spine and ridge, penial lobes quadrangular, vesica almost equal to penial lobes............................... shaista
- Paramere broad, with well-developed inner spine and ridge; penial lobes spatulate, vesica shorter than penial lobes .......................................................................... 4
4 Apex of paramere broad ............................................5
- Apex of paramer with distinct spine ......................... 6
- Paraclypei distinctly shorter than clypeus; 2nd antennal segment equal or subequal to 3rd; paramere sinuated at apex, forming concave margin, with apices acutely produced, inner spine of blade very prominent a little bent, beak-like, with distinct ridge .............................................serigera ()
6 Ventromedian projection of pygophore narrow but blunt at apex; dorsal conjunctival appendages large tapering gradually upward and thinly narrow at apex spine-like, vesica a little shorter than penial lobes..................................... ulberriensis
- Ventromedian projection of pygophore conical at apex; dorsal conjunctival appendages quadrate, throughout of same width withblunt apex, vesica much shorter than penial lobes ........................ sulcatus (Thunberg 1783)
7 Blade of paramere without apical spine with apex narrowly roundish, inner margin distinctly wavy with prominent depression on upper outer margin; 1stgonocoxae on posterior margin distinctly depressed at anterior angle; spermathecal bulb with two finger-like processes ........................... hyderabadiensis sp.
- Blade of paramere with small apical spine and with broadapex, inner margin not as above, upper outer margin smooth; posterior margin of 1stgonocoxae not as above; spermathecal bulb with more than two processes ........... 8
8 Blade of paramere with small inwardly bent apical spine, inner margin smooth and a little swollen; dorsal conjunctival appendages large, apical portion thin turned inward like sickle, penial lobes broad, spatulate; 1stgonocoxaewith posterior margin straight; 2nd gonocoxae posteriorly convex; spermathecal bulb with 3 sub equal processes ..............naokotiensissp. n.
- Blade of paramere with small acute apical spine, inner apical margin slightly tapered downward with inner margin wavy; dorsal conjunctival appendages relatively small, apical portion a little narrow, slightly tapered upward; penial lobes thin, a little curved inside; 1st gonocoxae with posterior margin sinuate; 2nd gonocoxaeposteriorly concave; spermathecal bulb with four processes ........spinosus
Named for known distribution in Hyderabad, Sindh, Pakistan.
Holotype ♂, Pakistan: Hyderabad, Sindh, on Temeric, 10.6.1999, (N. Memon), Allotype ♀, same locality, Paratypes 02 ♂ and 04 ♀. The holotype and paratype were deposited in Natural History Museum, Karachi, Sindh Pakistan (NHMUK) and remaining material is kept in Memon’s collection.
Holotype: ♂ 19.0 mm; Allotype ♀ 19.9
Paratype: ♂, (19-19.3), ♀(19.9-20.0)
Head pronotum, scutellum, is dull ochraceous, thickly and densely punctured with dark brown tinge; eyes dark brown with outer border dull ochraceous; ocelli pale ochraceous; antennae brown; pronotum and scutellum streaked with dark and light stripes; apex of scutellum light brown, with few dark brown puncture; each segment of abdomen dark brown with middle portion light brown; membrane of hemelytra bright brown with dark veins; labium ochraceous except a little basal portion of 3rd and entire 4th segment are brown; legs ochraceous brown with dark patches.
Head distinctly longer than broad, tapering upward; Paraclypei almost equal to clypeus, lateral margins almost smooth and without tooth; anteocular region of head twice more than remainder of head, antennae five segmented, 1st antennal segment not reaching apex of head, anteocular distance 3.4 mm, remainder of head 1.4 mm long, width of head 3.3 mm, interocellar distance 1.1 mm; interocular distnace 1.9 mm, length of head 3.0 mm, antenniferous tubercles partially visible, length of antennal segments: I 0.9 mm, II 2.0 mm, III1.5 mm, 4th and 5th mutilated in holotype ♂ and paratype ♀, among three segments, 2nd is longest and 3rd is smallest segment; labium extending to fourth abdominal sternite, length of labial segments: I 2.1 mm, II 4.0 mm, III 3.4 mm, IV 2.8 mm ().
Pronotum twice as broad as long, and distinctly shorter in length than head length, lateral margins of pronotum anteriorly dentate, posteriorly a little sinuate, humeral angles quite subacute; length of pronotum 3.9 mm, width 8.0 mm; scutellum distinctly longer than broad at base, reaching to three-fourth of abdomen, apical lobe U-shape, length of scutellum 6.8 mm, width 4.9 mm, metathoracic scent gland complex () with small ovate aperture, peritreme well-developed, sword-shaped with apex subacute and facing upward, evaporatoria large and very well-defined; membrane of hemelytra equal to abdomen.
Connexiva well exposed, joints sub-acute.
Pygophore quadrate, dorsoposterior margin () with deep cavity, to some extent V-shaped, laterally sinuate and medially excavated, ventroposterior margin () with shallow cavity, laterally smooth and with apically bifid median projection, lateral lobes broad; paramere () with small stem, blade broad, oval-shaped, inner margin distinctly wavy, apex without spine and sub-round, outer upper margin near apex depressed distinctly, inner triangular spine present; inflated aedeagus () with pair of long and apically lobed dorsal membranous conjunctival appendages, pair of ventrolateral membranous conjunctival appendages, pair of highly sclerotized comparatively thin apically sub-round penial lobes, tube-like vesica very much shorter than penial lobes.
First gonocoxae () somewhat quadrate, inner margin concave, posterior margin concave near inner angle, inner angle distinctly produced; second gonocoxae on posterior margin a little concave; eighth paratergite triangular with posterior margin convex; ninth paratergite
This new species H. hyderabadiensis is closely related to two species H. shaista Ghauri and H. naokotiensis sp. n in having paraclypei without tooth and, shape of blade which is broad, ventral margin of pygophore with broad and medially a little notched median lobe, but it is very much different in having 2ndantennal segment distinctly longer than 3rd, blade with round apex and without apical spine, inner spine much prominent, outer margin at apex depressed, inner margin very much sinuated, first gonocoxae with outer margin concave and with distinctly produced inner angle, spermathecal bulb with two finger-like processes while in naokotiensis2nd antennal segment sub equal or a little longer than 3rd, parameral blade with bent spine, inner spine less prominent, inner margin swollen, first gonocoxae posteriorly quite straight and spermathecal bulb with three processes.
Named for the known distribution in Naokot, Thar, Sindh, Pakistan.
Holotype, ♂ Pakistan: Sindh, Naokot, on Ziziphus jujube Mill.15-4-1971 (Azhar Khan), Allotype, ♀, same locality. Additional material: three ♂, two ♀, Pakistan, Sindh, Hyderabad, on Temeric (Imili) 5.6.1998 (Nasreen Memon).
The Holotype, Allotype, Paratype have been deposited in Natural History Museum, Karachi, Pakistan and Paratype in Memon’s collection.
Holotype, ♂ 18.8 mm, Allotype, ♀, 19.0 mm
Paratype:♂ (18.4- 18.9 mm), ♀ (19- 19.5 mm)
Head, antennal segments, labial segments excluding fourth, entire pronotum, scutellum, corium and clavus, connexiva, venter of abdomen, legs except claws are dull ochraceous, with thick brown punctures; eyes brown, ocelli yellow with reddish tinge; 4th labial segment dark; claws ochraceous brown; membrane of hemelytra brown with dark veins.
Lateral margins of head slightly sinuate; paraclypei
a little shorter than clypeus, tapering towards apex with apices quite acute, antennae five segmented, 1st segment not reaching apex of head, length of antennal segments, I 1.0 mm, II 2.4 mm, III 2.6 mm, 4th and 5th mutilated in type; labium reaching to middle of 6th abdominal segment, length of labial segments, I 2.0 mm, II 4.0 mm, III 3.4 mm, IV 3.0 mm, labial formula I < IV < III < II; bucculae distinctly shorter than basal labial segment ().
Pronotum more than twice as broad as long, lateral margins anteriorly dentate and posteriorly sinuate, anterior angles acute, humeral angles subacute; length of pronotum 4.0 mm, width of pronotum 8.2 mm; scutellum distinctly longer than broad at base, reaching up to 6th abdominal sternum with apex u-shaped; length of scutellum 7.4 mm, width 6.0 mm at base, metathoracic scent gland apparatus () ovate with distinct well-developed, sword-shaped peritreme, a little concave on anterior margin with apex sub-acute, evaporatoria very well defined with raised outer margin; membrane of hemelytra about equal to length of abdomen.
Pygophore with dorsoposterior margin () with shallow cavity, medial excavation and two rounded lobes on the sides of excavation, dorsolateral lobes with subround apex, ventral margin of pygophore () with deep cup- shaped cavity and median projection with broad apex, a little notched in center; paramere () L-shaped, stem without inner spine, blade broad, leaf-shaped, with inner spine comparatively less prominent, apical spine small and inwardly bent, inner margin of blade smooth and distinctly smooth; inflated aedeagus (, ) with pair of very long dorsal membranous conjunctival appendages gradually tapering in width, specially apical portion very thin, somewhat sickle-shaped, posterior portion acuminated, pair of ventrolateral conjunctival appendages placed moderately apart, like shoe-horn-shaped and U-shaped; pair of spatulate sclerotized penial lobes, a little longer than vesica.
First gonocoxae () with posterior margin almost straight; 2nd gonocoxae with convex posterior margin, fused 8thparatergite triangular with posterior margin convex but distinctly concave in middle; ninth pratergites distinctly shorter than 8th, with apices subrounded, spermathecal bulb, () semi sclerotized, ovate, with three finger-like processes, two small and one comparatively large.
This new species H. naokotiensis closely related to H. hyderabadiensis sp.n. in general appearance, same colouration, paraclypei without tooth, presence of inner spine of paramere, but it differs from hyderabadiensis in having distinct bent apical spine, inner margin of paramere blade smooth and swollen, outer upper margin smoothly roundish, spermathecal bulb with three processes while in hyderabadiensis apex of paramere without spine, subrounded, upper outer margin with distinct depression, inner margin of paramere blade distinctly wavy, spermathecal bulb with two almost equal processes.
Statement of conflict of interest
Authors have declared no conflict of interest.
Abbasi, Q.A. and Ahmad, I., 1976. A new species of the Genus Halys Fabricius (Pentatomidae: Halyini) from East Bengal with notes on its genitalia and their bearing on classification. J. Sci. Univ. Karachi, 2: 26–31.
Ahmad, I. and Khanum, D., 1968. Functional morphology of scent apparatus of H. dentatus (Fabricius) 1775 (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) with comments on its phylogenetic value. Univ. stud. Kar. Pakistan, 5: 64-71.
Ahmad, I. and McPherson, J.E., 1998. Additional information on male and female genitalia of Parabrochymena Lariviere and Brochymena Amyot and Serville (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae). Annls. entomol. Soc. Am., 91: 800–807.
Ahmad, I., 1979. A revision of the checklist of coreidae and pentatomidae of the superfamilies coreoidea and pentatomoidea (Heteroptera: Pentatomorpha) from Pakistan with phylogenetic consideration. Suppl. entomol. Soc. Karachi, 4: 1-113.
Ahmad, I., Abbasi, Q.A. and Khan, A.A., 1974. Generic and supergeneric keys with reference to a checklist of pentatomid fauna of Pakistan (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) with notes on their distribution and food plants. Kar. entomol. Soc. Suppl, 1: 1-103.
Fabricius, J.C., 1775. Systema Entomologiae Sistens Insectorum Classes, Ordines, Genera, Species, Adiectis Synonymis, Locis, Description ibus, Observation ibus. Libraria Kortii, Flensburgi et Lipsiae, pp. 4-31.
Ghauri, M.S.K., 1988. A revision of Asian species of the genus Halys Fabricius based on the type material (Insecta: Heteroptera: Pentatomidae: Pentatominae). Ent. Abhandl. Mus. Tierk. Dresden, 51: 77-92.
Kirkaldy, G.W., 1909. Catalogue of the Hemiptera (Heteroptera) with biological and anatomical references, list of food plants and parasites etc., pp. 182Ð205. Prefaced by a discussion on nomenclature and an analytical table of families. Vol. 1. Felix Dames, Berlin, Germany.
Memon, N., Ahmad, I. and Parveen, R., 2002. Re description of the type species of Halys fabricii (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae: Pentatominae:Halyini) a preoccupied name of the genus Halys Fabricius with a note on its independent status from Halys serrigera (Westwood). J. Nat. Hist. Wildl., 1: 50-54.
Memon, N., Gilbert, F. and Ahmad, I., 2011. Phylogeny of the South Asian halyine stink bugs (Hemiptera:Pentatomidae: Halyini) based on morphological characters. Annls. entomol. Soc. Am. (USA), 104: 1149-1169.
Memon, N., Meier, R., Manan, A. and Feng-Yi Su, K., 2006. On the use of DNA sequences to determine the species limits of a polymorphic new species in the stink bug genus Halys (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) from Pakistan. System. Ent. U.K., 31: 703-710.