Submit or Track your Manuscript LOG-IN

Biodiversity of Butterflies in Tangi Charsadda, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan

PJZ_52_3_835-841

 

 

Biodiversity of Butterflies in Tangi Charsadda, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan

Haroon1,2, Yu-Feng Meng1, Zahid Khan1, Farzana Perveen2, Muhammad Ather Rafi3, Sayed Waqar Shah4, Xiao-Hong Su1 and Lianxi Xing1,*

1College of Life Sciences, Northwest University, No. 229, North Taibai Rd; Xi’an Shaanxi Province, 710069, P.R. China

2Department of Zoology, Shaheed Benazir Bhutto University, Sheringal, Dir Upper, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan

3National Insect Museum, National Agricultural Research Centre, Islamabad, Pakistan

4PARC Institute of Advanced Studies in Agriculture, National Agricultural Research Centre, Islamabad, Pakistan

ABSTRACT

During study biodiversity of butterflies is explored in Tangi, Charsadda, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. A total of 506 specimens collected out of which 252/506 were belonging to family Nymphalidae, 217/506 from family Pieridae, family Papilionidae represented only 37/506 individuals. With their abundance Danauas chrysippus (F130, F314 and D3 24.11), followed by Junonia orytha (F121, F310 and D3 11.86), while Papilio polytes, Junonia hierta and Euthalia garuda showed minimum (F12, F 31 and D3 0.2) of each species. The Shannon diversity (H’) is high in union council (UC) Koaz Bahram Dheri (H’= 6.05) followed by UC Dhaki (H’= 4.38), while Simpson diversity (1/D) is more significant in UC Koaz Bahram Dheri (1/D= 0.1), and Ghandheri (1/D= 0.14). While the minimum Simpson diversity (1/D) recorded from UC Tangi (1/D= 0.41) and UC Hisara Nehri (1/D= 0.31). The maximum individuals were collected from UC Koaz Bahram Dheri (n=144/506), followed by UC Mandani (n=73/506), while the minimum species individuals collected from UC Shodagh (n=32/506) followed by UC Tangi (n=35/506). The present biodiversity study showed that the study area is rich in butterfly species with a different verity of species. More contemplations are rendering urban reserves imperative for worldwide preservation endeavours. Generally, urban areas frequently emerged close conspicuous landforms, for example, soak slopes or important waterways and protect their flora and fauna of the study area.


Article Information

Received 26 March 2019

Revised 29 May 2019

Accepted 11 June 2019

Available online 17 February 2020

Authors’ Contribution

Haroon, YM, and ZK designed the study. FP, MAR, and WS executed experimental work and analyzed the data. XS helped in preparation of the manuscript. LX supervised the work.

Key words

Butterflies, Biodiversity, Tangi, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan.

DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.17582/journal.pjz/20190326090338

* Corresponding author: lxxing@nwu.edu.cn

0030-9923/2020/0003-0835 $ 9.00/0

Copyright 2020 Zoological Society of Pakistan



INTRODUCTION

The diversity of insect communities depends upon the types of land, local climates, vegetation, altitude and human interferences in the ecosystem (Hassan, 1997). Larvae of butterflies feed on leaves of plants for their survival (Shah et al., 2016), and hence their distribution depends upon the accessibility of their host plants (Arya, 2014). They are highly sensitive and are easily affected by the ecological changes and variations in the plant community structure (Blair, 1999). Many species are strictly seasonal and prefer only particular set of habitat (Kunte, 1997). A slight change in their habitat may lead to either their migration or disappearance (Blair, 1999; Kunte, 2000; Mennechez et al., 2003).

However, throughout the world, many studies have been conducted in recent years, and many different habitats have been investigated about butterfly diversity (Schneider, 2003) including Pakistan. Hassan (1997) reported biogeography and diversity of butterflies of Northeast Himalaya, i.e. Gilgit, Hunza-Nagar, Astor and Chilas. Khan et al. (2000) studied the distribution and diversity of genus Papilio in Rawalpindi and Islamabad. Abbas et al. (2002) reported taxonomy and distribution of butterflies of the Skardu, Gilgit-Baltistan. Khan et al. (2004) studied the diversity of butterflies from District Muzaffarabad, Azad Kashmir. Tayyab et al. (2006) reported the biodiversity of butterflies from Agro-forest area of Bahawalpur. Smith et al. (2007) reported butterflies from Hunza Region Northern Pakistan and adjacent Pakistan. Khan et al. (2007) reported biodiversity of butterflies from Districts Kotli, Mirpur and Bhimber, Azad Kashmir, Pakistan. Munir et al. (2007) reported the distribution and diversity of swallowtail butterflies from Karachi. Perveen (2012) reported the distribution of butterflies from Kohat. Khan et al. (2014) studied the biodiversity of butterflies from Poonch Division of Azad Kashmir. Mal et al. (2014) reported the diversity of Pieridae butterflies from Jamshoro District, Sindh. Through the current work, the first-time biodiversity of butterflies reported from Tangi, Charsadda and a baseline data on biodiversity of butterflies of the study area.

 

Materials and methods

The specimens were collected from UC Koaz Bahram Dheri, UC Harichand, UC Mandani, UC Shodagh, UC Dhaki, UC Hisara Nehri, UC Ghandheri and UC Tangi. All localities were visited fortnightly from August 2014 to May 2015. The butterflies collected from each locality with the help of aerial nets and searching and picking methods. The collected specimens were taken to the laboratory for identification and then recorded with reference to each locality. The species diversity was calculated by the following indices:

Shannon diversity index (H’)

The Shannon diversity index assumes that individuals of each species randomly sampled from an effectively infinite population. It was calculated from the following equation:

H’ = - Σpi ln pi

Where, Pi indicates the individuals belonging to the (ith) species (proportional).

Shannon’s index considers the evenness of the abundances of species. It is also possible to calculate a separate measure of Evenness:

E = H’ / Hmax= H’ / ln S

As with H’ this evenness measure assumes that all species in the community account for in the sample, and Hmax is the maximum diversity (when all species are equally abundant) (Shannon and Wiener, 1963).

Simpson’s index (1/D)

Simpson’s index (1/D) is referred to as a dominance measure because it weighted towards the abundance of the most prevalent species. It calculates the probability of any two individuals drawn at random from an infinitely large community belonging to different species as:

Where, ni is the proportion of individuals in the ith species.

To calculate the index, the formula appropriate to finite community use: where ni is the number of individuals in the ith species and N is the total number of individuals.As D increases, diversity decreases, and Simpson’s index is therefore usually expressed as 1- D or 1/D. Simpson’s index is heavily weighted towards the most abundant species in the sample while being less sensitive to species richness (Simpson, 1949).

Evenness or Shannon’s equitability index (E)

Shannon’s equitability index measures the evenness of species abundance, is complementary diversity index concept indicates how the individuals of various species distribute in the community.

E = H/log(S)

Where, H is the Shannon-Weiner index of diversity (Shannon and Wiener, 1963).

Species richness index (d)

Species richness index (d) was calculated using the formula given:

d = S/√N

Where, N is the total number of individuals summed over all species (Margalef, 1969).

Frequency F1

To determine the frequency in a stand was taken by the following formula:

Where, S is the occurrence of species in a stand and N is the total numbers of the stand taken.

Margalef’s index (R)

The richness will calculate by using Margalef’s index and Menhinick’s Index. The form of the Margalef’s index used will be:

d=S-1/logeN

Where, S is the number of species and N is the total number of individuals. The form of Menhinick’s Index use during the present study:

R= S/√N

Where, S is the total number of the species and N is the total number of individuals (Margalef, 1969; Pielou, 1977).

 

Results and discussion

The study was conducted first time on butterfly fauna of Tangi, Charsadda, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. During survey 506 specimens of butterflies were collected, identified specimens belonging to 3 families, i.e. Family Nymphalidae (252/506), Pieridae (217/506) and family Papilionidae (37/506) and 18 genera. Table I shows the list of collected species. The study area is mostly plain from east to west, situated 45° from the north to south. The latitude, longitude, elevation (ft) and elevation (m) recorded along with collected specimens. It has been observed that the low and high latitude or longitude affect the distributions of butterflies Table III.

The frequency (F1), relative frequency (F3) and relative density (D3) of different species were also calculated. Among the species D. chrysippus showed the highest ratios followed by Junonia orytha, Papilio polytes, Junonia hierta and Euthalia garuda (Table I).

 

Table I.- The collected butterfly’s species with density, frequency, relative frequency and relative density from Tangi, Charsadda, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan, during August 2014-May 2015.

Species

Density (D)

Frequency (F1)

Relative frequency (F3)

Relative density (D3)

Family: Pieridae

Pieris canidia

64

14

7

12.65

Catopsilia ponoma

58

19

9

11.46

Belonias aurota

40

26

13

7.91

Catopsilia pyranthe

35

14

7

6.91

Eurema hecabe

7

7

3

1.38

Colias fieldii

7

7

3

1.38

Colotis etrida

4

5

2

0.79

Colias erate

2

2

1

0.4

Family: Nymphalidae

Danauas chrysippus

122

30

14

24.11

Junonia orytha

60

21

10

11.86

Hipparchia parisatis

21

12

6

4.15

Argyreus hyperbius

14

7

3

2.76

Junonia almana

11

7

3

2.17

Ariadne merione

9

5

2

1.78

Caynthia cardui

4

7

3

0.79

Tirumala liminniace

3

5

2

0.59

Lethe confuse

2

2

1

0.4

Neptis mahendra

2

2

1

0.4

Vanesa indica

2

2

1

0.4

Euthalia garuda

1

2

1

0.2

Junonia hierta

1

2

1

0.2

Family: Papilionidae

Papilio demoleus

36

12

6

7.11

Papilio polytes

1

2

1

0.2

Total ΣN

506

212

100

100

 

Different scientists worked on the biodiversity of butterfly fauna in Pakistan. Khan et al. (2007) explored the biodiversity of Poonch Division, Districts Kotli, Mirpur and Bhimber of Azad Kashmir, Pakistan. They analysed Shannon Wiener’s diversity index (Shannon and Wiener, 1963), and calculated values of this index at District Kotli ranged from 2.145 (Dongi) to 3.29 (Sarsawa), followed by 3.2 (Holar, Kotli city, Fateh Pur and Khuiretta). From Mirpur the lowest values yielded at Khari Sharif (3.135), and highest values 3.75 at Mirpur City and Islam Garh (3.70), whereas at all remaining stations the values yielded between 3.2 (Mangla) and 3.60 (Afzal Pur); in District Bhimber it ranged between 3.75 (Berhing) and 2.97 (Barnala). However, from the present study Shannon Diversity (H’) is high in UC Koaz Bahram Dheri (H’= 6.05) followed by UC Dhaki (H’= 4.38) and UC Ghandheri (H’= 2.03) and the minimum (H’) were calculated from UC Hisara Nehri (H’= 0.39) and UC Harichand (H’= 0.55). Therefore, both study areas were entirely different from each other, due to the collection period and the environmental factors.

Khan et al. (2014) calculated the values of Shannon’s Index at various localities of District Bagh which ranged from 2.09 (Naumanpura) to 3.60 (Chammyati), while in all the remaining locations this index ranged from 2.86 (Bagh city) to 3.45 (Sudhangali); in District Poonch calculated values ranged from 3.14 (Topa) to 34.36 (Khaigala). The lowest diversity was calculated from Topa (3.14), Hajira (3.16), Ali Sojal (3.19) and Paniola (3.21). The highest diversity was calculated from Rawalakot (4.01) and Khaigala (4.36). All the remaining localities yielded the diversity of this index ranging from 3.40 (Singhola) to 3.99 (Hussain Kot). The calculated value of Shannon’s Diversity index from District Sudhnoti ranged from 3.29 (Pallandri City) to 3.8 (Azad Pattan), all the remaining localities yielded diversity index values ranging from 3.41 (Saundh) to 3.79 (Mong). Although, from the present study Shannon Diversity (H’) is high in UC Koaz Bahram Dheri (H’= 6.05), and the minimum (H’) in UC Hisara Nehri (H’= 0.39) and UC Harichand (H’= 0.55) (Table II). The butterflies calculated value is well distributed almost at all the localities of the study area of Tehsil Tangi. Conversely, the more compactly vegetated locations generated faintly multiple diversity values, and unfertile and less vegetated areas retained marginally lower diversity values.

Several workers have worked on the distribution and documentation of butterflies in KPK, Pakistan. Shah et al. (2001) first time explored and reported ten species of butterfly from Kohat, they reported ten species belong to only family Pieridae from 7 different localities. During the present research, similar species of family Pieridae was also recorded from Tehsil Tangi, which shows the great resemblance in both areas. The diversity of butterfly fauna of Buner, KPK, Pakistan, explored and reported a total of 450 specimens; however, all specimens were belonging to family Pieridae (Naz et al., 2001). While, in the present study, most of the specimens belonged to family Nymphalidae followed by family Pieridae. However, there was the greatest difference between both areas. Furthermore, Buner area mostly hilly and Tangi is a plain area. However, from the butterfly fauna of Kohat, a total of 21 species were collected which belong to 3 families (Perveen and Ahmad, 2012). Therefore, from Tehsil Tangi reported the same families but the percentage of the families were different in both areas because of the climatic conditions

 

Table II.- The collected butterfly’s species diversities, richness and their density in different localities of the Tangi, Charsadda, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan, during August 2014-May 2015.

S No

Name of place

Density

Richness (d)

Maturity index

Simpson diversity (1/D)

Shannon diversity (H')

Shannon equitability (E)

Margalef’s index (R)

1

UC Koaz Bahram Dheri

144

1.42

28.47

0.1

6.05

2.14

3.22

2

UC Shodagh

32

1.06

5.33

0.19

1.86

1.04

3.32

3

UC Mandani

73

0.94

9.13

0.19

0.82

0.39

3.76

4

UC Dhaki

54

0.95

7.71

0.26

4.38

2.25

3.46

5

UC Hisara Nehri

56

0.67

11

0.31

0.39

0.24

2.29

6

UC Tangi

35

0.84

7

0.41

0.73

0.45

2.6

7

UC Ghandheri

63

0.63

7.88

0.14

2.03

0.98

3.89

8

UC Harichand

49

0.71

32

0.25

0.55

0.34

2.37

 

Table III.- The collective rank list along with the list of Taxa collected from different localities of Tangi, Charsadda, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan, during August 2014-May 2015.

Rank

Name of Taxa

Abun-dance

UC Koaz Bahram Dheri

UC Sho-dagh

UC Man-dani

UC Dhaki

UC Hisara Nehri

UC Tangi

UC Ghan-dheri

UC Hari-chand

Family: Pieridae

2

Pieris canidia

64

16

6

19

23

-

-

-

-

4

Catopsilia ponoma

58

13

8

14

5

6

5

7

-

5

Belonias aurota

40

11

3

2

-

8

2

5

9

6

Catopsilia pyranthe

35

13

6

5

5

-

-

6

-

12

Eurema hecabe

7

-

-

2

5

-

-

-

-

13

Colias fieldii

7

4

-

-

-

-

-

3

-

15

Colotis etrida

4

4

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

19

Colias erate

2

-

-

-

2

-

-

-

-

Family: Nymphalidae

1

Danauas chrysippus

122

33

4

12

-

21

20

13

19

3

Junonia orytha

60

12

-

-

-

20

-

16

12

8

Hipparchia parisatis

21

12

-

4

-

-

-

-

5

9

Argyreus hyperbius

14

9

-

-

-

-

-

5

-

10

Junonia almana

11

-

4

-

7

-

-

-

-

11

Ariadne merione

9

5

-

-

-

-

-

-

4

14

Caynthia cardui

4

4

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

16

Tirumala liminniace

3

-

1

-

-

-

2

-

-

17

Lethe confuse

2

2

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

18

Neptis mahendra

2

2

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

20

Vanesa indica

2

2

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

21

Euthalia garuda

1

1

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

22

Junonia hierta

1

-

-

-

-

1

-

-

-

Family: Papilionidae

7

Papilio demoleus

36

-

-

15

7

-

6

8

-

23

Papilio polytes

1

1

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Total individuals

ΣN=506

N=144

N=32

N=73

N=54

N=56

N=35

N=63

N=49

 

and vegetation. Moreover, on the basis of identification and distribution of butterflies, a survey was conducted at UC Koaz Bahram Dheri, KP, Pakistan and collected a total of 232 specimens from 12 localities (Haroon et al., 2013). Moreover, the identified specimens of butterflies belonging to 13 species, 11 genera and three families. Family Nymphalidae comprised the most significant number of butterflies 49% followed by Pieridae 37% and 14% of Papilionidae. However, the similar families reported from the present research, and family Nymphalidae covered 49.8%, Pieridae 42.89% and Papilionidae 7.31%. Although, both study areas having the same type of cultivation land, climatic condition and flora. The butterflies of Kohat, KPK, explored the second time for identification and distribution and collected 21 species belonged to 3 families and six subfamilies from Kohat, KPK (Perveen, 2012). Additionally, two subfamilies of Nymphalidae: Nymphalinae covered 28% and Satyrinae 5% species. Furthermore, family Pieridae including three subfamilies, viz., Pierinae covered 24%, Coliaclinae 5% and Coliadinae 28%. While the family Papilionidae including only one subfamily, Papilioninae covered 10% species. However, in present study, reported 3 families; Nymphalidae and their subfamilies are: Danainae 25%; Nymphalinae 6%; Vespidae 12%; Satyrinae 4%; Biblidinae 2%; Trogidae 1 % and Limenitidinae 1%; Pieridae: Coliadinae 21%; Pierinae 21% and Papilionidae: Papilioninae 7% (Table III). Moreover, the Tehsil Tangi flora and fauna is mostly dominant as compared to Kohat due to intensive agricultural land.

 

Conclusion

During present study, a total of 506 specimens were collected from 8 localities: Union Council Koaz Bahram Dheri: 29% > Mandani: 14% > Ghandheri: 12% > Dhaki: 11% = Hisara Nehri: 11% > Harichand: 10% > Tangi: 7% and Shodagh: 6%. Family Nymphalidae contributed the maximum number of specimens (252/506) followed by Pieridae (217/506) and minimum specimens recorded of family Papilionidae (37/506). Furthermore, proper protective measures should take in attention to minimising the natural habitat loss, as butterfly fauna is dependent upon perfect environmental conditions.

 

Acknowledgement

The authors acknowledge Department of Zoology, Shaheed Benazir Bhutto University, Main Campus, Sheringal, Dir Upper, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan for providing laboratory facilities.

 

Statement of conflict of interest

The authors declare no conflict interest.

 

References

Abbas, M., Rafi, M.A., Inayatullah, M., Khan, M.R. and Pavulaan, H., 2002. Taxonomy and distribution of butterflies of the Skardu region, Pakistan. Taxon. Rep. Int. Lepidop. Surv., 6: 1-11.

Arya, M.K., 2014. Species richness and diversity of butterflies in and around Kumaun University, Nainital, Uttarakhand, India. J. Ent. Zool. Stud., 2: 153-159.

Basset, Y., Eastwood, R., Sam, L., Lohman, D.J., Novotny, V., Treuer, T., Miller, S.E., Weiblen, G.D., Pierce, N.E., Bunyavejchewin, S., Sakchoowong, W., Kongnoo, P. and Arenas, M.A.O., 2011. Comparison of rainforest butterfly assemblages across three biogeographical regions using standardized protocols. J. Res. Lepidop., 44: 17-28.

Blair, R.B., 1999. Birds and butterflies along an urban gradient: Surrogate taxa for assessing biodiversity. Ecol. Applic., 9: 164-170. https://doi.org/10.1890/1051-0761(1999)009[0164:BABAAU]2.0.CO;2

Boggs, C.L., 2003. Environmental variation, life histories and allocation. In: Butterflies: Ecology and evolution taking flight (eds. C.L. Boggs, W.B. Watt and P.R. Ehrlich). University of Chicago Press, Chicago, IL, pp. 185–206.

Bonebrake, T.C. and Sorto, R., 2009. Butterfly Papilionoidea and Hesperioidea rapid assessment of a coastal countryside in El Salvador. Trop. Conserv. Sci., 21: 34-51. https://doi.org/10.1177/194008290900200106

Brown, J.H., 1995. Macroecology. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, IL, pp. 3-6.

Devries, P.J. and Walla, T.R., 2011. Species diversity and community structure in Neotropical fruit-feeding butterflies. Biol. J. Linn. Soc., 74: 1–15. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1095-8312.2001.tb01372.x

Gaston, K.J., 2000. Global patterns in biodiversity. Nature, 405: 220–227. https://doi.org/10.1038/35012228

Gray, J.S., 1980. Why do ecological monitoring? Mar. Poll. Bull., 11: 62-66. https://doi.org/10.1016/0025-326X(80)90544-5

Haroon, Ahmad, T., Ahsan, A. and Ahmad, I., 2013. Diversity pattern of butterfly Lepidoptera Papilio demoleus in UC Koaz Bahram Dheri Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Pakistan. Int. J. Sci.: Basic appl. Res., 9: 94-99.

Hassan, S.A., 1997. Biogeography and diversity of butterflies of North East Hamaliya. In: Biodiversity of Pakistan (eds. S.A. Mufti, C.A. Woods and S.A. Hassan). Pakistan Museum of Natural History, Islamabad, Florida Museum of Natural History, Gainesville. Pastic Press, Islamabad, pp. 181-204

Hellmann, J.J., 2002. The effect of an environmental change on mobile butterfly larvae and the nutritional quality of their hosts. J. Anim. Ecol., 71: 925-936. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2656.2002.00658.x

Kadlec, T., Benes, J., Jarosik, V. and Konvicka, M., 2008. Revisiting urban refuges: Changes of butterfly and burnet fauna in Prague reserves over three decades. Landsc. Urban Plann., 85: 1–11. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.landurbplan.2007.07.007

Kelly, M.G., Cazaubon, A., Coring, E., Dell’Uomo, A., Ector, L., Goldsmith, B., Guasch, H., Hürlimann, J., Jarlman, A., Kawecka, B. and Kwandrans, J., 1998. Recommendations for the routine sampling of diatoms for water quality assessments in Europe. J. appl. Phycol., 10: 215-224. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1008033201227

Khan, M.R., Rafi, M.A. and Munir, M., 2007. Biodiversity of butterflies from districts Kotli, Mipur and Azad Kashmir. Pakistan J. Zool., 39: 27-34.

Khan, H. and Perveen, F., 2015. Distribution of Butterflies Family Nymphalidae in Union Council Koaz Bahram Dheri, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. Social Basic Sci. Res. Rev., 31: 52-57.

Khan, M.R., Rafi, M.A., Nazir, N., Khan, M.R., Khan, I.A., Hayat, A., Ghaffar, A., Rahim, J. and Prveen, F., 2014. Biodiversity of butterflies from Poonch Division of Azad Kashmir. Int. J. Agric. Technol., 10: 885-898.

Kocher, S.D. and Williams, E.H., 2000. The diversity and abundance of North American butterflies vary with habitat disturbance and geography. J. Biogeogr., 27: 785-794. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2699.2000.00454.x

Kremen, C., 1992. Assessing the indicator properties of species assemblages for natural areas monitoring. Ecol. Applic., 2: 203-217. https://doi.org/10.2307/1941776

Kumar, R. and Mattu, V.K., 2014. Diversity of butterflies Lepidoptera: Insecta from Balh Valley District Mandi in Himachal Pradesh, India. Asian J. Adv. Basic Sci., 23: 66-70.

Kunte, K., 2000. India- A life scape: Butterflies of Peninsular, India. Universities Press, Indian Academy of Sciences, Bangalore, pp. 270.

Kunte, K.J., 1997. Seasonal patterns in butterfly abundance and species diversity in four tropical habitats in northern Western Ghats. J. Biosci., 22: 593-603. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02703397

Lewinsohn, T.M., Freitas, A.V.L. and Prado, P.I. 2005. Conservation of terrestrial invertebrates and their habitats in Brazil. Conserv. Biol., 19: 640–645. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1523-1739.2005.00682.x

Luff, M.L. and Woiwod, I.P., 1995. Insects as indicators of land use change: a European perspective, focusing on moths and ground beetles. In: Insects in a changing environment (eds. R. Harrington and N.E. Stork). Academic Press, London.

Mac, N.R. and Fleishman, E., 2004. A successful predictive model of species richness based on indicator species. Conserv. Biol., 18: 646-634. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1523-1739.2004.00328_18_3.x

Mal, B., Memon, N., Memon, S.A., Ali, M., Shah, N.A.S. and Turk, J.K., 2014. Diversity of Pieridae butterflies (Lepidoptera: Pieridae) in Jamshoro District, Sindh, Pakistan. J. Ent. Zool. Stud., 2: 164-170.

Margalef, S.R., 1969. Diversity and stability: A practical proposal: A model of intersdependence. Bookhaven Symp. Biol., 22: 25-37.

Mcarthur, R.H., 1965. Patterns of species diversity. Biol. Rev., 40: 510-533. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-185X.1965.tb00815.x

Mennechez, G., Schtickzelle, N. and Baguette, M., 2003. Metapopulation dynamics of the bog fritillary butterfly: comparison of demographic parameters and dispersal between a continuous and a highly-fragmented landscape. Landsc. Ecol., 18: 279-291. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1024448829417

Munir, A., Yasmin, N., Rafi, M.A., Pavulaan, H. and Wright, D., 2007. Bionomic studies of Papilio demoleus Linnaeus, the citrus butterfly (Lepidoptera: Papilionid) from lower Sindh, Pakistan. Taxon. Rep. Int. Lepidoptera Surv., 6: 1-11.

Naz, F., Rafi, M.A., Inayatullah, M. and Tuzor, Y., 2001. The butterflies of the Buner District, North-West-Frontier Province, Pakistan. Helios Collect. Lepidop. Articles, 2: 123-224.

Newbold, T., Gilbert, F., Zalat, S., El-Gabbas, A. and Reader, T., 2009. Climate-based models of spatial patterns of species richness in Egypt’s butterfly and mammal fauna. J. Biogeogr., 36: 2085–2095. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2699.2009.02140.x

Nganso, B.T., Kyerematen, R. and Ofori, D.O., 2012. Diversity and abundance of butterfly species in the Abiriw and Odumante Sacred Groves in the Eastern Region of Ghana. Res. Zool., 25: 38-46. https://doi.org/10.5923/j.zoology.20120205.01

OTA, 1987. Technologies to maintain biological diversity. US Congress Office of Technology Assessment, US Government Printing Office, Washington DC.

Perveen, F., 2012. Distribution of butterflies Lepidoptera of Kohat, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. Agric. Sci. Res. J., 29: 539-549.

Perveen, F. and Ahmad, A., 2012. Exploring butterfly fauna Lepidoptera of Kohat, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. J. ent. Stud., 12: 94-107.

Perveen, F. and Fazal, F., 2013. Key for identification of butterflies Lepidoptera of Hazara University, Garden Campus, Mansehra, Pakistan. Int. J. Agric. Innovat. Res., 15: 2319-1473.

Perveen, F. and Khan, A., 2013. Checklist of butterfly Fauna from Kabal, Swat, Pakistan. J. Adv. Biol., 22: 115-121.

Pielou, E.C., 1977. Mathematical ecology. Wiley, New York.

Pollard, E., 1977. A method for assessing changes in the abundance of butterflies. Biol. Conserv., 122: 115-134. https://doi.org/10.1016/0006-3207(77)90065-9

Sawchik, J., Dufrêne, M. and Lebrun, P., 2005. Distribution patterns and indicator species of butterfly assemblages of wet meadows in southern Belgium. Belg. J. Zool., 135: 43-52.

Sbordoni, V. and Forestiero, S., 1997. Butterflies of World. Artis Graphicas Tnedo, S. t-D-L, pp. 312.

Schneider, C., 2003. The influence of landscape structure on butterfly diversity and movement in grasslands. Acta Univ. Agric. Sueci., pp. 1-51.

Shah, M., Rafi, M.A. and Inyatullah, M., 2001. Some pieridae butterflies of Kohat district. Sarhad J. Agric., 173: 407-413.

Shah, S.W., Rafi, M.A. and Zia, A., 2016. Biology of Pontia daplidice (Lepidoptera: Pieridae) on its new host plant Lepidium pinnatifidium from Potohar Region, Pakistan. J. Ent. Zool. Stud., 4: 178-182.

Shannon, E.R. and Weiner, W., 1963. The mathematical theory of communication. University of Illinois Press, Urbana, Illinois, pp. 117.

Simpson, E.H., 1949. Measurement of diversity. Nature, 163: 688. https://doi.org/10.1038/163688a0

Smith, D.S., Naseer, G., Balint, Z. and Hasan, S.A., 2007. Butterflies of the Hunza region, northern Pakistan, and adjacent Afghanistan. Holarc.Lepidopt., 11: 1-57.

Tayyab, M., Suhail, A., Arshad, S. and Arshad, M., 2006. Biodiversity of Lepidopterous insects in agro-forest area of Bahawalpur. Pakistan Entomol., 28: 25-30.

Vries, P.J.D., Walla, T.R. and Greeney, H.F., 1999. Species diversity in spatial and temporal dimensions of fruit-feeding butterflies from two Ecuadorian rainforests. Biol. J. Linn. Soc., 68: 333-353. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1095-8312.1999.tb01175.x

Vu, L.V. and Vu, C.Q., 2011. Diversity pattern of butterfly communities Lepidoptera, papilionoidae in different habitat types in a tropical rain forest of southern Vietnam. International Scholarly Research Network, pp. 1-9. https://doi.org/10.5402/2011/818545

To share on other social networks, click on P-share. What are these?

Pakistan Journal of Zoology

June

Vol. 52, Iss. 3, Pages 825-1224

Featuring

Click here for more

Subscribe Today

Receive free updates on new articles, opportunities and benefits


Subscribe Unsubscribe