Biochar Improves Phenological and Physiological Attributes of Wheat in Soil Amended with Organic and Inorganic Nitrogen Sources
Mushtaq Ahmad Khan*, Abdul Basir and Beena Saeed
Application of biochar (BC) to soil has the ability to improve soil fertility on sustainable basis under nitrogen (N) and organic matter deficient environments. Therefore, the present study was conducted to enhance N availability from organic and inorganic N sources via biochar (0, 10, 20 and 30 tons ha-1) under four levels of N (0, 90, 120 and 150 kg ha-1) during Fall 2015-16 and 2016-17. The required N was met from urea, poultry manure (PM) and farmyard manure (FYM). Application of 20 and/or 30 t BC ha-1 significantly delayed booting, anthesis, physiological maturity in wheat, and resulted in higher leaf area (LA), leaf area index (LAI), plant height, number of tillers and spikes m-2 when compared to control. Whereas, application of 150 kg N ha-1 as urea, FYM and PM, delayed booting, anthesis, physiological maturity in wheat and increased plant height and spikes m-2 of wheat. Similarly, 120 and 150 kg N ha-1 applied from PM, FYM and urea resulted in higher LA, LAI, tillers and spikes m-2 over control plots. Hence, application of 120 kg N ha-1 either from organic or inorganic sources along with 20 t BC ha-1 shall be applied to wheat as this combination positively enhanced wheat growth and development.